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The great object of Emin, was to obtain a knowledge of military tactics, in the hopes of employing it successfully, in rescuing the liberty and religion of the country of his ancestors from the despotism of the Turks and Persians. After serving with the Prussian and English armies in Germany, he procured the means of transporting himself into the mountains of Armenia, in the view of offering his services to Heraclius, the reigning prince of Georgia, and of rousing the religious zeal and martial spirit of his countrymen. He had there the mortification to find his resources inadequate to the magnitude of the enterprise, and he was compelled to return disappointed to England. After some time spent in solicitation, he was enabled by the assistance of his patrons to proceed with recommendations to Russia, and thence, after various fatigues and impediments, which his fortitude and perseverance surmounted, he reached Tefflis, the capital of Georgia. After eight years of wandering, perils, and distress, through the mountains of that country and Armenia, he was obliged to abandon his visionary project, and returned to his father in Calcutta. Still anxious for

of Pope's head, at a bookseller's near the Temple. Emin, ignorant of the name of the gentleman who had treated bim with so much courtesy, begged to be favoured with it, and Mr. Burke politely answered, “Sir, my name is Edmund Burke at your service ; I am a

run-away son from a father, as you are.” He then presented half-a-guinea to Emin, saying, “ upon my honour this is what I have at present; please to accept it.”

Mr. Burke the next day visited Emin, and assisted bim with his advice as to the books which he should read. He introduced him to his relation, Mr. Williarn Burke ; and for thirty years, Emin acknowledges that he was treated with unceasing kindness by both.

At the period of the commencement of his acquaintance with Mr. Burke, Emin had little left for his maintenance, and the prospect of accomplishing the purpose of his voyage to England becaine daily more gloomy. “ Had not Mr. Burke consoled him now “ and then (to use the words of Emin) he might have been lost for ever through despair; “ but his friend always advised him to put his trust in God, and he never missed a day “ without seeing Emin. He was writing books at the time, and desired the author (i. e. “ Emin) to copy them; the first was an Imitation of the late Lord Bolingbroke's Letter; the “ second, The Treatise of Sublime and Beautiful.” Life of Emin, London edition, p. 93.


the accomplishment of his plans, and no ways intimidated by the experience of past dangers and difficulties, he made a third attempt for the execution of them, and proceeded to Persia. This proved equally unsuccessful, and he again returned to Calcutta. In Emin, we see the same man, who was a sailor, a porter, a menial servant, and subsisting by charity, the companion of nobles, and patronized by princes and monarchs, ever preserving in his deepest distresses, a sense of honour, a spirit of integrity, a reliance upon Providence, and a firm adherence to the principles of Christianity, in which he had been educated. During his residence in Calcutta, he published an account of his eventful life, which Sir William Jones condescended to revise, so far only as to correct orthographical errors, but without any amendment of the style.

From Chatigan, Sir William Jones returned to Calcutta, and after the recess of the court, again visited his retirement at Chrishnanagur, where he occupied himself as usual in his favourite studies, an account of which, as well as of his journey to the presidency, I shall supply by extracts from his familiar letters..

Sir WILLIAM JONES to Mr. Justice HYDE.

Comarcaly, June 15, 1786. I find that in this country, travellers are perfect slaves to the seasons and elements. It was my resolution when I left Dacca, to push on as expeditiously as possible to Calcutta ; but in our passage of eight days last year through the Tulsi creek and the Artai river, our boat was hotter day and night, than I ever felt a vapour-bath; till then, as much as I had reason to dread an

I had not a complete idea of it. This affected both Lady. Jones and me so much, that it would have been madness to have passed the Sundarbans in such weather; and Mr. Redfearn having promised to send me word, when the Jelinga becomes na


Indian sun,

vigable (which is usually about the middle of this month) I expect every day to receive that intelligence, after which I shall be in Calcuita in eight days. I am principally vexed at this delay, because from your having taken the charge when it was Sir R. Chambers' turn, I fear he must be ill, and consequently that, you must have a great deal of trouble: give my affectionate remembrance to him.

I am, &c.


On the Ganges, Sept. 7, 1786. You do too much honour, my dear Madam, to my compositions ; they amuse me in the few hours of leisure that my business allows, and if they amuse my friends, I am amply rewarded.

Mà si 'l Latino e'l Greco
Parlan di me dopo la morte, è un vento;
Ond' io, perche pavento
Adunar sempre quel ch'un' ora sgombre,
Vorrei 'l vero abbraciar lassando l'ombre.

We talk of the year 1790, as the happy limit of our residence in this unpropitious climate ; but this must be a family secret, lest applications should be made for my place, and I should be shored out before my resignation. God grant that the bad state of my Anna's health, may not compel her to leave India before me; I should remain like a man with a dead palsy on one of his sides; but it were better to lose one side for a time than both for ever, I do not mean that she has been, or is likely to be, in danger from her complaints. I bave proposed a visit to her friend, Lady Campbell, and she seemed to receive the proposal with pleasure; the sea air, and change of scene at a proper season, may do more than all the faculty with all their prescriptions. As to politics and ministers, let me whisper another secret in your ear: Io non credo piu àl nero ch' all'azzurro,


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and, as to coalitions, if the nero be mixed with the azzurro, they will only make a dirtier colour. India is yet secure, and improve. able beyond imagination ; it is not however in such a state of security, but that wise politicians may, with strong well-timed exértions and well applied address, contrive to lose it. The discharge of my duty, and the study of Indian laws in their original languages (which is no inconsiderable part of my duty) are an excuse for my neglect of writing letters; and indeed I find by experience, that I can take up my pen for that purpose but once a year, and I have a hundred unanswered letters now lying before me, but my Anna, who is my secretary of state, and first or rather sole lady of the treasury, has written volumes. Loves and regards to all who love and regard us; as to compliments, they are unmeaning things, and neither become me to send, nor you to convey. I am with great regard, dear Madam, Your faithful and affectionate servant,



Crishna-nagur, Sept. 28, 1786. Various causes contribute to render me a bad corre. spondent, particularly the discharge of my public duty, and the studies which are connected with that duty, such as the Indian and Arabic laws in their several difficult languages, one of which has occupied most of my leisure for the last twelvemonth, excepting when I travelled to Islamabad, for the benefit of the sea air and verdant hillocks, during the hot season. It is only in such a retirement as the cottage, where I am passing a short vacation, that I can write to literary friends, or even think much on literary subjects ; and it was long after I left this solitude last autumn, that I had the pleasure of receiving your most agreeable letter.

I am tolerahly strong in Sanscrit, and hope to prove my strength soon by translating a law tract of great intrinsic merit, and extremely curious, which the Hindus believe to be almost as old as the creation. It is ascribed to Menu, the Minos of India, and like him, the son of Jove. My present study is the original of Bid pa's fables, called Hitopadesa*, which is a charming book, and wonderfully useful to a learner of the language. I congratulate you on the completion of your two works, but exhort you to publish them. Think how much fame Kønig lost by delaying his publications. God knows whether any use honourable to his memory will be made of his manuscripts. Think of Mr. D’Herbelot, whose posthumous work, like most others, had the fate of being incorrectly published. Printing is dear at Calcutta ; but if government would print your works (as they ought) I could cheerfully superintend commas and colons. I am delighted with your botanical pursuits. They talk of a public garden on the banks of the river near Calcutta. How I wish for our sakes, you could be allured from the Sircars! I long to visit them, however, and to view your collections; though I must be so honest as to own, that accurate botanical descriptions give me more pleasure than an herbal, I mean where the fresh plants can be examined. For this reason I have not begun to collect speci. mens, but describe as well as I can; and for brevity in coarse Latin. Lady Jones assists me by her accuracy in drawing and colouring.

The province of Chatigan (vulgarly Chitigong) is a noble field for a naturalist. It is so called, I believe, from the chatag, which is the most beautiful little bird I ever saw.. The hills and woods. abound with uncommon plants and animals; indeed, the whole Eastern peninsula would be a new world to a philosopher. I wish

* Translated by Sir William Jones, and published in his Works, vol. vi.


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