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spelling to cypress has, here and in Milton's Penseroso,

probably confused readers. 89 Ixiii ramage: confused noise. 91 lxvi I never saw anything like this funeral dirge,' says

Charles Lamb, `except the ditty which reminds Ferdinand of his drowned father in the Tempest. As that is of the water, watery; so this is of the earth, earthy. Both have that intenseness of feeling, which seems to

resolve itself into the element which it contemplates.' 93 1xx Paraphrased from an Italian madrigal

Non so conoscer poi Se voi le rose, o sian le rose in voi. 94 lxxii crystal: fairness. 95 lxxiii stare: starling. Ixxiv This ‘Spousal Verse' was written in honour of the

Ladies Elizabeth and Katherine Somerset. Nowhere
has Spenser more emphatically displayed himself as
the very poet of Beauty: The Renaissance impulse in
England is here seen at its highest and purest.
The genius of Spenser, like Chaucer's, does itself justice
only in poems of some length. Hence it is impossible
to represent it in this volume by other pieces of equal
merit, but of impracticable dimensions. And the same
applies to such poems as the Lover's Lament or the

Ancient Mariner.
96 entrailed: twisted. Feateously: elegantly.

shend: shame. 99 a noble peer: Robert Devereux, second Lord Essex,

then at the height of his brief triumph after taking Cadiz: hence the allusion following to the Pillars of Hercules, placed near Gades by ancient legend.

Elisa: Elizabeth. 100 twins of Jove: the stars Castor and Pollux: baldric,

belt; the zodiac. 102 lxxix This lyric may with very high probability be as

signed to Campion, in whose first Book of Airs it appeared (1601). The evidence sometimes quoted ascribing it to Lord Bacon appears to be valueless.

Summary of Book Second.

This division, embracing generally the latter eighty years of the Seventeenth century, contains the close of our Early poetical style and the commencement of the Modern. In Dryden we see the first master of the new: in Milton, whose genius dominates here as Shakespeare's in the former book,—the crown and consummation of the early period. Their splendid Odes are far in advance of any prior attempts, Spenser's excepted: they

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1. 32 than: 00.ete for then: Par: used here for the

36 cm.xt: Milton's bulling of this word. here and ker ta en forlove, as it is uncertain whether bare at it in the selase of accompanying, or simply for

concert. 111 1. 21 Lurs and Lemures: household gods and spirits of

ration deari. Flamens 1. 24, Roman priests. That

twine-batter'd god '1. 29; Dagon. 112 1. 6 Oxirix, the Egyptian god of Agriculture (here,

Dasha bong by confusion with Apis, figured as a Bull), was born to pieces by Typho and embaimed after death in a sacred chest. This mythe, reproduceri in Syria and Grace in the legends of Thammuz, Adonis, and perhap Absyrtus, may have originally signified the annual death of the Sun or the Year under the influence of the winter darkness, Horus, the son of Osiris, as the New Year, in his turn overcomes Typho. L. 8 unshowed grass; as watered by the Nile only. L. 33 youngest-teemed: last-born. Bright-harness'd (1. 37)

armoured. 114 Ixxxvii The Late Massacre: the Vaudois persecution,

carried on in 1655 by the Duke of Savoy. No more mighty Sonnet than this collect in verse,

as it has been justly named, probably can be found in any language. Readers should observe that it is constructed on the original Italian or Provençal model. This form, in a language such as ours, not affluent in rhyme, presents great difficulties; the rhymes are apt to be forced, or the substance commonplace. But, when success


fully handled, it has a unity and a beauty of effect which place the strict Sonnet above the less compact and less lyrical systems adopted by Shakespeare, Sid

ney, Spenser, and other Elizabethan poets. 115 Ixxxviii Cromwell returned from Ireland in 1650, and

Marvell probably wrote his lines soon after, whilst liv-
ing at Nunappleton in the Fairfax household. It is
hence not surprising that (st. 21-24) he should have
been deceived by Cromwell's professed submissiveness
to the Parliament which, when it declined to register
his decrees, he expelled by armed violence:-one despot-
ism, by natural law, replacing another. The poet's
insight has, however, truly prophesied that result in
his last two lines.
This Ode, beyond doubt one of the finest in our lan-
guage, and more in Milton's style than has been reached
by any other poet, is occasionally obscure from imita-
tion of the condensed Latin syntax. The meaning of
st. 5 is 'rivalry or hostility are the same to a lofty
spirit, and limitation more hateful than opposition.'
The allusion in st. 11 is to the old physical doctrines
of the non-existence of a vacuum and the impenetra-
bility of matter:-in st. 17 to the omen traditionally
connected with the foundation of the Capitol at Rome:
--forced, fated. The ancient belief that certain years
in life complete natural periods and are hence peculiarly
exposed to death, is introduced in st. 26 by the word

climacteric. 118 lxxxix Lycidas: The person here lamented is Milton's col

lege contemporary, Edward King, drowned in 1637
whilst crossing from Chester to Ireland.
Strict Pastoral Poetry was first written or perfected
by the Dorian Greeks settled in Sicily: but the con-
ventional use of it, exhibited more magnificently in
Lycidas than in any other pastoral, is apparently of
Roman origin. Milton, employing the noble freedom
of a great artist, has here united ancient mythology,
with what may be called the modern mythology of
Camus and Saint Peter,—to direct Christian images.
Yet the poem, if it gains in historical interest, suffers

poetry by the harsh intrusion of the writer's narrow and violent theological politics.—The metrical structure of this glorious elegy is partly derived from Italian

models. 119 1. 11 Sisters of the sacred well: the Muses, said to fre

quent the Pierian Spring at the foot of Mount Olympus. 120 1. 10 Mona: Anglesea, called by the Welsh poets, the

Dark Island, from its dense forests. Deva (l. 11) the Dee: a river which may have derived its magical character from Celtic traditions: it was long the boundary of Briton and English.— These places are introduced, as being near the scene of the shipwreck. Orpheus (1. 14) was torn to pieces by Thracian women. Amaryllis


and Vegera 1. 24, 25, names used here for the loveidols of poets a Damoetas previously for a shepherd. L. 31 the blind Fury: Atropos, fabled to cut the ihread

of life. 121

Ixxxix Arethuse (). 1) and Vincius: Sicilian and Italian

waters here alluded to as representing the pastoral portry of Theocritus and Vergil. L. 4 oat: pipe, used here like Collins' gaten stop l. 1, No. 186, for Song. L. 12 Hippotades: Aeolus, god of the Winds. Panope (1. 15) a Sereid. Certain names of local deities in the Hellenic mythology render some feature in the natural landscape, which the Greeks studied and analysed with their usual unequalled insight and feeling. Panope seems to express the boundlessness of the ocean-horizon when seen from a height, as compared with the limited sky-line of the land in hilly countries such as Greece or Asia Minor. Camus (1. 19) the Cam: put for King's University. The sanguine flower (1. 22) the Hyacinth of the ancients: probably our Iris. The Pilot (1. 25) Saint Peter, figuratively introduced as the head of the Church on earth, to foretell ‘the ruin of our corrupted clergy,' as Milton regarded them, then in their heighth'

under Laud's primacy. 122 1. 1 scrannel: screeching; apparently Milton's coinage

(Masson). L. 5 the wolf: the Puritans of the time were excited to alarm and persecution by a few conversions to Roman Catholicism which had recently occurred. Alpheus (l. 9) a stream in Southern Greece, supposed to llow underseas to join the Arethuse. Swart star (1. 15) the Dog-star, called swarthy because its heliacal rising in ancient times occurred soon after midsummer: 1. 19 rathe: early. L. 36 moist vows: either tearful prayers, or prayers for one at sea. Bellerus (1. 37) a giant, apparently created here by Milton to personify Belerium, the ancient title of the Land's End. The great l'ision: -- the story was that the Archangel Michael hud appeared on the rock by Marazion in Mount's Bay which bears his name. Milton calls on him to turn his eyes from the south homeward, and to pity Lycidas, if his body has drifted into the troubled waters off the Land's End Finisterre being the land due south of Marazion, two places in that district (then through our fraries with Corunna probably less unfamiliar to Englist ers), are named, Namancos now Mujio in Galicia, Himona north of the Minho, or perhaps a fortified rock (one of the Cies Islands) not unlike Saint Michael's

Mount, at the entrance of Vigo Bay. 199 Ill6 ore: rays of golden light. Doric lay (1.25)

Nicilian, pastoral. 1)

The assaul! was an attack on London expected in 101., when the troops of Charles I reached Brentford. Written on liis door was in the original title of this

Milton was then living in Aldersgate Street.



PAGE NO. 125 xciii The Emathian Conqueror: When Thebes was destroyed

(B.C. 335) and the citizens massacred by thousands,

Alexander ordered the house of Pindar to be spared. 126 1. 2, the repeated air Of sad Electra's poet: Plutarch

has a tale that when the Spartan confederacy in 404 B.C. took Athens, a proposal to demolish it was rejected through the effect produced on the commanders by hearing part of a chorus from the Electra of Euripides sung at a feast.

There is however no apparent congruity between the lines quoted (167, 168 Ed. Dindorf) and the result ascribed to them.

A fine example of a peculiar class of Poetry;—that written by thoughtful men who practised this Art but little. Jeremy Taylor, Bishop Berkeley, Dr. Johnson,

Lord Macaulay, have left similar specimens. 128 xcviii These beautiful verses should be compared with

Wordsworth's great Ode on Immortality: and a copy of Vaughan's very rare little volume appears in the list of Wordsworth's library.-In imaginative intensity,

Vaughan stands beside his contemporary Marvell. 129 xcix Favonius: the spring wind. 130 Themis: the goddess of justice. Skinner was grand

son by his mother to Sir E. Coke:-hence, as pointed out by Mr. Keightley, Milton's allusion to the bench. L, 8: Sweden was then at war with Poland, and France

with the Spanish Netherlands, 132 ciii 1. 28 Sidneian showers: either in allusion to the con

versations in the 'Arcadia,' or to Sidney himself as a

model of 'gentleness' in spirit and demeanour. 135 Delicate humour, delightfully united to thought, at

once simple and subtle. It is full of conceit and paradox, but these are imaginative, not as with most of

our Seventeenth Century poets, intellectual only. 138 сх. Elizabeth of Bohemia: Daughter_to James I, and an

cestor of Sophia of Hanover. These lines are a fine

specimen of gallant and courtly compliment. 139 cxi Lady M. Ley was daughter to Sir J. Ley, afterwards

Earl of Marlborough, who died March, 1629, coincidently with the dissolution of the third' Parliament of Charles' reign. Hence Milton poetically compares his death to that of the Orator Isocrates of Athens, after

Philip's victory in 328 B.C. 143

cxviii A masterpiece of humour, grace, and gentle feeling,

all, with Herrick's unfailing art, kept precisely within the peculiar key which he chose, -or Nature for him, -in his Pastorals. L. 2 the god unshorn: Imberbis

Apollo. St. 2 beads: prayers. 146 cxxiii With better taste, and less diffuseness, Quarles

might (one would think) have retained more of that


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