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is characterized by length and variety, and is for the most part confined to the expression of sentiment or imaginative thought, admitting of narrative only incidentally. In ancient literature, it was sometimes distinguished by a high degree of sublimity, as in the case of the odes of Pindar. Previously to the discoveries which have been recently made by scholars in the science of Greek metres, the Pindaris ode was supposed to admit of the most capricious irregularity in the length and measure of its lines; and hence our modern compositions which were imitated from those ancient models were constructed on a system of absolute license in this respect. In point of fact, however, a scheme of perfect metrical regularity pervades the Greek ode of both Pindar and the dramatic choruses. In English literature, Collins' "Ode on the Passions", and Dryden's on "St. Cecilia's Day", are among the finest specimens of this variety of composition.
A Song differs from an ode in being shorter, having greater uniformity of metre, and treating rather of tender and melancholy, than of sublime, subjects.
A Ballad is a popular species of lyric poem which records in easy and uniform verse some interesting incident or romantic adventure. Our most approved ballad measure is iambic heptameter, often written, however, in two lines, tetrameter and trimeter alternately,
Odes sung in honor of the gods were anciently called Hymns; and this term has been applied, in modern times, to the spiritual songs used in church-worship. The term Psalm, originally applied to the lyric compositions of King David and others of the Hebrew poets, is now used as synonymous with hymn.
The Madrigal generally consists of less than twelve lines, and is often constructed without strict reference to rule, according to the fancy of the poet, rhymes and verses of different species being frequently intermingled. The subjects are generally of a tender or amorous character; and the expressions used in it are simple and often quaint.
sitions? Describe the ode. By what, in ancient literature, was it characterized? How is the irregularity of metre in our modern odes accounted for? What odes are mentioned as among the finest specimens in our language? In what respects does a song differ from an ode? What is a ballad? What is our most approved ballad measure f What was formerly meant by the term hymn? To what is this term now applied? What was the original meaning of the term psalm? With what is it now synonymous? What is a madrigal? What is said of the subjects of madrigals?
The Epigram closely resembles the madrigal in form, though it is written without reference to musical adaptation. It consists of a few lines embodying a lively or ingenious thought concisely expressed. Its point often consists in a verbal pun; but the higher species of epigram is rather characterized by fineness and delicacy.
§ 499. Elegiac Poetry is that variety which treats of mournful subjects. Gray's "Elegy in a Country Church. Yard" is the most noted poem of this description in the whole range of our literature. A short elegy, commemora tive of the dead and expressive of the sorrow of surviving friends, is called an Epitaph.
§ 500. Pastoral Poetry depicts shepherd-life by means of narratives, songs, and dialogues. An Idyl is a short descriptive pastoral poem. An Eclogue is a pastoral in which shepherds are represented as conversing. The art of the pastoral poet lies in selecting for his descriptions the beauties of rural life, and carefully avoiding all its repulsive features.
§ 501. Didactic Poetry aims to instruct rather than to please. Generally devoted to the exposition of some dry abstract subject, it fails to interest the reader unless replete with ornament. Of this species of poetry, Pollok's "Course of Time", Young's "Night Thoughts", and Pope's "Essay on Man", will serve as specimens.
§ 502. Satirical Poetry is that in which the weaknesses, follies, or wickedness, of men, are held up to ridicule, or rebuked with serious severity.
A Satire is general in its character, and is aimed at the weakness, folly, or wickedness, rather than the individual. Its object is the refor mation of the abuses it attacks. A Lampoon, or Pasquinade, on the other hand, is personally offensive, assailing the individual rather than his fault. It employs abuse in preference to argument, and aims rather to annoy or injure than to reform.
§ 499. What is elegiac poetry? What is the most noted poem of this description in car literature? What is an epitaph?
§ 500. What does pastoral poetry depict? What is an idyl? What is an eclogue! In what does the art of the pastoral poet consist?
§ 501. What is the aim of didactic poetry? Why should it be replete with ornament? What works are mentioned as specimens of didactic poems !
§ 502. What is satirical poetry? What is a satire? What is a lampoon?
William Falconer was the son of a barber in
*a/ Edinburgh, end was born in 1730. He had very few */ avantages of education, and (went to sea (in early life)
in the merchant service. He afterwards became mate was of a vessel that wrecked in the Levant and was saved Ital. with only two of his crew: this catastrophe formed the subject of his poem entitled "The Shipwreck, on which his reputation as a writer chiefly rests. Early
EXHIBITING THE MARKS USED IN THE CORRECTION OF ERRORS.
refined visions of fancy at /6
hasbeen highly spoken of by those capable of esti
mating its merits.
In this seam- year, he embarked on the AURORA but the vessel was never heard of after she passed the
Cape; the poet_of_the Shipwreck is therefore sup- Space better 26 *e/posed to have perish'd by the same disaster he had 27 Set himself so graphically described.
The subject of T
in 1769, his "Marine Dictionary” appear_ed, which Room, 14 15
& Lead must we take in the "shipboy on the high and giddy /-/22 11 mast, cherishing the hour which he may casually
snatch from danger and fatigue.
No break 19
. c. ;/
WILLIAM FALCONER was the son of a barber in Edinburgh, and was born in 1730. He had very few advantages of education, and in early life went to sea in the merchant service. He afterwards became mate of a vessel that was wrecked in the Levant, and was saved with only two of his crew. This catastrophe formed the subject of his poem entitled "The Shipwreck ", on which his reputation as a writer chiefly rests. Early in 1769, his "Marine Dictionary" appeared, which has been highly spoken of by those capable of estimating its merits. In this same year, he embarked on the Aurora; but the vessel was never heard of after she passed the Cape: the poet of the Shipwreck is therefore supposed to have perished by the same disaster he had himself so graphically described.
The subject of the "Shipwreck" and its author's fate demand our interest and sympathy.-If we pay respect to the ingenious scholar who can produce agreeable verses in leisure and retirement, how much more interest must we take in the "ship-boy on the nigh and giddy mast", cherishing refined visions of fancy at the hour which he may casually snatch from danger and fatigue !
EXPLANATION OF MARKS USED ON THE SPECIMEN PROOF-SHEET.
Ir it is desired to change any word to capitals, small capitals, Roman text (the ordinary letter), or italics, draw a line beneath it, and write in the margin, Caps., S. caps., Rom., or Ital.. as the case may be. See corrections 1, 2, 14, and 8, on the specimen sheet.
When it is necessary to expunge a letter or word, draw a line through it, and place in the margin a character resembling a d of current hand, which stands for the Latin word dele (erase); as in No. 3.
When a wrong letter or word occurs in the proof-sheet, draw a line through it, and place what must be substituted for it in the margin, with a vertical lino at the right; as in the corrections marked 4.
Attention is drawn to an inverted letter by underscoring it, and writing opposite the character used in No. 5.
An omitted word, letter, comma, semicolon, colon, exclamation-point, or interrogation-point, as well as brackets and parentheses, are written in the margin, with a vertical line at the right; as in the various corrections marked 6: a caret shows where to introduce what is thus marked in. When there is so much omitted that there is not room for it in the margin, it is written at the top or bottom of the page, and a line is used to show where it is to be introduced; as at the bottom of the specimen sheet.
A period is marked in by placing it in the margin inside of a circle, as in No. 9. Apostrophes and quotation-points are introduced in a character resembling a V, and a caret is placed in the text to show where they are to be inserted. This is illustrated in No. 11.
No. 22 shows how the dash and hyphen are introduced.
When a letter or word should be transposed, a line is drawn around it and carried to the place where it should stand, and the letters tr. are placed opposite, as in No. 7.
No. 10 shows how to mark out a quadrat or space which improperly appears.
If a broken or imperfect letter is used, draw a line through or beneath it, and make an inclined cross in the margin, as in No. 12.
Sometimes a letter of the wrong size will be used by mistake; in such a case, underline it and place the letters w. f. (wrong font) in the margin, as in 13.
If the letters of a word stand apart from each other, draw a curved line beneath the space which separates them, and two curves in the margin, as in 15. If the proper space is wanting between two contiguous words, place a caret where the space should be, and opposite to them make a character like a music sharp, as shown in No. 16.
Two parallel horizontal lines, as in No. 17, are used when the letters of a word are not all in the same level, and a horizontal line is also drawn under such as are out of place.
When a new paragraph has been improperly begun, a line is drawn from its commencement to the end of the previous paragraph, and the words no break are written iz the margin; see No. 18. When it is desired to commence a new paragraph the paragraph mark (9) is introduced at the place, and also in the margin.
When letters at the commencement of a line are out of the proper level, a horizontal line should be drawn beneath them, and a similar one placed in the margin; as in No. 21. When any portion of a paragraph projects laterally beyond the rest, a vertical line should be drawn beside it, and a similar one must stand opposite to it in the margin; see No. 23.
When a lead has been improperly omitted, the word Lead is written at the sido of the page, and a horizontal line shows where it is to be introduced, as in No. 25. If a lead too many has been introduced, the error is corrected as in 24.
When uneven spaces are left between words, a line is drawn beneath, and space better is written opposite; see 26.
If it is desired to retain a word which has been marked out, dots are placed beneath it, and the word stet (let it stand) is written in the margin; as in 27.