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sufferings endured by the good love is_brutish. “I have surely here, Solomon uses as an argu- heard Ephraim bemoaning himment for the certainty of the self thus ; Thou hast chastised greater sufferings that must be me, and I was chastised, as a balendured by the wicked. “Much lock unaccustomed to the yoke. more the wicked and the sinner." (Jer. xxxi. 18.) The argument is à fortiori-if Good and evil are here preGod visits the sins of his people sented, here with punishment, much more II. IN RELATION TO DIVINE will He visit the sins of the wicked. JUDGMENT. First, the good secures “For the time is come that judg. the favour of God. A good man ment must begin at the house of obtaineth favour of the Lord." God: and if it first begin at us, Heaven smiles upon the righteous. what shall the end be of them “Thou, Lord, wilt bless the righthat obey not the gospel of God ? teous; with favour wilt thou comAnd if the righteous scarcely be pass him as with a shield.” saved, where shall the ungodly (Psa. v. 12.) To obtain the and the sinner appear ?”.

favour of God is the highest object of life. “Wherefore we

labour, that, whether present or (No. LXXV.)

absent, we may be accepted of

him.” (2 Cor. v. 9.) Socondly, GOOD AND EVIL.

the evil incurs his condemnation. "Whoso loveth instruction loveth knowledge: but he that hateth reproof

“A man of wicked devices will he is brutish. A good man obtaineth condemn." The frown of eternal favour of the Lord: but a man of wicked

justice shadows the path of the devices will he condemn. A man shall not be established by wickedness: but

wicked. “He that believeth not the root of the righteous shall not be

is condemned already." moved."-Prov. xii. 1-3. Good and evil are presented in sented, three aspects.

III. IN RELATION TO THEIR I. IN RELATION TO

STANDING. First, the evil have no GENCE. First, the good loves intel- stability. A man shall not be ligence. “Whoso loveth instruc- established by wickedness." How tion, loveth knowledge." A truly insecure are the wicked! They good man is a truth-seeker. The are in slippery places. (Psa. constant cry of his soul is for lxxiii. 18.) They live in a house more light. Secondly, the evil whose foundation is sand. Sehates intelligence. “ He that hateth condly, the good are firmly estareproof is brutish.” Reproof is a blished. “ The root of the righform of intelligence. It shows to a teous shall not be moved.” “God sinner in the light of great prin- is their refuge and strength," &c. ciples, either the imprudence or Like the monarch of the forest, immorality or both of his con- whose roots strike wide and deep duct. He hates this, and is thus into the heart of the earth, it “ brutish." He who does not stands secure amidst storms that desire to have his faults exposed wreck the fleets of nations and to him in the light of law and level cities in the dust.

be is Good and evil axe hero pre

INTELLI

Theological Notes and Queries.

OPEN COUNCIL. (The utmost freedom of honest thought is permitted in this department. The reader must therefore use his own discriminating faculties, and the Editor must be allowed to claim freedom from responsibility.]

GREAT PROPITIATION. If our Lord has endured our Article XII.-(Continued.)

punishment_has suffered the just Replicant.-In answer to Querist

consequences of our sins, then No. 16, p. 352, Vol. XVII., and

sin is not forgiven. It has had continued from p. 356, Vol.

its own course, and produced its XIX:

own evil. If at any future time

the sinner were punished, then On some popular Theories of the would the same crime be twice

Atonement of Christ, proposed to punished, which would be unjust. Explain its mode of Operation. If Christ has met for us the deThis theory of the Christian mands of justice, by obeying the atonement does effectively for law and suffering the consemankind what the Hegelian philosophy tried in vain to do in an- salvation-freedom from evil and other way. It delivers all men the reward of obedience, no more from the influence of the idea of of grace but of justice. True, a personal God. Guillaume Marr Christ was kind and gracious in said that" the true road to liberty, doing what He did for us, but God equality, and happiness was athe- gives nothing for which He is not ism," or the freeing of the human paid; therefore is our salvation mind from the restraint imposed an act of grace on the part of upon it by a belief in personal Christ, but an act of mere justice responsibility to God; but the on the part of God. debt theory of the work of Christ 5. This theory seems to me to gets rid of all sense of responsi-be a libel on the Divine character. bility, while it retains in its creed It represents God as exacting, not the existence of God as giving; as demanding, not bearticle of belief. Every man, stowing; as punishing, not parfor whom Christ died, owes the doning; as being just, but not Deity neither reverence nor obe- gracious. He shows no favour, dience, nor is he liable to any but requires and gets his due. punishment for sin, as the Atoner Christ suffers and gives, but God by his atonement has paid the demands and has the uttermost whole of his debt - discharged farthing. his obligations, and endured his If, then, God has all He repunishment.

quires—no matter who pays Him, 4. According to this theory, whether the original debtor or his there is no such thing as the for- surety, if he be paid—no thanks giveness of sin, or salvation by are due to Him for what He gives grace. If a debt be paid, no or does. If man is saved, no matter how, or by whom, if it be thanks to God, for He was fully paid, it is not forgiven. Payment paid for it by another. Ail and forgiveness are contradictions. I thanks are, therefore, due to this

an

other. St. Paul's triumphant shout of victory must be altered from, “Thanks be to God who giveth us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ,” to “No thanks to God, for He gives us no victory -gives us nothing; but thanks to Christ, who purchased our victory for us!”

Such is the nature of this theory of the atonement-a theory which was, alas ! identified with the Gospel by the Puritans, and is still thought to be a fair representation of the truth. But it falls to the ground at every point. It requires at the beginning, what the Word of God will not allow, the separation of God and Christ, each being regarded as a distinct conscious being or person. The Bible everywhere shows it to be the duty of all men, Christiansand unconverted people, to obey God, and emphatically declares that “the soul that sinneth, it shall die;" but this theory is destructive of all moral obligation. Great prominence is given in the Scriptures to the doctrine of the forgiveness of sin. We pray for forgiveness, according to the examples of pious men, “Pardon my iniquity, for it is great,” and according to the instruction of the Saviour himself, “Forgive us our trespasses ;” and the Divine Being is repeatedly said to forgive men their sins. But the debt theory of the work of Christ shows that all the Bible's teaching about forgiveness is but mere empty talk, as God forgives no man a sin, but is fully paid for each by our surety! The talk about forgiveness is a mere show of benevolence and

nothing but a show; for in reality nothing is given without payment to the full !

The Bible everywhere speaks of our salvation as being of God's grace. God saves by or through Christ, but never on account of Christ. God is the efficient cause of our salvation, and Christ is the instrumental cause or mediummediator- of His grace.

The absolute Deity reaches us in a special form assumed, and by a special revelation given-which is Christ; so that we owe all we have, or may possess, or be, to God, who made his love known to us in the Christ-form-in Christ. According to the Gospel, God gives us all we have—yes, gives and forgives all our sins-forgives ; but according to the debt theory, God gives nothing, and forgives nothing, as everything which comes through His hand is purchased at a full price.

The conclusion of the matter seems to me to be this: we can accept either the accuracy of the Bible, as the Word of God, or the puritanic notion of the Atonement, as the payment of debt by a surety; but to accept both as true is impossible. They are diametrically opposed to each other, as opposed as light and darkness are. One must be rejected as untrue, for the one is destructive of the other.

I, for one, would rather sacrifice a theory than sacrifice the Word of God; for the former is the invention of man, the latter is the production of God.

GALILEO, B.A. (To be continued.)

Literary Notices.

[We hold it to be the duty of an Editor either to give an early notice of the books sent to him for remark, or to return them at once to the Publisher. It is unjust to praise worthless books; it is robbery to retain unnoticed ones.]

THE REVIEWER'S CANON
In every work regard the author's end,
Since none can compass more than they intend.

THE WORKS OF HENRY SMITH; with Life of the Author. By Thomas

FULLER, B.D. Vol. I. Edinburgh: James Nichol. London:

James Nisbet and Co. But little is known of this old divine. « What is true of the river Nilus," says Thomas Fuller, his quaint biographer, “that its fountain is hid and obscure, but its fall or influx into the midland sea eminently known, is applicable to many learned men, the places of whose birth generally are either wholly concealed, or at the best uncertain, whilst the place of their death is made remarkable. For as few did take notice of their coming out of their attiring-house, so their well acting on the stage commanded all eyes to observe their returning thereunto."

It appears, however, that our author was born at Withcok, Leicestershire, and that he was of gentle extraction and born to affluence. He was educated in the University of Oxford, and there filled himself with that learning which in due time he poured out to others. Having finished his education, he accepted a lectureship at St. Clement Danes, without Temple Bar. Although his judgment was far from going with all pertaining to the Anglican Church, he loved peace, and united in affection with those from whom in opinion he dissented. In his day he was called the silver-tongued preacher, and chimed with the melody of speech similar to that of St. Chrysostom. His church was always crowded, and he played upon his congregation as a master musician upon his harp. He died of consumption about the year 1600. He was a voluminous author. Many of his discourses were printed surreptiiously from shorthand notes. These, however, in self defence and for the sake of his literary reputation, he afterwards published himself. It is stated that his public sermons became a family book in his own day. Judging from the discourses in this volume, he appears to have been remarkably free from the affectations that greatly disfigured the pulpit productions of his own time. He was too earnest to play th punster or the polemic. If he had not the logic of Goodwin or the pathos of Brookes, he had a spiritual insight into truth as piercing as either, and a power of presenting what he saw with remarkable vividness and effect. We class this volume amongst the best sermonic productions of the preachers of olden times.

A COMMENTARY ON THE WHOLE EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. By

WILLIAM GOUGE, D.D. Vol. II. Edinburgh: James Nichol

London: James Nisbet and Co. Dublin : G. Herbert. In the last volume of the HOMILIST, page 238, our readers will find a brief sketch of the author of this volume and our judgment upon his. productions. This volume completes his work on the Hebrews, which was his masterpiece, and which is considered to contain the substance of his public ministry, which was one of great brilliancy and influence. Critically, of course, these volumes are below the mark. Since the author's days, nay, within the last twenty years, biblical criticism and Jewish archæology have made wondrous advances. But in the power of seizing and lucidly exhibiting in condense suggestiveness the great ideas of a text the work is equal to most of the best of modern times. It is strictly a homiletic exposition. On every page there are seeds of

sermons.

St. Paul: HIS LIFE AND MINISTRY TO THE END OF HIS THIRD

MISSIONARY JOURNEY. By T. BINNEY. London: James Nisbet

and Co., 21, Berners Street. This volume contains a course of lectures, which the distinguished author delivered to the young men of his congregation. In matter they are not exhaustive, but suggestive; in style they are not rhetoric, but conversational; and in effect upon the reader, they are interesting, refreshing, and stimulating in the highest degree. Though the author goes not as minutely into the circumstances of Paul's adventurous life, nor as critically into the phraseologies, either of himself, his biographer, of his friends, or of his foes, as Conybeare and Howson, he, nevertheless, sketches the incidents with a remarkable accuracy, hits out the meaning of utterances with a stroke, seizes the leading idea, disrobes it of its old costume, detaches it from its old relations, and holds it forth a powerfully living lesson to modern men. Indeed no book has ever brought Paul so near to English intelligence and consciousness.

SIMPLE TRUTH: Spoken to Working Men. By NORMAN MACLEOD,

D.D. Alexander Strahan, 56, Ludgate-hill, London. This is a small volume of sermons, the subjects are “The Wonder of Indifference not Saved," “Publicans and Sinners hearing Christ,'s “ The Love of Christ for Sinners," "The Story of the Prodigal Son," “The Gadarene Demoniac," "The Home Mission Work of Christians,', “Prayer,” “Principles of Christian Toleration,” “The End of the Year." We need scarcely characterize the author's treatment of

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