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When, o'er the surge, the wild terrible whirl-wind raves,
II. Restore the words in the following lines to their order, so that they may rhyme as required in the best form of the Sonnet :
THE AUTUMN OF LIFE.
Flown are the songs of buoyant youth's swift hours;
And through his heart whose locks are white and thin
Proclaimed should linger, dear, bright, and deathless,
Are given visions exalting of its home:
Than, in cloudless autumn's even, stars assume.
While the auroral, pure, light of Heaven breaks.
III. Restore the words in the following lines to their order, so that they may rhyme, and form alternately trochaic tetrameter acatalectic, and trochaic tetrameter catalectic :
While stronger grows our faith in good,
The march of peace onward leads.
It moves air, earth, and ocean;
It proves like the kindred tie ;
Loads of toil and human care;
Through the air swift thought's mission.
IV. Restore the words in the following lines to their order, so that they may form dactylic tetrameters acatalectic and rhyme consecutively :
For human fraternity one more new claimant,
In your kingdom of vanity, give him a place!
VARIETIES OF POETRY.
§ 495. The principal varieties of poetry are Epic, Dramatic, Lyric, Elegiac, Pastoral, Didactic, and Satirical. Each of these classes has its distinctive features; yet the characteristics of several varieties may enter into the same poem, and sometimes do so to such an extent that it is difficult to decide to which it belongs.
§ 496. Epic Poetry is that which treats of the exploits of heroes. It generally embraces a variety of characters and incidents; but must be so constructed that unity of design may be preserved,—that is, one leading and complete action should be carried through the work, with the distinctness and prominence of which the less important stories, or episodes, as they are called, should not be allowed to interfere. Epi is universally admitted to be the most elevated and majestic department of poetry. It is, at the same time, the most dif
§ 495. Enumerate the principal varieties of poetry.
§ 496. What is epic poetry? How does it compare with the other varieties? What must be preserved throughout? What is meant by unity of design? What is said of the difficulty of writing epics? What are the great master-pieces of antiquity in this department of poetry? Of modern literatures, which has produced the greatest
ficult, and that in which mediocrity is least endurable; hence few have attempted it, and a still smaller number have at tained success. There are few literatures that can boast of more than one great epic. Homer's Iliad and Virgil's Æneid are the master-pieces of antiquity in this department of poetry. In modern times, English literature has produced, in Milton's Paradise Lost, incomparably the greatest epic; in Italian Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered,—in Spanish, the Romance ‹f the Cid,―in German, the Niebelungen-Lied,—and, in French the Henriade, are generally ranked by critics in this class
An epic is also technically termed an Epopea or Epopœia.
The word epic is derived from the Greek ěños, a herɔic poem; and the species of poetry so called claims a very ancient origin. History has generally furnished its themes: but a strict regard for historical truth in the development of the story is by no means requisite. Fiction, invention, imagination, may be indulged in to an almost unlimited extent, provided the unity be preserved. According to Aristotle, the plot of an epic must be important in itself and instructive in the reflections it suggests; must be filled with suitable incidents, as well as enlivened with a variety of characters and descriptions; and must maintain throughout propriety of character and elevation of style. Besides these essentials, there are generally episodes, formal addresses, sustained pomp, and machinery. This last term, as used by critics, signifies the introduction of supernatural beings; without whick the French maintain that no poem can be admitted as an epic.
§ 497. Dramatic Poetry is closely allied to epic. Like the latter, it generally relates to some important event, and for the most part appears in the form of blank, or heroic, verse. The term drama [derived from the Greek verb Spáw, I do or act] is applied to compositions, whether prose or
epic? Enumerate the epics of different literatures. What other name is som etimes given to an epic poem? From what is the word epic derived? What is said of the origin of epic poetry? Whence are its themes, for the most part, taken? In carrying out an historical event, what may bo indulged in? According to Aristotle, what are the essentials of an epic? Besides these essentials, what are generally found in a poem of this class?
§ 497. To what is dramatic poetry closely allied? To what does it generally relate? In what form does it, for the most part, appear? From what is the word drama də
poetry, in which the events that form their subjects are not related by the author, but are represented as actually taking place by means of dialogue between the various characters, who speak the poet's language as if it were their own. The principles here laid down respecting poetical dramas are equally applicable to compositions of the same class in prose.
In dramatic, as in epic, poetry, strict regard must be had to unity. The Dramatic unities are three:-1. Unity of action; which requires that but one leading train of events be kept in view, and forbids the introduction of all underplots except such as are closely connected with the principal action and are calculated to develop it 2. Unity of time, which limits the action to a short period, generally a single day. 3. Unity of place, which confines the action to narrow geographical bounds. In addition to this, regard should be had to what is termed poetical justice; that is, the plot should be so constructed hat the different characters, whether good or bad, may, at the termination of the piece, obtain their respective deserts.
The great dramatists of antiquity are Eschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, all ornaments of Grecian literature. Of these, Eschylus is the most sublime: Sophocles, the most beautiful; Euripides, the most pathetic. The first displays the lofty intellect; the second exercises the cultivated taste; the third indulges the feeling heart. Among moderns, the first place belongs to Shakspeare. In French literature, Racine, Molière, and Corneille, are the leading dramatists; in German, Schiller and Kotzebue; in Spanish, Lope de Vega and Calderon.
The leading divisions of dramatic poetry are two; Tragedy and Comedy. The former embraces those compositions which represent some great sublime action, attended with a fatal catastrophe and calculated to awaken in the reader or spectator strong emotions of pity or horror. Its diction is elevated; and it is generally written in blank, or heroic, verse. Comedy, on the other hand, is that species of drama in which the incidents and language resemble those of ordinary life and the plot has a happy termination.
rived? To what compositions is the term applied? What must be strictly regarded in dramatic poetry? How many dramatic unities are there? Define them. Who are the great dramatists of antiquity? Mention the characteristics of each. Among moderns, to whom does the first place belong? Who are the leading dramatists of French literature? of German? of Spanish? What are the leading divisions of dra matic poetry? What compositions are embraced under the head of tragedy? What is said of the diction of tragedy? In what is it generally written? Define comedy.
The great divisions of dramas are called Acts, and these are subdivided into Scenes. Regular tragedies and comedies are limited to five acts. The division must in a great measure be arbitrary, though rules have been laid down by various writers to define the portion of the plot which should be contained in each. According to Vossius, the first act must present the intrigue; the second must develop it; the third should be filled with incidents forming its complication; and the furth should prepare the means of unravelling it, which is finally accomplished in the fifth.
A Farce is a short piece of low comic character. Its object being simply to excite mirth, there is nothing too unnaturs.1 or improbable for it to contain. The farce is restricted to three acts as its greatest limit, but is often confined to two, and sometimes even to one. In England, it seems to have risen to the dignity of a regular theatrical entertainment, about the beginning of the last century; since which time, it has maintained a high degree of popularity, being usually performed, by way of contrast, after a tragedy.
A Burlesque is a dramatic composition, the humor of which consists in mixing things high and low,-clothing elevated thoughts in low ex pressions, or investing ordinary topics with the artificial dignity of poetic diction. A Parody, or Travestie, is a species of Burlesque in which the form and expressions of serious dramas are closely imitated in language of a ridiculous character.
A Melodrama is a short dramatic composition into which music is introduced. Its plot is generally of an insignificant character, the display of gorgeous scenery being its chief object.
A Burletta is a short comic musical drama.
A Prologue is a short composition in verse, used to introduce a drama and intended to be recited before its representation.
An Epilogue is a closing address to the audience at the conclusion of a dran:s. It sometimes recapitulates the chief incidents of the piece and draws a moral from them.
§ 498. Lyric Poetry is that variety which is adapted to singing and an accompaniment of the lyre or other musical instrument.
Of lyric compositions, the Ode is the most elevated. It
What are acts and scenes? To how many acts are regular tragedies and comedies conAned? What is said of the division into acts? What rule does Vossius lay down? What is a farce? Of how many acts does it consist? At what time, in England, did it rise to the dignity of a regular theatrical entertainment? What is a burlesque? What is a parody or travestie? What is a melodrama? What is a burletta? What is prologue? What is an epilogue?
$498. What is meant by lyric poetry? What is the most elevated of lyric compo