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-We should have a care lest sinful pleasures seduce us with their mani. fold temptations - Beware lest they suddenly fall upon


UNDER 154. The great astronomical clock of Strasburg is twentyfour feet higher than the tallest of the Egyptian pyramids and one hunCicero was supe dred and forty feet higher than St. Paul's in London rior to Demosthenes in the finish of his periods but inferior to him in energy and fire-The fool neither knows whether he is right nor cares whether he is wrong - The world has gained wisdom from its years and is quick to penetrate disguises-The brave man will conquer or perish in the attempt

UNDER § 155. Study disciplines the mind and matures the judgment- Virtue should be the aim of our youth and the solace of our declining years- Years come and go Galileo read or wrote the greater part of the night-Here sit we down and rest - How sweetly and solemnly sound the evening chimes

UNDER 156. The bold man does not hesitate to take a position and maintain it-Adams and Jefferson died by a singular coincidence July 4 1826 - The magnitude of the heavenly bodies and their almost infinite distance from us fill our minds with views at once magnificent and sublime

UNDER $157. I woke and thought upon my dream - With the aid of the telescope we discern in the moon vast yawning pits and huge volcanoes sending forth their awful fires-In the bazaar may be seen tons of ice and vast quantities of ivory from Africa — The relative pronoun who is applied to persons and things personified


158. Bear and forbear Brave not rash is the true hero - He is not a fool but only foolish Remember the favors you receive not those you confer The credulous may believe this wonderful story not I-It is as great a sin to murder one's self as to murder another

sentence none at all

UNDER 159. The period or full stop denotes the end of a complete Republics show little gratitude to their great men or rather Hence originated philosophy or the love of wisdom - At this point the lake is ten fathoms or sixty feet deep-The Marquis of Anglesea or as he was then called Lord Paget lost a leg at the battle of Waterloo

UNDER 160. (Besides punctuating the following sentences, use cap itals wherever required by § 65.) We have just finished reading "six months in the gold-diggings or a miner's experience in eldorado' - A new book of travels has just made its appearance entitled "The city of the doges or venice and the venetians in the nineteenth century"

UNDER § 161. Study makes a learned man experience a wise oneRapid exhaustless deep his numbers flowed-Let your pleasure be moderate seasonable innocent, and becoming (comma after INNOCENT according to § 163) Mahomet's Paradise consisted of pure waters shady groves luscious fruits and exquisite houris-The author dreads the critic the miser the thief the criminal the magistrate and every body public opinion-My head is filled with dew my locks with the drops of the night-Benevolence is allied to few vices selfishness to fewer virtues

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UNDER 162 Without books justice is dormant philosophy lame literature dumb and all things are involved in darkness - Without modesty beauty is ungraceful learning unattractive and wit disgusting Pride goeth before destruction and a haughty spirit before a fall-Talent is surrounded with dangers and beauty with temptations

UNDER § 163. Mahomet the founder of Islamism did not hesitate to work with his own hands he kindled the fire swept his room made his bed milked his ewes and camels mended his stockings and scoured his sword-So eagerly the Fiend o'er bog or steep through strait rough dense or rare with head hands wings or feet pursues his way

Suns moons and stars and clouds his sisters were
Rocks mountains meteors seas and winds and storms
His brothers




§ 164. When two or more antecedent portions of a sentence have a common connection with some succeeding clause or word, a comma must be placed after each; as, "She is as tall, though not so handsome, as her sister."


Commas are frequently required, under this rule, after different prepositions governing the same substantive; as, "They are fitted for, and accustomed to very different modes of life."

In the case of a series of adjectives preceding their noun, a comma is placed after each but the last; and there general usage, by an unphilosophical anomaly, requires us to omit the point; as, “A quick, brilliant, studious, learned man". This usage violates one of the fundamental principles of punctuation; it indicates, very improperly, that the noun man is more closely connected with learned than with the other adjectives. Analogy and perspicuity require a comma after learned.

$164. Repeat Rule XIII., relating to common connection. After what part of speech are commas frequently required under this rule? What usage prevails in the case of a scries of adjectives preceding their noun? What is said of this usage?


§ 165. Words used in pairs take a comma after each pair; as, "The dying man cares not for pomp or luxury, palace or estate, silver or gold."—" Ignorant and superstitious, cunning and vicious, deceitful and treacherous, the natives of this island are among the most degraded of mankind'


§ 166. Words repeated for the sake of emphasis must be set off, with their adjuncts if they have any, by the comma; as, "Verily, verily, I say unto you."

§ 167. If, however, the repetition is abrupt, proceeds from hesitation, or is accompanied with a break in the sentiment, a dash may be used, as, "He has gone to his rest-gone, to return no more."


§ 168. A comma must be placed before to, the sign of the infinitive mood, when equivalent to in order to; as, "Cicero sent his son to Athens, to complete his education."



§ 169. The comma must set off quotations, passages resembling them in form, and observations in general, when short and not formally introduced; as, "It was Bion that first said, Know thyself.""" I would here call attention to the fact, that nature has endowed the body with recuperative faculties, which often enable it to rally and recover from prostration when science has exhausted all its remedies in vain."

When formally introduced by the words these, following, or as fol lows, a colon must precede the quotation.

§ 170. When a quotation is divided, a comma must be placed on

§ 165 Repeat Rule XIV., relating to words used in pairs.

§ 166. Repeat Rule XV., relating to words repeated.

§ 167. In what case may a dash be used instead of a comma?

163. Repeat Rule XVI., relating to the infinitive mood.

§ 169. Repeat Rule XVII., relating to quotations. When formally introduced, by what point is the quotation preceded?

each side of the words introduced between its parts; as, says Franklin, "is worth two to-morrows."

"One to-day,"


§ 171. Members of sentences, containing correlative advrbs and conjunctions, are separated by the comma; as, "The harder we study, the better we like to study."—" As a cloud darkens the sky, so sorrow casts a gloom over the soul."

§ 172. The comma, however, is generally omitted in the case of so~ that, so―as, rather-than, and more-than, especially when the parts they connect are clauses and not members; unless the related parts contain subdivisions separated by the comma, in which case the same point must be placed before the last correlative term.


1. He is so exhausted that he cannot work.

2. So act as to gain the respect of men.

3. The Laplander would rather live in his own land than any other.

4. Marie Antoinette was more amiable in her life than fortunate in her death.

1. He is so unwell, weak, and exhausted, that he cannot work.

2. So think, speak, and act, as to gain the respect of men.

3. The Laplander, however, would rather live in his own land, than any other.

4. Marie Antoinette, queen of France, was more amiable in her life, than fortunate in her death.


§173. A comma must be used, even when not required by the grammatical construction, wherever it serves to develop the sense or prevent ambiguity.

Thus, after a long logical subject, a comma is of service; as, "That a man thoroughly educated in youth and who has ever since been in the habit of composing could make so gross a mistake through ignorance, is almost incredible."

Cases in which the comma prevents ambiguity have been noticed under several of the foregoing rules.

170. What is the mode of punctuating, when & quotation is divided?

§ 171. Repeat Rule XVIII., relating to correlative terms.

§ 172. In the case of what correlatives is the comma generally omitted? When, however, do they take it?

§ 173. Repeat Rule XIX., relating to ambiguous constructions. According to this rule, where is a comma of service?



§ 174. Except in the case of dates, numbers written in Ara bic characters take a comma after each period of three figures, beginning at the right; as, "In 1846, the planet Neptune was discovered, and found to be at a distance of 2,900,584,000 miles from the sun."

Dates must always be expressed by figures. So must large numbers, when many words would be required to denote them. Otherwise, as in the case of round numbers, and always for small ones, words are to be employed. Thus: "Venus is, in round numbers, sixty-five million miles from the sun; its exact distance is 65,392,000 miles."-" We leave the ninety-nine sheep that are safe, to look after the one that is lost."


Supply the points omitted in the following sentences.

UNDER § 164. The spirit of liberty must change it is fast changing the face of the earth- The world at this moment is regarding us with a willing but something of a fearful admiration -The literature of a nation is one of its highest and certainly one of its most refined elements of greatness-He who lacks decision of character may win the love but he certainly cannot gain the respect of his fellow men— - This doctrine is founded upon and consistent with the truth

UNDER § 165. These shores rough and cold barbarous and barren devoid of comforts and even necessaries peopled with fierce beasts and fiercer savages became their home-Sink or swim survive or perish I am for the Declaration - Vicissitudes of good and evil of trials and consolations of joy and sorrow of cloud and sunshine fill up the life of man— I M take thee N to my wedded wife to have and to hold from this day forward for better for worse for richer for poorer in sickness and in health to love and to cherish till death us do part

UNDER 166. Lend lend your wings I mount I fly - Quit oh quit this mortal frame-Speak not harshly speak not harshly to the orphan's tender heart-Charge charge on the cravens Some shriek shriek madly in the whirling gulf-He swam the Tiber unhurt unhurt alike by his fall and the weapons of the enemy

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UNDER § 167. Dust dust thou art vile and dishonored dust-The tyrant slept slept but rested not-We have promised we have promised but recollect under certain restrictions- I fear I fear that he will play you false- You think him happily situated happily situated with a conscience that allows him no rest a conscience which keeps his evil deeds constantly before his eyes

$174. Repeat Rule XX., relating to numbers expressed by figures. How must dates always be expressed? How, large numbers? Round numbers? Small numbers?

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