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the sentiment, a sudden interruption, and hesitation in the speaker.

8.

EXAMPLES.

1. Nero, Domitian, Caligula, Heliogabalus-one and the same character belongs to them all.

2. Politicians are brilliant, versatile, profound, far-seeing-everything but honest.

He had no malice in his mind

No ruffles on his shirt.

4. "No one is aware of your imprisonment but Sir William, and he

is

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Here!" interrupted a deep voice, as the door flew open.

5. "I would do it, but-but- to say the truth-I-” "To say the truth, you are afraid," broke in the earl.

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RULE II.-AFTER OTHER POINTS.

§ 178. A dash may be used after other points, when a greater pause than they usually denote is required.

Hence it appears that the dash is a rhetorical as well as a grammatical point.

Under this rule, a dash is used in the following cases:-
I. After a period, interrogation-point, and exclamation-point.

1. When a writer passes to a new branch of his subject without
commencing a new paragraph; as, "From this it is evident that
friendship had its origin in the social feelings which nature has
implanted in the breast of man.-Let us now look at its effects.”
2. In dialogues, when in the same paragraph one person ceases
speaking and another begins; as, "Art thou not-'-'What?'-
'A traitor!'-'Yes.'-' A villain!'-'Granted.'"

3. A dash is generally placed after the three points above mentioned, between a passage quoted and the name of the author or book it is taken from; also, between a side-head and the subjectmatter to which it belongs; also, between sentences that have no connection when brought together in the same paragraph.

§ 178. Repeat Rule II., relating to the use of the dash after other points. What kind of a point does this show the dash sometimes to be? After what points is a dash sometimes required by a change of subject? In what case ! When is a dash required after the period, interrogation point, and exclamation-point, in dialogues? State the principle that applies to the use of the dash after these three points, in the case of quoted passages, side-heads, and unconnected sentences. When must a dash follow a

EXAMPLES.

a. Men of humor are always, in some degree, men of genius.-COLE. RIDGE'S Table-Talk.

b. FORM OF THE EARTH.-Heraclitus supposed that the earth had the form of a canoe; Aristotle, that it was shaped like a timbrel; Anaximander, that it was a vast cylinder.

c. For dashes between unconnected sentences, see Exercise on p. 130. II. After a colon, when reference is made by this, these, following, or as follows, to several succeeding sentences or a new paragraph; as, The cloth having been removed, the president rose and made the following address:

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'Ladies and gentlemen, we have assecibled, &c.'”

III. After a semicolon a dash is sometimes used, though not absolutely necessary, when the last member is placed in live.y contrast with the first, or implies strong opposition to it; as, "He chastens ;-but he chastens to save."

IV. After a comma,

1. When it follows a logical subject consisting of several particulars separated by semicolons, or by commas, when, for the sake of greater definiteness, the words all, these, all these, such, or the like, referring to the particulars before enumerated, are introduced as the immediate subject of a verb; as, "To be overlooked, slighted, and neglected; to be misunderstood, misrepresented and slandered; to be trampled under foot by the envious, the ignorant, and the vile; to be crushed by foes, and to be distrusted and betrayed even by friends,—such is too often the fate of genius."

2. When, in consequence of the omission of namely, or a similar word, a longer pause is required than that usually denoted by the comma, though the connection is so close as not to admit a higher print; as, "There is one feeling, and only one, that seems to pervade the breasts of all men alike,-the love of life."

RULE III.

§ 179. The dash is used before a repeated word or expression, when the repetition is abrupt or exclamatory, proceeds

-REPETITIONS.

colon? When is this point sometimes used after a semicolon? In what two cases is a dash required after a comma?

$179. Repeat Rule III, relating to repetitions.

from hesitation, or is accompanied with a change in the senti

ment.

1. Here sleeps the dust of Cicero

Cicero who once thrilled a world

with his eloquence.

2. He is a-a-a-excuse me, but I must say it-a cold-blooded villain. 3. Such is your affected, sentimental lover-a lover of nothing but himself.

RULE IV.-OMISSIONS.

§ 150. The dash is used to denote an omission of letters, figures, and words; as, "On a bright summer day in the year 18, the stirring little village of was thrown into unusual excitement by the arrival of the E- family from London."

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EXAMPLES.

EXERCISE.

In the following sentences supply the omitted points:

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UNDER § 177. I am your lordship's most obsequious zounds what a peer of the realm And bid her you mark me on Wednesday next but soft what day is this-Rich honesty often dwells in a poor house like your pearl in a spoiled oyster-If it should rain I request the poor thing may have a a what's this coat coat no coach - I'm off Sir Charles I'll do your errands A double-barrelled gun two scruples of jalap my lady's poodle your lordship's wig a sticking-plaster they shall be here within the hour- 'My friend the counsellor" " Say learned friend if you please sir". There is a business Mr. Alderman fallen out which you may oblige me infinitely by I am very sorry that I am forced to be troublesome but necessity Mr. Alderman” “ 'Ay sir as you say necessity But upon my word dear sir I am very short of money at present still" "That's not the matter sir” — They poisoned my very soul hot burning poisons Away ungrateful wretch A father's curse rest Alas what am I doing I cannot curse my son It was a sight that child in the agony of death that would have moved a heart of stone

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UNDER § 178. They were about laying violent hands upon me in the senate-house. What must this empire then be unavoidably overturned "Inform me friend is Alonzo the Peruvian confined in this dungeon He is" "I must speak with him" "You must not " 66 'He

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is my friend "Not if he were your brother' "What is to be his fate "He dies at sunrise" "Ha then I am come in time"- I find it profitable sometimes to indulge in such reflections as these All men are mor tal Since the creation only two men have escaped death Therefore

$180 Repeat Rule IV., relating to omissions.

A crimson handkerchief adorned his head
His face was cheerful and his nose was red

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however likely it may appear that I shall hold a perpetual lease of life the time comes when like my fathers I must close my eyes on this pleasant world—I go but when I come 'twill be the burst of ocean in the earthquake I go but not to leap the gulf alone - The ambition of man constantly making him dissatisfied with what he has and inspi ring him with desires for what is beyond his reach his envy which renders a neighbor's prosperity odious in his eyes his selfishness which robs him of the purest enjoyment God has ever vouchsafed that of doing good to his species these ignoble passions entail on him a succession of miseries and make life one scene of trial I pause for a reply None Then none have I offended- The bounding of Satan over the walls of Paradise his sitting in the shape of a cormorant on the tree of life his alighting among the herd of animals which are so beautifully represented as playing about Adam and Eve his transforming himself into dif ferent shapes in order to hear their conversation all these circumstances give an agreeable surprise to the reader - Copernicus was instructed in that school where it is fortunate when one can be well taught the family circle

ANGER. As the whirlwind in its fury teareth up trees and deformeth the face of nature or as an earthquake in its convulsions overturneth cities so the rage of an angry man throweth mischief around him danger and destruction wait on his hand Dodsley

UNDER § 17.9. Merciful yes merciful as the hawk is to the doveProminent among the philosophers of antiquity is Socrates Socrates who looked beyond the absurd fables of his country's mythology Socrates who lifted his voice in behalf of truth and died a martyr in its cause Socrates who advanced as far in moral enlightenment as it was possible for the human intellect to do unaided by a revelation from on high — “I would not return if if " "If you thought I would allow you to remain" interrupted the earl harshly - Shall I who have spent my life in the camp I who have shed my blood in defence of my country I who am a soldier by experience as well as profession shall I compare myself with this flaunting captain He has a weakness a weakness of the head as well as the stomach — “I will inquire into the matter and if if" "Well if" broke in my father impatient of delay - He is full of love love for himself- Our friend is afflicted with a grievous consumption a consumption

of victuals.

UNDER 180. A series of observations made in 18 showed that of one hundred shooting stars four had an elevation from the earth of 1-3 miles fifteen of 3 6 miles twenty-two of 6 10 miles thirty-five of 10 15 miles thirteen of 15 20 miles three of about 30 miles one of 45 46 miles one of about 60 miles and one of over 100 miles - In the year I visited L- In the winter of 1849 50 I studied this subject atten tively and obtained much useful information respecting it from Gold smith's " History the Earth and Animated Nature" chaps 4 9

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§ 181. The word PARENTHESIS means a putting in beside, and the term is applied to a word or words introduced into a scntence for the purpose of explaining, modifying, or adding to, the leading proposition, but inserted abruptly, in such a way as to break the connection between dependent parts and interfere with their harmonious flow. Such an expression is placed between curves, known as parentheses or marks of pa renthesis. It is indicated in reading by using a lower tone of voice and more rapid delivery than are employed for the rest of the passage. An example is presented in the following sentence: Shall we continue (alas that I should be con strained to ask the question!) in a course so dangerous to health, so enfeebling to mind, so destructive to character ?"

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§ 182. Old writers, with whom intricate constructions and violations of unity were common, made frequent use of parentheses. The obvious disadvantage, however, of introducing propositions within propositions, a practice which draws off the reader's attention from the main point, and too often involves the sacrifice of perspicuity, harmony, and strength, has led late critics to advise the use of less intricate sentences, and to proscribe parentheses as incompatible with nervousness of style.

"On some occasions," says Blair, "these [parentheses] may have a spirited appearance; as prompted by a certain vivacity of thought, which can glance happily aside as it is going along. But, for the most part, their effect is extremely bad; being a sort of wheels within wheels; sentences in the midst of sentences; the perplexed method of disposing of some thought, which a writer wants art to introduce in its proper

§ 181. What does the word parenthesis mean? To what is the term applied? What marks are used to enclose such expressions? How are they indicated in reading?

182. By whom were parentheses often employed? What is the advice of later ritics, and on what is it based? What is the substance of Blair's remark on the sub

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