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Halds-required the offender, and being refused, made a fire at the mouth of the cave, by which he and his ad. herents were suffocated together.

Mountaineers are warlike, because by their feuds and competitions they consider themselves as surrounded with enemies, and are always prepared to repel incursions, or to make them. · Like the Greeks in their unpolished state, described by Thucydides, the Highlanders, till lately, went always armed, and çarried their weapons to visits, and to church,

Mountaineers are thievish, because they are poor, and having neither manufactures nor commerce, can grow richer only by robbery. They regularly plunder their neighbours, for their neighbours are commonly their enemies; and having lost that reverence for property, by which the order of civil life is preserved, foon consider all as enemies, whom they do not reckon as friends, and think themselves licensed to invade whatever they are not obliged to protect.

By a strict administration of the laws, since the laws have been introduced into the Highlands, this disposition to thievery is very much repressed. Thirty years ago no herd had ever been conducted through the mountains, without paying tribute in the night to some of the clans; but cattle are now driven, and passengers travel, without danger, fear, or leftation.

Among a warlike people, the quality of highest esteem is personal courage, and with the oftentatious display of courage are closely connected promptitude of offence, and quickness of resentment. The



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Highlanders, before they were disarmed, were fo addicted to quarrels, that the boys used to follow any publick procession or ceremony, however festive or however solemn, in expectation of the battle, which was sure to happen before the company difpersed.

Mountainous regions are fometimes so remote from the seat of government, and fo difficult of access, that they are very little under the influence of the fovereign, or within the reach of national justice. Law is nothing without power; and the sentence of a diftant court could not be easily executed, nor perhaps very safely promulgated, among men ignorantly proud and habitually violent, unconnected with the general system, and accustomed to reverence only their own lords. It has therefore been necessary to erect many particular jurisdictions, and commit the punishment of crimes, and the decision of right, to the proprietors of the country who could enforce their own decrees. It immediately appears that such judges will be often ignorant, and often partial; but in the immaturity of political establishments no better expedient could be found. As government advances towards perfection, provincial judicature is perhaps in every empire gradually abolished.

Those who had thus the dispensation of law, were by consequence themselves lawless. Their vaffals had no shelter from outrages and oppressions; hut were condemned to endure, without resistance, the caprices of wantonness, and the rage of cruelty.

In the Highlands, some great lords had an hereditary jurisdiction over counties; and some chief


tains over their own lands; till the final conquest of the Highlands afforded an opportunity of crushing all the local courts, and of extending the general benefits of equal law to the low and the high, in the deepest recefles and obfcurest corners.

While the chiefs had this resemblance of royalty, they had little inclination to appeal, on any question, to superior judicatures. A claiin of lands between two powerful lairds was decided like a contest for dominion between foyereign powers.

They drew their forces into the field, and right attended on the strongest. This was, in ruder times, the common practice, which the kings of Scotland could feldom controul.

Even so lately as in the last years of king William, a battle was fought at Mull Roy, on a plain a few miles to the south of Inverness, between the clans of Mackintosh and Macdonald of Keppoch. Colonel Macdonald, the head of a small clan, refused to pay the dues demanded from him by Mackintosh, as his superior lord. They disdained the interposition of judges and laws, and calling each his followers to maintain the dignity of the clan, fought a formal battle, in which feveral considerable men fell on the side of Mackintosh, without a complete victory to either. This is said to have been the last open war made between the clans by their pwn authority

The Highland lords made treaties, and formed alliances, of which some traces may still be found, and some consequences still remain as lasting evidences of petty regality. The terms of one of these confederacies were, that each should support the

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other very

other in the right, or in the wrong, except againft the king.

The inhabitants of mountains form distinct races, and are careful to preserve their genealogies. Meri in a small district necessarily mingle blood by inter: marriages, and combine at last into one family, with ä сommon interest in the honour and difgrace of every individual. Then begins that union of affections, and co-operation of endeavours, that constitute a clan. They who consider themselves as ennobled by their family, will think highly of their progenitors, and the who through successive generations live always together in the same place, will preserve local stories and hereditary prejudices. Thus every Highlander can talk of his ancestors, and recount the outrages which they fuffered from the wicked inhabitants of the next valley:

Such are the effects of habitation among mounttains, and such were the qualities of the Highlanders, while their rocks fecluded them from the rest of man. kind, and kept them an unaltered and discriminated face. They are now losing their distinction, and haftening to mingle with the general community.


We left Auknasheals and the Macråes in the afterfoon, and in the evening came to Ratiken, a high hill on which a road is cut, but fu steep and narrow that it is

difficult. There is now a design of making another way round the bottom. Upon one of the precipices, 'my horse, weary with the fteepness of the rise, staggered a little, and I called in háste to the Highlander to hold hiin. This was the only moment of my journey, in which I thought my. self endangered.


Having surmounted the hill at last, we were told, that at Glenelg, on the sea-side, we should come to a house of lime and slate and glass. This inage of magnificence raised our expectation. At last we came to our inn, weary and peevish, and began to enquire for meat and beds.

Of the provisions the negative catalogue was very copious. Here was no meat, no milk, no bread, no eggs, no wine. We did not express much fatisfaction. Here however we were to stay. Whisky we might have, and I believe at last they caught a fowl and killed it. We had some bread, and with that we prepared ourselves to be contented, when we had a very eminent proof of Highland hospitality. Along some miles of the way, in the evening, à gentleman's servant had kept us company on foot with very little notice on our part. He left us near Glénelg, and we thought on him no more till he came to us again, in about two hours, with a present from his master of rum and sugar. The man had nientioned his

company, and the gentleman, whose name, I think, is Gordon, well knowing the penury of the place, had this attention to two men, whose names perhaps he had not heard, by whom his kindness was not likely to be ever repaid, and who could be recommended to him only by their necessities.

We were now to examine our lodging. Out of one of the beds, on which we were to repose, started up, at our entrance, a man black as a Cyclops from


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