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of trade is greatly against them; whatever you take directly in taxes, is in effect taken from your own com. merce. If the minister seizes the money with which the American Mould pay his debts and come to market, the merchant cannot expect him as a customer, nor can the debts already contracted be paid.Suppose we obtain from America a million instead of one hundred thousand pounds, it would be supplying one personal exigence by the future ruin of our commerce,

Part of this is true; but the Old Member seems not to perceive, that if his brethren of the legislature know this as well as himself, the Americans are in no danger of oppression, since by men commonly provident they must be so taxed, as that we may not lose one way what we gain another.

The fame Old Member has discovered that the judges formerly thought it illegal to tax Ireland, and declares that no cases can be more alike than thofe of Ireland and America : yet the judges whom he quotes have mentioned a difference. Ireland, they say, hath a parliament of its own. When any Colony has an independent parliament acknowledged by the parliament of Britain, the cases will differ less,' Yet by the 6 Geo. I. chap. 5. the acts of the British parliament bind Ireland.

It is urged that when Wales, Durham, and Chester, were divested of their particular privileges or ancient government, and reduced to the state of English counties, they had representatives assigned them.

To those from whom foinething had been taken, fomething in return might properly be given. To the Ameriçars their charters are left as they were,


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nor have they lost any thing except that of which their {edition has deprived them. If they were to be represented in parliament, something would be granted, though nothing is withdrawn.

The inhabitants of Chester, Durham, and Wales, were invited to exchange their peculiar institutions for the power of voting, which they wanted before. The Americans have voluntarily resigned the power of voting, to live in distant and separate governments, and what they have voluntarily quitted, they have no right to claim.

It must always be remembered, that they are represented by the same virtual representation as the greater part of Englishmen; and that if by change of place they have less share in the legislature than is proportionate to their opulence, they by their removal gained that opulence, and had originally and have now their choice of a vote at home, or riches at a distance.

We are told, what appears to the Old Member and to others a position that must drive us into inextricable absurdity, that we have either no right, or the sole right of taxing the Colonies. The meaning is, that if we can tax them, they cannot tax themselves; and that if they can tax themselves, we cannot tax them. We answer with very little hefitation, that for the general use of the empire we have the sole right of taxing them. If they have contributed any thing in their own assemblies, what they contributed was not paid but given; it was not a tax or tribute, but a present. Yet they have the natural and legal power of levying money on themselves for provincial purposes, of providing for


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their own expence, at their own discretion. Let not this be thought new or strange; it is the state of every parish in the kingdom.

The friends of the Americans are of different opinions. Some think that being unrepresented they ought to tax themselves, and others that they ought to have representatives in the British parliament. If they are to tax themselves, what power

is to remain in the fupreme legislature? That they must settle their own mode of levying their money is supposed. May the British parliament tell them how much they shall contribute? If the sum may be

prefcribed, they will return few thanks for the power of raising it; if they are at liberty to grant or to deny, they are no longer subjects,

If they are to be represented, what number of these western orators are to be admitted? This I supposé the parliament must settle; yet if men have a natural and unalienable right to be represented, who shall determine the number of their delegates? Let us however suppose them to send twenty-three, half as many as the kingdom of Scotland, what will this representation avail them? To pay taxes will be still a griev

The love of money will not be lessened, nor the power of getting it increased.

Whither will this necessity of representation drive us? Is every petty settlement to be out of the reach of government, till it has sent a senator to parliament; or may two of them or a greater number be forced to unite in a single deputation? What at last is the difference between him that is taxed by com



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pulsion without representation, and him that is reprefented by compulsion in order to be taxed ?

For many reigns the House of Commons was in a state of fluctuation: new burgesses were added from time to time, without any reason now to be discover- , ed; but the number has been fixed for more than a century and a half, and the king's power of increasing it has been questioned. It will hardly be thought fit to new-model the conftitution in favour of the planters, who, as they grow rich, may buy estates in England, and, without any innovation, effecțually reprefent their native colonies.

The friends of the Americans indeed ask for them what they do not ask for themselves. This inestima, ble right of representation they have never solicited, They mean not to exchange solid money for such airy honour. They say, and say willingly, that they cannot conveniently be represented; because their inference is, that they cannot be taxed. They are too remote to share the general government, and therefore claim the privilege of governing themselves.

Of the principles contained in the resolutions of the Congress, however wild, indefinite, and obscure, such has been the influence upon American understanding, that from New-England to South-Carolina there is formed a general combination of all the provinces against their Mother-country. The madness of independence has spread from Colony to Colony, till order is loft and government despised, and all is filled with misrule, uproar, violence, and confufion. To be quiet is disaffection, to be loyal is treason. The Congress of Philadelphia, an assembly convened

by by its own authority, has promulgated a declaration, in compliance with which the communication between Britain and the greatest part of North America is now suspended. They ceased to admit the importation of English goods in December 1774, and determine to permit the exportation of their own no longer than to November 1775.

This might seem enough, but they have done more, They have declared, that they shall treat all as enemies who do not concur with them in disaffection and

perverseness, and that they will trade with none that shall trade with Britain.

They threaten to stigmatize in their Gazette those who shall consume the products or merchandise of their Mother country, and are now searching suspected houses for prohibited goods.

These hostile declarations they profess themselves ready to maintain by force. They have armed the militia of their provinces, and seized the publick stores of ammunition. They are therefore no longer subjects, since they refuse the laws of their Sovereign, and in defence of that refusal are making open preparations for war.

Being now in their own opinion free states, they are not only raising armies, but furming alliances, not only hastening to rebel themselves, but føducing their neighbours to rebellion. They have published an address to the inhabitants of Quebec, in which discontent and resistance are openly incited, and with very respectful mention of the fagacity of Frenchmen, invite them to send deputies to the Congress of Philadelphia, to that seat of Virtue and Yeracity, whence


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