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for the protection of his people and the supply of their nourishment:

95. It is the same with the kinsmen of those, who die in battle, after the king has been slain, or have been killed by lightning, or legally by the king himself, or in defence of a cow, or of a priest; and with all those, whom the king wishes to be pure.

96. The corporeal frame of a king is composed of particles from SoʻMA, AGNI, SU'RYA, PAVANA, INDRA, CUVE'RA, VARUNA, and YAMA, the eight guardian deities of the world :

97. By those guardians of men in substance is the king pervaded, and he cannot by law be impure; since by those tutelar gods are the purity and impurity of mortals both caused and removed.

98. By a soldier, discharging the duties of his class, and slain in the field with brandished weapons, the highest sacrifice is, in that instant, complete; and so is his purification : this law is fixed.

99. A priest, having performed funeral rites, is purified by touching water; a soldier, by touching his horse or elephant, or his arms; a husbandman, by touching his goad, or the halter of his cattle; a servant, by touching his staff.

100. This mode of purifying sapindas, 0 chief of the twice-born, has been fully declared to you ! learn now the purification required on the death of kinsmen less intimately connected.

101. A Bráhmen, having carried out a dead Bráhmen, though not a sapinda, with the affection of a kinsman, or any of those nearly related to him by his mother, becomes pure in three days;

102. But, if he taste the food offered by their sapindas, he is purified in ten days; and in one day, if he neither partake of their food, nor dwell in the same house.

103. If he voluntarily follow a corpse, whether of a paternal kinsman or of another, and afterwards bathe with his apparel, he is made pure by touching fire and tasting clarified butter.

104. Let no kinsman, whilst any of his own class are at hand, cause a deceased Bráhmen to be carried out by a


Súdra ; since the funeral rite, polluted by the touch of a servile man, obstructs his passage to heaven.

105. Sacred learning, austere devotion, fire, holy aliment, earth, the mind, water, smearing with cow-dung, air, prescribed acts of religion, the sun, and time, are purifiers of imbodied spirits ;

106. But of all pure things, purity in acquiring wealth, is pronounced the most excellent : since he, who gains wealth with clean hands, is truly pure ; not he, who is purified merely with earth and water.

107. By forgiveness of injuries, the learned are purified ; by liberality, those who have neglected their duty; by pious meditation, those who have secret faults; by devout austerity, those who best know the Véda.

108. By water and earth is purified what ought to be made pure; a river, by its current; a woman, whose thoughts have been impure, by her monthly discharge, and the chief of twice-born men, by fixing his mind wholly on God.

109. Bodies are cleansed by water; the mind is purified by truth; the vital spirit, by theology and devotion; the understanding, by clear knowledge.

110. Thus have you heard me declare the precise rules for purifying animal bodies : hear now the modes of restoring purity to various inanimate things.

111. Of brilliant metals, of gems, and of every thing made with stone, the purification, ordained by the wise, is with ashes, water, and earth.

112. A golden vessel, not smeared, is cleansed with water only; and every thing produced in water, as coral, shells, or pearls, and every stony substance, and a silver vessel not enchased.

113. From a junction of water and fire arose gold and silver; and they two, therefore, are best purified by the elements, whence they sprang.

114. Vessels of copper, iron, brass, pewter, tin and lead, may be fitly cleansed with ashes, with acids, or with water.

115. The purification ordained for all sorts of liquids, is by stirring them with cusa-grass ; for cloths folded, by sprink

ling them with hallowed water; for wooden utensils, by planing them.

116. For the sacrificial pots to hold clarified butter and juice of the moon-plant, by rubbing them with the hand, and washing them at the time of the sacrifice:

117. Implements to wash the rice, to contain the oblations, to cast them into the fire, to collect, winnow, and prepare the grain, must be purified with water made hot.

118. The purification by sprinkling is ordained for grain and cloths in large quantities; but to purify them in small parcels, which a man may easily carry, they must be washed.

119. Leathern utensils, and such as are made with cane, must generally be purified in the same manner with cloths ; green vegetables, roots, and fruit, in the same manner with grain;

120. Silk and woollen stuff, with saline earths; blankets from Népála, with pounded arishtas, or nimba fruit ; vests and long drawers, with the fruit of the Vilva ; mantles of cshumá, with white mustard-seeds.

121. Utensils made of shells or of horn, of bones or of ivory, must be cleansed by him, who knows the law, as mantles of cshumá are purified, with the addition of cows' urine or of water.

122. Grass, firewood, and straw, are purified by sprinkling them with water; a house, by rubbing, brushing, and smearing with cow-dung; an earthen pot, by a second burning:

123. But an earthen pot which has been touched with any spirituous liquor, with urine, with ordure, with spittle, with pus, or with blood, cannot, even by another burning, be rendered pure.

124. Land is cleansed by five modes; by sweeping, by smearing with cow-dung, by sprinkling with cows' urine, by scraping, or by letting a cow pass a day and a night on it.

125. A thing nibbled by a bird, smelt at by a cow, shaken with a foot, sneezed on, or defiled by lice, is purified by earth scattered over it.

126. As long as the scent or moisture, caused by any impurity, remain on the thing soiled, so long must earth and water be repeatedly used in all purifications of things inanimate.

127. The gods declared three pure things peculiar to Bráhmens; what has been defiled without their knowledge; what, in cases of doubt, they sprinkle with water; and what they commend with their speech.

128. Waters are pure, as far as a cow goes to quench her thirst in them, if they flow over clean earth, and are sullied by no impurity, but have a good scent, colour, and taste.

129. The hand of an artist employed in his art is always pure; so is every vendible commodity, when exposed to sale ; and that food is always clean, which a student in theology has begged and received : such is the sacred rule.

130. The mouth of a woman is constantly pure; a bird is pure on the fall of fruit, which he has pecked ; a sucking animal, on the flowing of the milk; a dog, on his catching the deer :

131. The flesh of a wild beast slain by dogs, MENU pronounces pure; and that of an animal slain by other carnivorous creatures, or by men of the mixed class, who subsist by hunting

132. All the cavities above the navel are pure, and all below it, unclean; so are all excretions, that fall from the body.

133. Gnats, clear drops from the mouth of a speaker, a shadow, a cow, a horse, sun-beams, dust, earth, air, and fire, must all be considered as clean, even when they touch an unclean thing.

134. For the cleansing of vessels, which have held ordure or urine, earth and water must be used, as long as they are needful; and the same for cleansing the twelve corporeal impurities.*

135. Oily exudations, seminal fluids, blood, dandruff,

* The injunction does not apply to vessels contaminated, as here mentioned, but to persons after performing any of the natural wants. Indeed, the latter part of the injunction clearly shews that personal purity was the object of the notice.

the left;

urine, feces, ear-wax, nail-parings, phlegm, tears, concretions on the eyes, and sweat, are the twelve impurities of the human frame.

136. By the man, who desires purity, one piece of earth together with water must be used for the conduit of urine, three for that of the feces ; so, ten for one hand, that is,

; then seven for both : but, if necessary, more must be used.

137. Such is the purification of married men; that of students must be double ; that of hermits, triple ; that of men wholly recluse, quadruple.

138. Let each man sprinkle the cavities of his body, and taste water in due form, when he has discharged urine or feces; when he is going to read the Veda; and, invariably, before he takes his food :

139. First, let him thrice taste water; then twice let him wipe his mouth, if he be of a twice-born class, and desire corporeal purity; but a woman or servile man may once respectively make that ablution.

140. Súdras, engaged in religious duties, must perform each month the ceremony of shaving their heads; their food must be the orts of Bráhmens; and their mode of purification, the same with that of a Vaisya.

141. Such drops of water, as fall from the mouth or any part of the body, render it not unclean ; nor hairs of the beard, that enter the mouth; nor what adheres awhile to the teeth.

142. Drops, which trickle on the feet of a man holding water for others, are held equal to waters flowing over pure earth ; by them he is not defiled.

143. He, who carries in any manner an inanimate burden, and is touched by any thing impure, is cleansed by making an ablution, without laying his burden down.

144. Having vomited or been purged, let him bathe and taste clarified butter, but, if he have eaten already, let him only perform an ablution : for him, who has been connected with a woman, bathing is ordained by law.

145. Having slumbered, having sneezed, having eaten, having spitten, having told untruths, having drunk water,

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