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In our Bibles it is divided into forty chapters, which, according to the different subjects treated, may be classified as follows:
I. The oppression of the Israelites in Egypt, ch. 1.
ch. 4. 29—10. 21.
Sinai, ch. 12. 37–40 to ch. 19. 1, 2.
for the renewing of the Covenant, ch. 19.
newal of the Covenant, ch. 32–34.
Presence, ch. 40.
§ 3. Commentators.
Throughout the great mass of biblical criticism and exposition embodied in our own and foreign languages, there are comparatively few works devoted to the book of Exodus alone; nor is it always from these that the student or commen. tator can expect to derive the most valuable aid. For the most part, the com. mentaries which embrace either the whole Scriptures, or extended portions of them, are the store-houses from whence the materials of exegetical illustration are to be sought. Of these the Critici Sacri, the Synopsis of Pool, the Scholia of Rosenmuller, the Annotations of Leclerc, Ainsworth, and Patrick, will always hold the chief rank in the estimation of the scholar, next to the Ancient Versions and Targums contained in Walton's Polyglot. These accordingly have been al. ways at hand, as a constant tribunal of reference, through every stage of the progress of the present work. But it is obvious at a glance, that so vast is the variety of subjects necessarily brought under review in the course of this book, that no one class of authorities will by any means suffice for its adequate elucidation. Philology, Geography, Antiquities, History, Architecture, the arts of Sculp. ture, Engraving, Dyeing, Weaving, Embroidering, to say nothing of the peculiar system of Law, Jurisprudence, and Worship, enjoined upon the Israelites, all prefer their claims for more or less of illustration at the hands of him who assumes the task of expounding in order the chapters of Exodus. It would scarcely be pos. sible, therefore, to enumerate all the works which have gone to constitute the apparatus for the present undertaking, without citing the entire list of biblical helps appended to the Introduction to the Notes on Genesis, besides a great multitude of others which are there omitted. In fact, we know of no book in the Bible tbat demands so great a diversity of material for its exposition as the second book of the Pentateuch. How far the various and voluminous sources of information, to which the author has had access, have been made available to his grand purpose in the execution of the present work, is a question that awaits the decision of his readers. A very minute specification might invite a more critical comparison, and present a more palpable contrast, between his advan. tages and his achievement, than would redound to the credit of his work. At the same time, he cannot in candor confess to any conscious lack of effort to do the utmost justice to every part of his self-imposed labor-if that may be called a la. bor, which has proved, from beginning to end, an unfailing source of pleasure.
The following catalogue is not given as complete, but merely as indicating, in addition to those already specified, the most important collateral aids to a full eritical and ethical developement of the sense of this remarkable book.
I. Jewish and Christiano Rabbinical Commentators.
R. SALOMONIS JARCHI, dicti RASCHI, Commentarius Hebraicus, in quinque Eibros Mosis, Latine versus atque Notis Critics ae philologicis illustratus a Joh. FREDERICO BREITHAUPTo. Gothæ, 1713. 4to.
Jarchi, or Raschi, as he is usually called from combining, according to Hebrew asage, the three initial letters of his name (107), is generally placed by the Jews at the head of their commentators. They call him the great light' and
the holy mouth,' from the value attached to his learned comments on the Law and the Prophets. These I have found occasionally to contain some happy verbal criticisms, and in the account of the construction of the tabernacle, in particular, his remarks are plain, common-sense, and valuable ; but in the main he indulges in the characteristic' silly conceits of the Rabbins, and his style, with all the aid it derives from Breithaupt's excellent notes and paraphrases, is so obscure as to render him of little service to one who cares not for words without meaning. He was a native of Troyes in Champagne, and died, A. D. 1180.
R. ISAACI ABARBANELIS Commentarius in Pentateuchum Mosis, curâ Henrici J. Van Banshuisen. Hanoviæ, 1710. Folio.
Rabbi Abarbanel, or Abravanel, as the name is sometimes written, was a Portuguese Jew, who flourished in the fifteenth century, and wrote commentaries on the Pentateuch, the whole of the Prophets, and some other books of Scripture. He also is highly esteemed by his countrymen, and though an exceedingly bitter enemy
Christianity, yet Fäther Simon says of him, 'We may, in my opinion, reap more advantage in Scripture-translation froni R. Ísaac Abravanel, ihan from any other Jew. He has written in an elegant and perspicuous style, although he is too copious and sometimes affects rhetoric more than strict fidelity to the sacred text. As the volume abovementioned came into my hands only at a very advanced stage of my own work, I have been unable to make any direct use of it. Through the medium of Rosenmuller and Cartwright, however, his remarks have occasionally found their way into my Notes.
CHRISTOPHORI CARTWRIGHT Electa Targumico-Rabbinica; sive Annotationes in Exodum ex triplici Targum. Lond. 1653. 8vo.
This is a valuable work, purely critical, made up almost entirely of materials drawn from the Rabbinical commentaries and the Chaldee and other ancient versions. It is used much oftener than quoted by Rosenmuller.
AINSWORTH'S (H.) Annotations upon the Second Book of Moses, called Exo. dus. Lond. 1639. Fol.
This is the second part of the author's invaluable work on the Pentateuch. It is rich in pertinent citations from Jewish sources, and in that kind of verbal criticism which consists in laying open the usus loquendi of the original is entirely without a parallel.
LIGHTFOOT's Handful of Gleanings out of the Book of Exodus. Works (Pit. man's Ed. in 13 vols.), Vol. II. p. 351-409.
This is a collection of remarks critical, chronological, historical, and tal. mudical upon detached portions of Exodus. As in all Lightfoot's works, some of his observations are of considerable value, others of very little.
II. Christian Commentators. WILLETT's Hexapla in Exodum; that is, a sixfold commentary upon the Book of Exodus, according to the Method propounded in the Hexapla upon Genesis. Lond. 1608. Folio.
A voluminous and tedious Commentary, but not without its value, especially as embodying and usually consuting the interpretations of the Romanists. He compares also the various versions and deduces doctrinal and moral inferences.
Riveti's (ANDR.) Opera Theologica. Rotterdam, 1651. 2 Tom. Folio.
The first of these huge volumes contains the author's Exercitations on Genesis and Exodus. They are very elaborate and generally judicious, but marked with the prolixity of the seventeenth century. At the present day they are merely commentaries for commentators.
HOPKINS' (WM.) Corrected Translation of Exodus, with Notes critical and explanatory. Lond. 1784. 4to.
Said to be a work of little value.
III. Miscellaneous and Illustrative Works. PICTORIAL BIBLE with Wood-cuts and Original Notes. Lond. 1836-8. 3 vols. Roy. 8vo.
For a character of this very valuable work see the Preface to my Notes on Genesis. The · Pictorial History of Palestine,' now in course of publication by the same author, is a work of similar character, and abounding with rich materials for illustrating the Old Testament history.
BUDDicom's Christian Exodus, or the Deliverance of the Israelites from Egypt, practically considered in a series of Discourses. Lond. 1839. 2 vols. 12mo.
BÄHR's Symbolik des Mosaischen Cultus (Symbolism of the Mosaic Worship). Heidelb. 1837—9. 8vo.
An exceedingly curious and valuable work, entering into the most profound re. searches respecting the symbolical character of the Tabernacle and Temple ritual.
GRAVES' (Rich.) Lectures on the Four Last Books of the Pentateuch. Lond. 1815, 2 vols. 8vo.
FABER'S (G. S.) Horæ Mosaicæ ; or a Dissertation on the Credibility and Theology of the Pentateuch. Lond. 1818. 2 vols. 8vo.
The leading object of this work is to establish the authenticity of the Pentateuch, by pointing out the coincidence of its facts and statements with the remains of profane antiquity, and their connexion with Christianity. It is a production of great value to the biblical student.
Treatise on the Patriarchal, Levitical, and Christian Dispensations. Lond. 1823. 2 vols. 8vo.
This Treatise exhibits all the strong masculine sense, and extensive classical erudition that distinguish the author, but from its greater license of hypothesis in particular parts is perhaps generally less esteemed than the 'Horæ Mosaicæ mentioned above. The aitentive reader, however, cannot but derive from it many very important ideas on the subject of sacred antiquity. His refutation of some of Warburton's bold positions is eminently successful.
OUTRAM's (Wm.) Two Dissertations on Sacrifices; translated by Allen. Lond. 1817. 8vo.
A standard work on the subject of which it treats.
MICHAELIS' (J. D.) Commentaries on the Laws of Moses; translated by Smith. Lond. 1814. 4 vols. 8vo.
The value of this, the main work of its author, depends upon the degree to which it is imbued with the genius of Orientalism, and the sagacity discovered in tracing the connexion between the institutions of Moses and the various influ. ences of climate, manners, hereditary usages, and other national characteristics which may be supposed to have governed their adoption. Its great fault is its treating the Mosaic jurisprudence and ritual as if it originated with Moses rather than with God. It is also occasionally disfigured with a levity and grossness very unsuited to its subject. Yet it throws too much light on the wisdom and design of the Levitical code not to be on the whole a very valuable, as well as very interesting work,
Robinson's (Prof. E.) Biblical Researches in Palestine, Mount Sinai, and Arabia Petræa. A Journal of Travels in the year 1838, by E. Robinson, and E. Smith; undertaken in reference to Biblical Geography; with new Maps and Plans. New York, 1841. 3 vols. 8vo.
From no source have I experienced greater regret in looking back upon the execution of my task, than in not having been able, from the late date of its publication, to avail myself of the rich topographical treasures contained in this work. In all that relates to the geography of the land of Goshen, the region of the Israelites' sojourn in Egypt; to ihe route from thence to the Red Sea ; to the passage of that sea; to the wilderness of Sin; and to the interesting local. ities of the Sinai tract, the researches of the American travellers have settled a multitude of disputed points, and in fact opened a new era in the progress of Biblical geography. The very maps themselves are sufficient to have produced this result, even had the maiter of the journal been wanting: Both together form a noble contribution to the cause of sacred science, of which the age and the country that have given birth to it may well be proud. The portion of the work which treats of Palestine I have not yet seen, though I am assured by the author that it contains more of discovery than any other.
THE BOOK OF EXODUS.
came into Egypt; every man and OW a these are the names of his household came with Jacob. the children of Israel, which 2 Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah, a Gen. 46.8.-ch. 6. 14.
3 Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin,
portance to confirm faith than to gratify The prominent subject of the book curiosity. upon which we now enter, as intimated 1. Now these are the names. Heb. by its title, is the wonderful deliverance 6120 7387 ve-elleh shemoth, and these of the nation of Israel from their bond- are the names. The use of the Hebrew age in Egypt. But as this and all the copulative 7 and is peculiar. Though great events in the history of that peo- its ordinary office in a continuous narple were matters of express prediction rative is that of a connective, yet it and promise on the part of God; the frequently occurs at the beginning of a sacred writer commences his narrative book where it can have no reference to with a virtual commentary on the prom- any thing preceding, as Est. 1. 1, Now ise made to Abraham, Gen. 15. 5, that it came to pass.' Heb. And it came to his seed should from small beginnings pass. Compare Ruth 1. 1, Ezek. 1. 1. eventually become as numerous as the Here, however, as well as in the comstars of heaven and as the sands on the mencement of the two following books, sea shore. Though the migration of it is probably to be taken in its conJacob's family from Canaan to Egypt, nective sense, indicating the continuaand the oppression to which they were tion of the foregoing narrative. The subjected, would seem to have threat. books of Moses appear not to have been ened the complete frustration of the orginally divided, as at present, into divine purposes in regard to the increase five separate portions, but to have conof Abraham's seed, yet the writer shows stituted one unbroken volume. This is that notwithstanding it was but a mere inferred from the manner in which the handful of that seed that was sown in the writings of Moses are quoted in the adverse soil of Egypt, yet the harvest New Testament, where no such distinewhich sprung from it was vast beyond tion is recognized. See Luke 16. 31. conception, and such as to illustrate - Which came. Heb. Da habthe divine veracity in the most glorious baim, which (were) coming. See Note
Many interesting incidents on Gen. 46. 8.-Every man and his had no doubt occurred between the household. Heb. 15427 * ish u-betho, death of Joseph and the incipient bond- every one and his house. Chal. “Every age of Israel; but these are passed over one and the men of his household.' On in silence because they did not bear this frequent sense of the term house' particularly upon the fulfilment of any see Note on v. 21. Gr. skartos revueki, special prediction. But God would have each with his whole household. nothing lost that was essential to the 24. Reuben, Simeon, &c. In this proof of his faithfulness in his covenant enumeration the sons of the handmaids relations. He deems it of more im-l are reckoned last, which accounts for