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of the generosity and heroism of ing hatred. Love alone engenan innocent being, to secure a ders love, and, therefore, whatever public execution-an execution, shows the love of God, supplies however, which leaves the claims the strongest motive of obedience. of public justice untouched, and The theory of expediency, after the virtuous subjects in a state of all, fails to supply great fea jeopardy.

motive of holy life ; for fear These two assumptions having arises in proportion to the certainty failed, it is evident that the others of punishment, and notits severity. fall to the ground also, as they are This is proved most abundantly built upon these. The claims of

by the history of crime in our justice are disregarded, and the

own country. But does the death salvation of man, according to of our Lord, according to the the theory of expediency, reflects theory of expediency, show it no honour on the governinent of probable that, in case of future God.

sin, the sinner shall be surely Of all the theories considered, punished ? Not in the least. In this now discussed is the least the case of human sin the sinner satisfactory, because the least is not punished, but a make-belogical. The theory of debt, in lieve of severity is shown by the its Calvinistic aspect, as set forth suffering of an innocent person, in the writings of Dr. Owen and and the sinner who escapes is not President Edwards, is the most required to take any part in the logical ; only it reduces the divine finding of a substitute, but all benevolence to a minimum; ren- things are arranged without his ders the love of God much less aid. It is not wise to generalize than that of ordinary men, and from a single case, but as far as makes salvation of justice, and this case goes tɔ prove anything, not of grace.

the natural inference is, that if The expedient theory, more- any other race of beings should over, gives too prominent a place sin-should venture upon rebelto fear as a motive to obedience. lion-the punishment will fall One of the principal objects of a upon some sinless substitute, and public execution is to benefit the not upon the transgressors, and virtuous community by terrifying this will be found for them by the those who might be prone to com- king, so that they need not be in mit acts of violence, and thus tronble. I do not mention the prevent the recurrence of crime. death of Christ as proving any. The death of Christ is supposed thing in relation to the treatment thus to act upon the intelligent of future sinners, but simply say, creation. But experience in con- that if it does prove anything, as nection with public executions has is assumed by theorists, it proves abundantly shown that fear is one the non-probability of the punishof the weakest motives of virtue; ment of actual sinners, and thus and experience has proved, on the encourages rebellion rather than other hand, that the mightiest obedience. But if the sinner motive to holy deeds is the mani- escapes punishment only on confestation of disinterested bene- dition that he passes through the volence. If, therefore, enmity painful process of repentanceagainst God, or want of love to hates sin and loves holiness so Him, be the fountain of which intensely that to sin becomes an sin is but the stream, it follows impossibility, and to do good a that the shortest and safest way of necessity, then is the heinousness preventing sin is to destroy exist- of sin and the sublimity of obedi

ence recognised in the most justice far more effectively and forcible manner. Such an acknow. fully than her death beneath the ledgment of the misery of sin, gallows would have done. The and the advantages of a holy pardon of sin, under similar conlife by one whose experience em- ditions would seem to be more to braced both, would be a real dis- the honour of God as the Goo couragement to evil, as well as an vernor of the universe than the incentive to good.

punishment of impenitence would An incident of recent occur- be; for in the punishment of sin rence bears very forcibly on the there is no acknowledgment of subject which is now being dis- its evil or disadvantages, on the cussed.

part of the criminal, nor is there, A young woman, belonging to on his part, any recognition of the higher rank of life, under the the superiority of obedience. influence of malice, committed V. The atonement of Christ es murder. Suspicion fell on others, explained by other theories. but the real culprit escaped the Many other theories of the hand of justice, and lived in ap- atonement have been proposed parent peace. Years passed away, some of which are probably unand the crime was well nigh for- known to me, but upon the whole gotten. But the guilty conscience I find them to be very unsatisfound no rest. Night and day the factory. Mr. McLeod Campbell agonies of that solitary heart has proposed a species

of reprewere far beyond conception. She sentative theory. The Rev. Bald. felt truly sorry for her sin, and so win Brown in - The Divine Life ** terrible did the hideous deed seems to accept that theory as appear to her, that life itself satisfactory, and Dr. Bushnell became a burden. As a fearful works it out more fully. The crime had been committed, and theory seems to have been size some suspicion still clung to those gested by an expression of Pres. who were innocent of the crime, dent Edwards, who says, That to she felt that in justice to these satisfy divine justice there must the crime should be acknowledged, be “either an equivalent punish. and that for the honour of her ment, or an equivalent sorrow and country, whose laws punished repentance.” Edwards accepts the murder by death, she ought to die equivalent punishment, and bethe felon's death.

lieves a punishment to have been Under the influence of such inflicted upon Christ equivalent motives she made a full confession to that deserved by all the elect. and wished to die. But her death Campbell rejects the theory of was thought to be unnecessary Edwards and accepts the alternaby the government of the land. tive supposition of equivalent It was felt by all that public sorrow and repentance, and be justice had been satisfied, though lieves that our Lord, as a man, not in the letter, yet in the spirit. sorrowed and repented for sin inSuch sorrow for sin, such free stead of all men, and in virtue of confession of personal guilt, such his divine nature this sorrow and recognition of the blessedness of repentance were sufficiently in. virtue and the misery of wrong. tense to satisfy the demands of doing, reflected the highest divine justice. honour on her country's laws, and The chief, and as I think fatal, furnished the most forcible in- objection to this theory is, that i ducements to a life of virtue, and is a mere assumption or hypothesis. met really the claims of public Our Saviour is never represented

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8 repenting for men; besides, His move all error. My aim has been wn innocence rendered repent- negative and destructive. What ance impossible, for repentance is I have written has been written possible only to the guilty. not to support any theory, but

This theory seems tome scarcely rather to show thoughtful men to deserve any notice at all. Like that the subject of the atonethe others, it requires the separa- ment of Christ requires, on tion of Christ and God. It the part of Christian people, moreover requires the genuine reconsideration. All preceding repentance of an innocent person, theories must be abandoned, which is impossible, and it as- and the whole subject must sumes that for the repentance of be studied de novo. It remains one many others are accepted, for me only to show, by an which seems to me equally absurd. examination of particular texts,

It will be observed by the that the theories referred to are thoughtful reader, that I have unscriptural, to complete the decarefully abstained from pro- monstration of the common errors posing any theory. My object of Evangelical Churches, and to has been to show that the various lear the ground for the positive theories which have been pro- and constructive part of the posed have been erroneous, be- subject.

GALILEO. lieving that the first step in at

(To be continued.) taining to the truth is to re

Literary Notices.

(We hold it to be the duty of an Editor either to give an early notice of the books sent to him for remark, or to return them at once to the Publisher. It is unjust to praise worthless books; it is robbery to retain unnoticed ones.]

In every work regard the author's end,
Since none can compass more than they intend.


Conference Office, City-road. The two truths sought to be established in this volume are, that every human being possesses a soul- & percipient, rational, and voluntary spirit additional to his body; and that the glorious Gospel of Christ imparts to it intelligent satisfaction and hope. These truths, which are confessedly important, lack the charm of freshness. They have been discussed a thousand times, and they are widely acknowledged, yet they are so vital to every buman being that they cannot be urged with too much frequency and force upon the attention of men. The work is divided into six chapters, the subjects of which are—the exisence, nature, greatness, aspirations, immortality, perfectibility, and claims of the human soul. Under these various heads a very large number of subjects is embraced. The opinions of some of our abler philosophers and theological writers are examined in their relation to the subjects discussed, and the examination shows in keenness and breadth of soul that the author is a match for some of our highest thinkers. The book abounds with profound thoughts, vigorously expressed. The spirit is at once scientific and Christian. The late eminent Sir C. B. Brodie urged the printing of this work, and expressed his approval of the treatment of the subject. We endorse his opinion, and heartily commend the volume to all who desire to see the greatest truths discussed by a Christian philosopher.


London: Elliot Stock, 62, Paternoster-row, E.C. Pre-MILLENARIANISM and Ritualism : which are the greater erils in connection with Christianity ? The former prevails amongst what are called the “Evangelicals” in the Church, the latter amongst the " Tractarian" section. But the former is not confined to the Episcopal Church; it is co-extensive with Plymouth Brethrenism. It is gaining ground even amongst Nonconformist ministers. For ourselves, we are not only deeply convinced of its unscripturalness, but of its baneful influence. Like Ritualism, it grows amongst the sensuous in religion, and, therefore, we fear that arguments, however cogent and conclusive, will do but little execution amongst its votaries. However, such works as the one before us, demonstrating that the coming of Christ will not be pre-millennial, and that His reign on earth will not be personal, we heartily welcome as antidotes to a pernicious popular error. The work is evidently written by one who has earnestly and diligently studied the question, and has attained strong convictions as to the unscripturalness of the doctrine against which he sets bis arguments.


THE COMPLETE Works or Thomas Brooks. Edited, and with Memoir.

By Rev. Alexander Grosart. Vol. V. Edinburgh : Jances

Nichol. London: James Nisbet and Co. Here is a fifth volume from Brooks, whom we regard as one of the best of the old divines. We have already frequently referred to him and commended his works. Those old preachers said about their contemporary brethren what would be pronounced most uncharitable for modern preachers to say. Here, for example, is a specimen. "Sorne preachers in our day are like Heraclitus, who was called the dark doctor, because he affected dark speeches, so they affect sublime notions, obscure expressions, uncouth phrases, making plain truths difficult, and easy truths hard, &c. They darken counsel by words without knor

ledge.' Job xxxviii. 2. Men of abstract conceits and wise specalations are but wise fools; like the lark that soareth on high, peering and peering, but at last falleth into the net of the fowler. Such persons commonly are as censorious as they are curious and do Christ and his Church but very little service in this world.”

An Exposition. With Notes Unfolded and Applied on John xvii.

By GEORGE Newton. Edinburgh : James Nichol. London:

James Nisbet. The author of this volume was born in Devonshire, 1602, entered Exeter College, Oxford, 1616, took his degree of M.A., 1624, and was ordained by Laud, then Bishop of Bath and Wells, to the perpetual curacy of Hill Bishop. Upon the breaking out of the rebellion, he sided with the Presbyterians, and in 1662 was numbered twenty-three among the ejected. He died in 1681, and was buried in the chancel of his older church in Taunton. Calamy says of him that his preaching was plain, practical, and successful, and that he was eminent for his meekness and prudence. He was by no means an eminent man in comparison with some of the Puritans. This exposition does not appear to us to have much value.


by the Rev. R. A. BERTRAM. London: Elliot Stock, 62, Pater

noster-row. The author of this work is one of the most eloquent pulpit orators of this century. Whilst we reject some of his theological opinions we thankfully accept most of his homiletic rules. The work treats of a large variety of subjects in connection with preachers and preaching. It exposes many of those vices and absurdities connected with the pulpit which have tended wondrously to degrade the institution in the estimation of thinking men. It points cut the path by which a pulpit excellence may be reached. It abounds with many striking anecdotes bearing on the subject. It is in every way a work worthy the thoughtful perusal of preachers.


Edited by William Logan, London : James Nisbet, Berners

Street. Thus is a work that we have already noticed, and that has reached its third edition. We need scarcely do more than mention that it is composed of a selection of passages from a variety of religious writers, relating to the death of children. Though some of the selections are not, perhaps, of the first-class, yet many are excellent, and admirably adapted to the end intended.

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