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line northwest of the railroad, which at once gave way, and the whole army retreated in disorder about dark, except some of Wharton's division, which formed a rear guard, and the brigade that had been on the left of the line. A few men and some artillery rallied on the hill in front of Mount Prospect and checked the enemy for a time. The army retreated rapidly. The enemy followed to Tom's Brook, where Smith's brigade of Wharton's division checked them, and they gave up the pursuit (see plate *). The retreat continued all night, and the troops arrived at Mount Jackson at an early hour on the morning of the 23d. The trains were sent across the North Fork of Shenandoah River by the bridge Captain Hart, of the engineer troops, had completed the day before. The troops remained in line of battle at Mount Jackson during the day, and the enemy's cavalry came up and skirmished and threw a few shells, but made no advance (see plate After dark we crossed to Rude's Hill and encamped (see plate
On the morning of the 24th we formed a line of battle on Rude's Hill and remained there until noon, the enemy advancing to the river and throwing a few shells, at the same time moving up on the opposite side of the river to our left flank (see plate -t), and driving our cavalry back rapidly on the Middle road. We then fell back in line and in column, and formed again in rear of New Market, and in the same way, skirmishing and using artillery, we formed lines and fell back to Tenth Legion, where we formed a line late in the p. m. and held it until after dark (see plate), when, leaving Jackson's cavalry on picket, the army followed the trains, by the Keezletown road, to Flook's (see plate
-+), Ramseur in front, where we arrived about midnight. Our cavalry was driven to near Harrisonburg. On the 25th the trains moved on at 1 p. m. to Brown's Gap, via Peale's Cross-Roads, Meyerhoeffer's Store, and Port Republic, and at daylight the troops followed, Pegram in advance, and encamped in Brown's Gap, the cavalry encamping between South and Middle Rivers (see platet); the enemy came to Harrisonburg. September 26, Kershaw's division came up the river from Swift Run Gap, where it had crossed the Blue Ridge from Gordonsville, and, turning off at Lewis', joined the rest of the army in Brown's Gap (see plate t). The enemy's cavalry and artillery attacked Kershaw as he was about to turn off and he repulsed them, engaging their artillery also, which was across the river (see plate -t). Early in the morning the enemy's cavalry came on from Harrisonburg and drove ours across the South River. Pegram's division was moved out to the angle of the Cave road, with artillery, and engaged the enemy, repulsing several charges of cavalry (see plate -1); at the same time the enemy advanced up the turnpike, where Ramseur's skirmishers drove them back. The attack on Kershaw was simultaneous. Wharton and Gordon were marched out to support the others (see plate -t). Wickham's cavalry (Fitz Lee's) was moved to our left in the p. m. to Patterson's Ford, to meet a reported move of the enemy.
The enemy's cavalry having spent the night of the 26th near Weyer's Cave and Port Republic, with skirmishers across South River (see plate †), General Early planned to attack them in flank and rear on the 27th. Wickham, under cover, was marched across South River at Patterson's Ford, followed by Gordon, artillery, and Ramseur, Wharton guarding the right flank of the movement, while Pegram engaged
*Plate LXXXII, Map 11 of the Atlas.
+ Plate LXXXI, Map 4 of the Atlas.
the enemy in front and Kershaw held the approaches to Brown's Gap (see plate *). Our cavalry made a successful attack and everything was in position for a surprise, when the artillery opened prematurely and warned the enemy and they fled, only skirmishing some with our cavalry, which drove them toward Mount Meridian. Pegram crossed the river and joined Gordon and Ramseur in driving the enemy across North River, when we shelled them very successfully as they fled. from the hill opposite Port Republic (see plate). We encamped between the rivers, except Kershaw, who remained at Brown's Gap. Some misunderstanding of orders delayed the march on the morning of the 28th, when we started for Waynesborough, the enemy having gone there via Staunton on the 27th. Our trains crossed at Patterson's Ford and went up South River, Ramseur in front of them, followed by Wharton. Pegram marched by the Waynesborough road from Mount Meridian, turning by the Dogtown road five miles from Waynesborough. Kershaw, followed by Gordon, marched by New Hope and Hermitage, striking the enemy's cavalry at the latter place and driving it on toward Dogtown. Pegram met the enemy about four miles from Dogtown and drove them there; then formed a line after dark and drove them to the Staunton road and toward Fishersville, our cavalry having previously gone by a by-road to near the tunnel and driven the enemy across South River and through Waynesborough (see plate All encamped after dark in the vicinity of Waynesborough. On the 29th the army rested, the engineer troops and pioneers being engaged in rebuilding the railroad bridges across South River and Christian's Creek, which the enemy had destroyed. The enemy's cavalry retreated via Staunton, Spring Hill, and Mossy Creek to Bridgewater, while those along the Valley road fell back to North River, burning barns, mills, &c., as they went. Our cavalry went to Middle River. All quiet on the 30th.
October 1, the army moved to the vicinity of Mount Sidney, Gordon, Kershaw, and Pegram marching by the road to the Willow Pump, and then down the Valley road three miles beyond Mount Sidney. Ramseur and Wharton went by the Mount Meridian road and across by Piedmont to within three miles of Mount Sidney. Our cavalry went toward North River (see plate -*).
On the 2d the enemy drove in our pickets near North River, and the Stonewall Brigade, of Gordon's division, drove them back and held the bridge. Our cavalry was engaged with the enemy at Bridgewater (see plate -*). The 3d and 4th were quiet, except some skirmishing along the line of North River. Gordon moved to near Naked Creek on the 5th, and Rosser's cavalry joined the army, having come up from Richmond, via Lynchburg. The enemy left his camps near Harrisonburg, Mount Crawford, and Bridgewater early on the morn ing of the 6th, after burning in every direction. Our cavalry was soon in pursuit, and the infantry, Gordon in front, followed at 11 a. m. and marched to the vicinity of Harrisonburg, three divisions beyond it. Lomax went by the Keezletown road to Peale's, and Rosser, with Fitz Lee's division, by the Back road, falling on the enemy's rear at Brock's Gap and capturing forges, &c. (see plate -‡). He then went to Timberville (see plate *). On the 7th we continued the march to New Market, Pegram in front, and encamped in the vicinity; Pegram and Wharton on the Timberville, Gordon and Ramseur on the Forest
*Plate LXXXI, Map 4 of the Atlas.
+ Plate LXXXII, Map 12 of the Atlas.
ville, and Kershaw on the Luray roads. Our cavalry went to Stony Creek (see plate -*). The infantry remained in camp on the Sth, while Rosser, on the Back road, drove the enemy to Round Hill, engaging them near Tom's Brook (see plate -t), while Lomax drove them to Tom's Brook on the turnpike (see plate -f). The enemy
turned on our cavalry on the 9th and drove them back, Lomax to Mount Jackson and Rosser to Stony Creek, where he checked them, and captured their trains and 8 pieces of artillery. Ramseur and Kershaw were marched down to Rude's Hill to meet the enemy, but they retired to Edenburg (see plate -*), and at night we held the line of Stony Creek. The 10th and 11th the infantry remained in camp, the pioneers being employed in repairing the telegraph line to New Market. Lomax's division went to the Page Valley on the 11th. On the 12th the march was resumed, Ramseur in front, and the army marched to between Narrow Passage Creek and Woodstock (see plate*). The cavalry marched from Timberville to Stony Creek. Payne's brigade went to Pugh's Run on the Valley pike. Continuing the march on the 13th the advance infantry, Gordon's, reached Hupp's Hill by 10 a. m., having been preceded by Payne's cavalry. The infantry was kept concealed by the hill and woods, and formed as in plate , and some artillery was put in position, and opened on the enemy's camps and pickets on the north side of Cedar Creek, driving them from their posts and camps on the left in great disorder. The enemy then advanced a brigade across Cedar Creek and opened from the batteries on their right. Our artillery shelled the advancing column and slowly withdrew, when the enemy came on and was charged and handsomely routed by Gordon's and Wharton's skirmishers and Conner's brigade, of Kershaw's division (see plate). The enemy suffered severely. Rosser.advanced to Cedar Creek and engaged the enemy's cavalry (see plate); Lomax went down Page Valley and drove the enemy's pickets from Guard Hill (see plate The army fell back to Fisher's Hill and encamped (see plate Enemy burning [barns, &c.,] at Front Royal. The 14th was spent on Fisher's Hill, &c. (see plate -*). The enemy's cavalry came to southwest of Strasburg, and Gordon's and Wharton's skirmishers drove them back to Hupp's Hill. Lomax encamped at We remained at Fisher's Hill the 15th, some of our skirmishers going to Hupp's Hill and finding the enemy busily fortifying the north bank of Cedar Creek. All quiet on the 16th, but at night Rosser's brigade of cavalry took Grimes' infantry, of Ramseur's division, behind it, and went to surprise a cavalry camp of the enemy on the Back road, but found only a picket, which was captured (see plate -*).
On the 17th the troops were marched out in front of Tumbling Run a mile or more, and some reconnaissances were made in front. General Early sent General Gordon and myself to reconnoiter the enemy's position with reference to an attack from the signal station on ThreeTop Mountain, sending General Pegram to Cedar Creek for the same purpose. A map of the enemy's position and works was made and delivered to the general commanding. On the 18th General Early summoned his division commanders to headquarters and decided upon and communicated to them a plan of attack to be carried into effect the following night and day, assigning to each division its time and place
* Plate LXXXI, Map 4 of the Atlas.
+ Plate LXXXII, Map 11 of the Atlas.
Plate LXXXV, Sketches 35, 36, and 37 of the Atlas.
of attack, as it was executed (see plate -*). General Gordon, with the Second Corps (Gordon's, Ramseur's, and Pegram's divisions), was to march across the Shenandoah and around the base of Three-Top Mountain by a blind and concealed path, and then to cross the Shenandoah again at Bowman's Ford and turn the enemy's left flank. Kershaw was to go by Strasburg to Bowman's Mill and attack in front of the left; Wharton and the artillery to go by Strasburg to Hupp's Hill and be ready to second the other attacks; Rosser to go by the Back road and engage the cavalry of the enemy; all to be in position and attack at 5 o'clock of the morning of the 19th. Rosser to attack first, then Gordon, and lastly Kershaw (see plate -*). About dark the streams were bridged and the path cleared out by the pioneers; and Gordon marched at 8 p. m. by the selected route (see plate
At midnight Kershaw and Wharton started for their positions. Before 5 a. m. of October 19, Kershaw and Wharton were resting on Hupp's Hill and Bowman's Mill road, and Gordon had rested for some time not far from Bowman's Ford on the south bank of the river. Rosser was also in position (see plate*). The attack was successfully made, the enemy's pickets driven in, and by sunrise Kershaw and Gordon had occupied the camps and works of the Eighth and Nineteenth Corps, and captured artillery and prisoners (see plate -*). The Sixth Corps offered a new obstruction, and lines were formed as in plate
-*, and they were driven back to the left of Middletown. A portion of Wharton's division was added to the line and moved against the enemy, but could not cross Meadow Run in consequence of its depth of bed, and was driven back. The artillery then opened and drove the enemy from his position (see plate*). -*). A second line was now formed, passing in front of Middletown and to the left (see plate- -*.) and some skirmishing and cannonading took place along the line. A portion of the left was advanced some distance (see plate -*), the enemy in the meantime, deploying his cavalry on his flanks, rallied and formed a line of infantry in the woods on the left of Meadow Run, behind some rude breast-works of rails, and from these they advanced late in the p. m. and broke a portion of our line on the left, when the whole line gave way just before dark and retreated. The enemy's cavalry crossing Cedar Creek above the turnpike bridge, succeeded in cutting off and capturing most of our artillery and many wagons on Hupp's Hill after dark, the bridge near Spangler's Mill having in the meantime broken down and stopped the train. The troops marched all night and reached New Market on the 20th and went into their former camps, Rosser bringing up the rear. The enemy's cavalry followed slowly to Edenburg, where we had halted our cavalry (see plate --†).
On the 21st the enemy's infantry came across Cedar Creek and took and fortified with great care a new position on Hupp's and the adjoining hills (see plate*). Lomax's division, which only came to the vicinity of Middletown on the 19th, fell back to Milford in the Page Valley, and took and fortified a strong position there (see plate All was quiet until the 26th, when the enemy's cavalry attacked Lomax's position at Milford and was repulsed. Rosser's brigade on that day went from its camp near Timberville to Luray. The troops remained quietly in camp in the vicinity of New Market, holding the line of Stony Creek and the position at Milford with cavalry, at points east of the Blue Ridge, until the 10th of November, when they again marched
*Plate LXXXII, Map 9 of the Atlas.
down the Valley, Kershaw's division in front, and encamped on each side of Woodstock (see plate *), Rosser's division of cavalry going -*).
to Fairview and Lomax's to Front Royal (see plateMarching at 6 a. m. on the 11th, Pegram's division in front, preceded by Payne's brigade of cavalry, we drove the enemy's pickets from Middletown and up to a line of fortifications beyond Newtown; then formed a line of battle between Middletown and Newtown and had some skir mishing with the enemy (see plate -*). Rosser came by the Back and Middle roads to the left of Newtown (see plate -*) and had some fighting with the enemy (see plate the right and extended toward Cedarville (see plate the 12th in line of battle at the same place. Rosser engaged the enemy's cavalry, and part of his force was driven some distance by them along the Back road, but bringing up the rest he in turn routed Custer's division (see plate -*). McCausland's brigade, of Lomax's division, repulsed several attacks of the enemy near Cedarville, but it was finally driven from there and lost 2 pieces of artillery. We fell back to Fisher's Hill after dark (see plate. *). On the 13th the army, Grimes' brigade in front, marched to camps between Edenburg and Hawkinstown, and on the 14th, Gordon in front, we returned to camps in the vicinity of New Market (see plate *). Col. William Proctor
Smith reported on the 14th as chief engineer of the Army of the Valley and assumed control of the engineer department of the same, and the operations of the army from that time to the close of the campaign have been reported by him.
I am, major, most respectfully, your obedient servant,
Maj. J. H. ALEXANDER,
Topographical Engineer, Valley District.
Asst. Adjt. Gen. of Engineer Bureau, Richmond, Va.
* Plate LXXXI, Map 4 of the Atlas.