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which usage has sanctioned. The distinction between prose and verse is, therefore, a matter of form.
Verse is merely the dress which poetry generally assumes. are entirely independent of each other: all poetry is not verse, as we see in the case of Fénélon's Telemachus and Ossian's Poems; nor, on the other hand, is all verse by any means poetry, as nine tenths of the fugitive pieces given to the world under the latter name abundantly show.
Versification is the art of making verses.
A Verse, as we have seen, is a metrical line of a length and rhythm determined by rules which usage has sanctioned.
A Hemistich is half of a verse.
Rhyme is a similarity of sound in syllables which begin differently but end alike. It is exemplified at the close of the following lines :
Self-love, the spring of motion, acts the soul;
A Distich, or couplet, consists of two verses rhyming together; the lines just given are an example.
A Triplet consists of three verses rhyming together; as,
"Souls that can scarce ferment their mass of clay,
So drossy, so divisible, are they,
As would but serve pure bodies for allay."
A Stanza [often incorrectly called a verse] is a regular division of a poem, consisting of two or more lines, or verses. Stanzas are of every conceivable variety, their formation being regulated by the taste of the poet alone. The stanzas of the same poem, however, should be uniform.
§ 476. Syllables occurring in verse are distinguished as long and short, according to the time occupied in uttering them. A long syllable is equivalent to two short ones.
between verse and poetry? What is versification? What is a verse? What is a hemistich? What is rhyme? What is a distich? What is a triplet? What is a stanza? What is it often incorrectly called? By what is the formation of the stanza regulated? What is said of the stanzas of the same poem?
476. How are syllables occurring in verse distinguished? On what is this distino
When it is desired to indicate the quantity, the macron [-] is placed over a long syllable, and the breve [~] over a short one; as, the măn.
In words of more than one syllable, accent, whether primary or secondary, constitutes length; syllables that are unaccented are short. In the case of monosyllables, nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, and interjections, are for the most part long; articles are always short; prepositions and conjunctions are generally short; pronouns are long when emphasized,-when not, short. This will appear from the following
The goddess heard, and bâde the Muses raise
From põle to põle the winds diffuse the sound,
In Latin and Greek, each syllable has a definite quantity, without reference to accent. is not the case in English. Our vowel sounds have nothing to do with the length or shortness of syllables. Fat, in which a has its flat or short sound, is as likely to be accented, and therefore long, in poetry, as fate, in which the sound of the vowel is generally called long.
$477. A Foot is a division of a verse, consisting of two or three syllables.
The dissyllabic feet are four in number, as follows:
- intervene. BACCHIUS ➖➖➖, the dark night. DACTYL —~~, hāppily. ANTIBACCHIUS AMPHIBRACH ~ — ~, redundant. MOLOSSUS winding-sheet. TRIBRACH
AMPHIMACER— — —,
eye-servǎnt. long dark night. insu-pěrăble.
Of these twelve feet, the iambus, the trochee, the anapest, and the dacty!, are oftenest used; and are capable, respective
tion founded? How is the quantity of a syllable indicated? In words of more than one syllable, which sy) bles are long, and which short? In the case of monosyllables. which of the parts of speech are generally long, and which are short? What is the case in Latin and Greek, with respect to the quantity of syllables? What relation subsists in English between the quantity of syllables and the sound of the vowels they cou tain? Illustrate this.
§ 477. What is a foot? How many dissyllabic feet are there? Enumerate them. state of what syllables they are respectively composed, and give an example of each How many trisyllabic feet are there? Enumerate them, state of what syllabes they are composed, and give an example of each. Of these twelve feet, which are oftenes
ly, without the assistance of the rest, of forming distinct orders of numbers. They are, therefore, called primary feet; and the measures of which they respectively form the chief component part, are known as iambic, trochaic, anapestic and dactylic. A line which consists wholly of one kind of foot is called pure: that is, a line containing nothing but iambi is a pure iambic; one into which no foot but the trochee enters is a pure trochaic. Verses not consisting exclusively of one kind of foot are said to be mixed. Examples follow :—
1. Pure Iambic.-The rûl-ling pãs-]sion cōn-|quèrs rēa-|sõn still.
2. Pure Trochaic.-Sister | spirit | come ǎ-way.
3. Pure Anapestic.—From the plains, | from the woōd-|lănds ånd grōves. 4. Pure Dactylic.—Bird of the | wilderness.
1. Mixed Iambic.-No crime | was thine | ill-fa-těd fair.
2. Mixed Trochaic.-Trembling, | hōping, | lingering, | flying.
3. Mixed Anapestic.-Dear re-gions of si-lence and shade. 4. Mixed Dactylic.—Midnight ǎs-|sist oŭr mõan.
The remaining eight feet are called secondary, and are oc casionally admitted for the sake of preventing monotony and allowing the poet freer scope.
§ 478. By Metre, or Measure, is meant the system according to which verses are formed. The metre depends on the character and number of the feet employed. According to the character of the feet, metres, we have already seen, are distinguished as iambic, trochaic, anapestic, and dactylic. According to the number of the feet, the varieties of metro are as follows: Monometer, or a measure composed of one foot, Dimeter, of two feet; Trimeter, of three; Tetrameter, of four; Pentameter, of five; Hexameter, of six; Heptameter, of seven; Octometer, of eight.
A line at the end of which a syllable is wanting to complete the measure, is said to be catalectic. One in which there
used? What name is given to these four? Why? What are the measures of which they respectively form the chief component part, called? What is meant by a pure iambic line? What, by a mixed? Enumerate the secondary feet. For what purpose are they occasionally admitted?
§ 478. What is meant by metre, or measure? On what does the metre depend? According to the character of the feet, what are the varieties of metre? What, accord
is a syllable over at the end, is called hypercatalectic. When there is neither deficiency nor redundancy, a line is said to be acatalectic.
Scanning is the process of dividing a line into the feet of which it is composed.
§ 479. Examples of the different measures follow. Some of the lines are pure, and some are mixed. The figures 1, 2, 3, &c., respectively denote monometer, dimeter, trimeter, &c. Vertical lines mark some of the divisions into feet. Scanning is performed by pronouncing the syllables which constitute the successive feet, and after each mentioning its name. Thus, in scanning the fifth line, the following words would be employed: "Honor, trochee; and shame, iambus; from no, iambus; condi-, iambus; tion rise, iambus." The line is mixed iambic pentameter acatalectic. The student is requested to scan the following lines, and name the measure of each :
2. Thẻ māin! | thỏ mãn!
3. For us the sum-]měrs shine.
4. First stands | the no-ble Wash-lington.
5. Honor and shame | from no | condi- tion rise.
6. With his sharp-pointed head he dealeth deadly wounds.
7. Over the Alban mountains high, the light of morning broke.
8. O all ye people clap your hands, and with triumphant voices sing.
2. Fear sur- rounds me.
8. Dearěr friends că-[ress thee.
4. Honor's but an | empty | bubble.
5. Chains of care to lower earth enthral me.
6. Up the dewy mountain, Health is bounding lightly.
7. Hasten, Lord, to rescue me, and set me safe from trouble.
8. Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary.
1. When he winks.
2. Let thě stü-[pid bě grāve.
8. How the night-ingåles wär-|ble their lōves.
4. The plen-tiful moist-|ŭre encum-¡běred the flōwer.
ing to the number of the feet? What is meant by a catalectic line? What, by a hy. percatalectic line? What, by an acatalectic line? What is scanning?
1. Think of it.
3. Brighter than | summer's green | carpeting.
4. Cold is thy heart, and as frozen as charity.
5. Land of the beautiful, land of the generous, hail to thee.
6. Land of the beautiful, land of the generous, hail to thee heartily.
7. Out of the kingdom of Christ shall be gathered by angels victorious.
Almost any of the above metres may be made a syllable shorter. and thus become catalectic. The following will serve as specimens:
1. Iamb. Tetram. Cat.-To-day | nō axe | is ring-ing
2. Tro. Tetram. Cat.-Mōther | darksome, | mōther | dread.
8. Dact. Tetram. Cat.-Hārk, how Crě-Jätion's deep | musicăl | chorus.
4. Tro. Tetram. Cat.-Heaving, | upward | to thě | light.
The addition of a syllable to any of the acatalectic varieties of metre. makes them hypercatalectic. Specimens follow. From the first two lines it will be seen, that, in iambic and trochaic metres, a verse ending with an odd syllable may be regarded either as a higher measure catalectic, or a lower measure hypercatalectic.
1. Iamb. Trim. Hyp.-To-day | nō āxe | is ring-ing.
2. Tro. Trim. Hyp.-Mōther | dārksome, | mōther | dread.
3. Anap. Tetram. Hyp.-Tis the chief | of Glenā-|ră lămēnts | for his där-[lng. 4. Dact. Mon. Hyp.-Lift her with | căre.
STANZAS.-SONNETS.-HEROIC VERSE.-BLANK VERSE.
§ 480. IAMBIC measures constitute the great body of our poetry, both from the fact that they are easier of construction than any other, and because there is no emotion, which they are not adapted to express. Trochaic measures are peculiarly appropriate to gay and tender sentiments; anapestic, to what is animated, forcible, or heart-stirring. Dactylic verse is
§ 480. Of what measures does the great body of our poetry consist? What reasons are given for this? To what are trochaic measures appropriate? To what, anapestic? What is said of dactylic verse?