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that arise against their construction, this one is conclusive with me : That none of them point out these witnesses, as in being and known to the apostle and the church before and at the time of St. John's receiy. ing this vision, and who continued afterwards during so much of the 1260 years, as is past, prophecying in sackcloth (except those of the old and new tęstaments,)—which two indelible marks seem to me to be essentially necessary.

Let us take the most unerring guide in our power, and follow the clue given us by the holy spirit, and search with diligence for the meaning of this prophetical language, by that of the original places in the old testament, where the like figures are made use of.

The scriptures generally have held up certain emblematic rites, as God's witnesses on earth from the creation-under the Mosaic economy these were water, oil and blood, as representing the divine influences of his holy spirit, and the forgiveness of sins through the great atonement of the suffering Saviour who was to come. Thus water was used to initiate professors into the church of God—To pour water on men, was an evidence of the out-pouring of the spirit—so Christ himself calls the spirit “ living water" --Hence all nations had their lustrations and purifications. The temple of Jerusalem had its laver, for the purposes of the divine ordinances.--The temple also had its “ holy oil,” which was used in the dedication of their kings, prophets, priests, and with water applied to the bodies of all who were received into the service of God-Blood was that of the sacri: fices, and was the atonement for sin--every priest was first washed with water, anointed with oil and had blood sprinkled upon him, before he could administer at the altar, vide viiith, of Lev.

The tabernacle was consecrated by sprinkling with blood and oil. Therefore it is that St. John says, There are three that bear witness on earth, the spirit, the water and the blood. The spirit and the oil mean the same thing and it is added, “ if we receive the witness of men (who testify to the things of God from times of old) these witnesses of God are greater.” It is therefore concluded that these ordi. nances of God are his witnesses on earth.- Again;

If we look into the 3d and 4th chapters of Zechariah, we shall find that the propbet also had a vision from the spirit of God after the establishment of Joshua as the bigh-priest, and Zerubbabel as political governor of his people; which offices it should be remembered are united in Jesus Christ, as prophet, priest and king in Zion.-Zechariah having received the promise of the Branch, (or the Messiah) he saw in his vision “ one candlestick and two olive trees ;" and on his asking what was meant by the candlestick ? he was answered by the angel “ this is the word of the Lord unto Zerubbabel, saying, not by might (or an army) nor by power, but by my spirit, saith the Lord of hosts. Who art thou, O great "mountain ? before Zerubbabel (the political or civil governor) thon shalt become a plain—that is, by the candlestick, I design to signify the ordinances of my word taught in my church, by which Zerubbabel as governor of my people, shall be instructed and supported in his arduous work against all his enemies, so that notwithstanding their great power and might, which to human judgment, seem to threaten certain destruction to any attempts for the rebuilding of Jerusalem and my temple, yet it shall be accomplished; but not by human power or strength, but by the powerful operation of my spirit. So that this great mountain of opposition which seems to be invincible, shall moulder away and become a plain before Zerubbabel whom I have set over you. The same interpretation is given to St. John by Christ himself in the revelation, when he expressly says " that by the mystery of the seven candlesticks the seven churches in Asia are intended.” And it is somewhat remarkable and worthy of observation that in Zechariah there was but one candlestick, though two olive trees (yielding the holy oil, an evidence of the influences of the spirit) there being then but one church of the Jews, though two leading ordinances, the sabbath and the passover—but at the time of this prophecy there are two candlesticks and two olive trees, typifying both the Jewish and christian churches with their ordinances. vide xi. ch. Jerem. 15—18, where the Jewish church is compared to an olive tree.

By this interpretation of the figure of candlesticks, it is pretty clear, the word of God in his churches are meant and intended, and we may without danger of mistake so understand it, for by the word of God taught in his temple were the people publicly instructed in the worship of the one only living and true God and the Messiah that was to como under the Jewish economy, and in the like worship through Jesus Christ, the Messiah already come, under the christian dispensation.

When Moses received the two tables of stone, * containing the ten commandments as the word of God by which the people of the congregation were instructed in the worship of God, he calls them two tables of testimonyt or witness1-and speaking of the Tabernacle, which was pitched in the wilderness by Moses for divine worship, “ to which every one might go, who sought the Lord,” before the glorious tabernacle and ark were made.

St. Stephen in the New Testament, expressly calls it “ the tabernacle of witness,” that is, a witness that the people who worshipped there were the servants of Jehovah the God of Israel. $ Christ himself declares the fact in very express language; “ and the gospel of the kingdom, shall be preached in all the world, for a witness unto all nations, and then shall the end (of the Roman

• These tables were called eduth, ad, forward, onward, to bear witness to, or of, a person or thing.

Clarke. + Mr Crudence explains the word testimony, and says, it sig. pifies a witnessing-evidence or proof-Acts xiv. 8d.

Í xxxi. Exod. 181h. Acts, vii. 44th.

Government) come.”* This is the same prophetic declaration with that of St. John but in fewer words. For in the xv. chap. Rev. 5th verse, it is expressly said, “ and after that I looked and behold the temple of the tabernacle of the testimony (or witness) in heaven was opened"--and in Numb. ix. 15th, the tabernacle is called the tent of the testimony (or wit. ness) and again in the x. ch. and 11th verse it is a. gain called, the tabernacle of the testimony (or witness.) Moses is also expressly ordered to lay up the rod in the tabernacle of the congregation, before the testimony, (Numb. xvii. 4) in the tabernacle of witness, (verse 7.) “ The various types and appoint6 ments of the law, called by this very significant “name the testimony or witness, show plainly that “ they were intended to witness and bear testimony 6 to somewhat beyond themselves; that they were " as St. Paul describes them, ó a shadow of things “ to come, but the body is of Christ.” The example “ and shadow of heavenly things. The pot of manna (Exod. xvi. 33d) is in the following verse said to “ be laid up before the testimony, and this was under " the wings of the Cherubim. And though the “word is translated in the singular number, it is plu. “ral in the original-testimonies or witnesses. So “ again the two tables of stone are called the tables “ of testimony, because they were to be a witness or

. xxiv. Matth. 14th. The able expositor, Dr Clarke, on xxviii. Exod. 30th verse, says, “ God has always had his witnesses on earth. The Septuagint translates the Urim and Thumim the manifestation of the truth.

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