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sufferings endured by the good here, Solomon uses as an argument for the certainty of the greater sufferings that must be endured by the wicked.

“Much more the wicked and the sinner.” The argument is à fortiori-if God visits the sins of his people here with punishment, much more will He visit the sins of the wicked. “ For the time is come that judgment must begin at the house of God: and if it first begin at us, what shall the end be of them that obey not the gospel of God ? And if the righteous scarcely be saved, where shall the ungodly and the sinner appear?”

love is brutish. “I have surely heard Ephraim bemoaning himself thus ; Thou hast chastised me, and I was chastised, as a bullock unaccustomed to the yoke. (Jer. xxxi. 18.)

Good and evil are here presented,

II. IN RELATION JUDGMENT. First, the good secures the favour of God.

is A good man obtaineth favour of the Lord.” Heaven smiles upon the righteous. Thou, Lord, wilt bless the righteous ; with favour wilt thou compass him as with a shield.” (Psa. v. 12.) To obtain the favour of God is the highest object of life.

" Wherefore we labour, that, whether present or absent, we may be accepted of him." (2 Cor. v. 9.) Secondly, the evil incurs his condemnation. “A man of wicked devices will he condemn.” The frown of eternal justice shadows the path of the wicked. “He that believeth not is condemned already."

Good and evil are here presented,

III. IN RELATION STANDING. First, the evil have no stability. “A man shall not be established by wickedness.” How insecure are the wicked! They

in slippery places. (Psa. lxxiii. 18.) They live in a house whose foundation is sand. Secondly, the good are firmly established. “ The root of the righteous shall not be moved.” “God is their refuge and strength,” &c. Like the monarch of the forest, whose roots strike wide and deep into the heart of the earth, it stands secure amidst storms that wreck the fleets of nations and level cities in the dust.


(No. LXXV.)

GOOD AND EVIL. " Whoso loveth instruction loveth knowledge: but he that hateth reproof is brutish. A good man obtaineth favour of the Lord: but a man of wicked devices will he condemn. A man shall not be established by wickedness: but the root of thc righteous shall not be moved.”—Prov. xii. 1-3. Good and evil are presented in three aspects.

I. IN RELATION TO INTELLIGENCE. First, the good loves intelligence. " Whoso loveth instruction, loveth knowledge." A truly good man is a truth-seeker. The constant cry of his soul is for more light. Secondly, the evil hates intelligence. “ He that hateth reproof is brutish.” Reproof is a form of intelligence. It shows to a sinner in the light of great principles, either the imprudence or immorality or both of his conduct. He hates this, and is thus “brutish." He who does not desire to have his faults exposed to him in the light of law and



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OPEN COUNCIL. [The utmost freedom of honest thought is permitted in this department. The reader must therefore use his own discriminating faculties, and the Editor must be allowed to claim freedom from responsibility.]


GREAT PROPITIATION. If our Lord has endured our Article XII.-(Continued.)

punishment_has suffered the just Replicant.—In answer to Querist

consequences of our sins, then No. 16, p. 352, Vol. XVII., and

sin is not forgiven. It has had continued from p. 356, Vol.

its own course, and produced its XIX:

own evil. If at any future time

the sinner were punished, then On some popular Theories of the would the same crime be twice

Atonement of Christ, proposed to punished, which would be unjust. Explain its mode of Operation. If Christ has m for us the de

This theory of the Christian mands of justice, by obeying the atonement does effectively for law and suffering the consemankind what the Hegelian phi quences of transgression, then is losophy tried in vain to do in an salvation-freedom from evil and other way. It delivers all men the reward of obedience, no more from the influence of the idea of of grace but of justice. True, a personal God. Guillaume Marr Christ was kind and gracious in said that“ the true road to liberty, doing what He did for us, but God equality, and happiness was athe gives nothing for which He is not ism,” or the freeing of the human paid ; therefore is our salvation mind from the restraint imposed an act of grace on the part of upon it by a belief in personal Christ, but an act of mere justice responsibility to God; but the on the part God. debt theory of the work of Christ 5. This theory seems to me to gets rid of all sense of responsi be a libel on the Divine character. bility, while it retains in its creed It represents God as exacting, not the existence of God as giving; as demanding, not bearticle of belief.

Every man,

stowing; as punishing, not parfor whom Christ died, owes the doning; as being just, but not Deity neither reverence nor obe gracious. He shows no favour, dience, nor is he liable to any but requires and gets his due. punishment for sin, as the Atoner Christ suffers and gives, but God by his atonement has paid the demands and has the uttermost whole of his debt - discharged farthing. his obligations, and endured his If, then, God has all He re.. punishment.

quires--no matter who pays Him, 4. According to this theory, whether the original debtor or his there is no such thing as the for- surety, if he be paid—no thanks giveness of sin, or salvation by are due to Him for what He gives grace. If a debt be paid, no or does. If man is saved, no matter how, or by whom, if it be thanks to God, for He was fully paid, it is not forgiven. Payment paid for it by another. All and forgiveness are contradictions. Thanks are, therefore, due to this


other. St. Paul's triumphant | nothing but a show; for in reality shout of victory must be altered nothing is given without payment from, “Thanks be to God who to the full! giveth us the victory through our The Bible everywhere speaks Lord Jesus Christ,” to “No thanks of our salvation as being of God's to God, for He gives us no victory grace. God saves by or through -gives us nothing; but thanks Christ, but never on account of to Christ, who purchased our vic Christ. God is the efficient cause tory for us !”

of our salvation, and Christ is the Such is the nature of this instrumental cause or mediumtheory of the atonement-a the mediator- of His grace. The ory which was, alas! identified absolute Deity reaches us in a with the Gospel by the Puritans, special form assumed, and by a and is still thought to be a fair special revelation given-which representation of the truth. But is Christ; so that we owe all we it falls to the ground at every have, or may possess, or be, to point. It requires at the begin- God, who made his love known ning, what the Word of God will to us in the Christ-form-in Christ. not allow, the separation of God According to the Gospel, God and Christ, each being regarded gives us all we have-yes, gives as a distinct conscious being or and forgives all our sins-forperson.

The Bible everywhere gives ; but according to the debt shows it to be the duty of all men, theory, God gives nothing, and Christiansand unconverted people, forgives nothing, as everything to obey God, and emphatically which comes through His hand is declares that the soul that sin purchased at a full price. neth, it shall die;" but this the The conclusion of the matter ory is destructive of all moral seems to me to be this: we can obligation. Great prominence is accept either the accuracy of the given in the Scriptures to the Bible, as the Word of God, or dlactrine of the forgiveness of sin. the puritanic notion of the AtoneWe pray for forgiveness, accord ment, as the payment of debt by ing to the examples of pious men, a surety; but to accept both as

Pardon my iniquity, for it is true is impossible. They are great,”' and according to the in diametrically opposed to each struction of the Saviour himself, other, as opposed as light and "Forgive us our trespasses ;” and darkness are. One must be rethe Divine Being is repeatedlyjected as untrue, for the one is said to forgive men their sins. destructive of the other. But the debt theory of the work I, for one, would rather sacri. of Christ shows that all the fice a theory than sacrifice the Bible's teaching about forgive Word of God; for the former is ness is but mere empty talk, as the invention of man, the latter God forgives no man a sin, but is is the production of God. fully paid for each by our surety! The talk about forgiveness is a

GALILEO, B.A. mere show of benevolence and

(To be continued.)

Literary Notices.

(We hold it to be the duty of an Editor either to give an early notice of the books sent to him for remark, or to return them at once to the Publisher. It is unjust to praise worthless books; it is robbery to retain unnoticed ones.)

In every work regard the author's end,
Since none can compass more than they intend.

THE WORKs or HENRY SMITH; with Life of the Author. By THOMAS

FULLER, B.D. Vol. I. Edinburgh: James Nichol. London:

James Nisbet and Co. But little is known of this old divine. " What is true of the river Nilus,” says Thomas Fuller, his quaint biographer, “that its fountain is hid and obscure, but its fall or influx into the midland sea eminently known, is applicable to many learned men, the places of whose birth generally are either wholly concealed, or at the best uncertain, whilst the place of their death is made remarkable. For as few did take notice of their coming out of their attiring-house, so their well acting on the stage commanded all eyes to observe their returning thereunto.”

It appears, however, that our author was born at Withcok, Leicestershire, and that he was of gentle extraction and born to affluence. He was educated in the University of Oxford, and there filled himself with that learning which in due time he poured out to others. Having finished his education, he accepted a lectureship at St. Clement Danes, without Temple Bar. Although his judgment was far from going with all pertaining to the Anglican Church, he loved peace, and united in affection with those from whom in opinion he dissented. In his day he was called the silver-tongued preacher, and chimed with the melody of speech similar to that of St. Chrysostom. His church was always crowded, and he played upon his congregation as a master musician upon his harp. He died of consumption about the year 1600. He was a voluminous author. Many of his discourses were printed surrepti

iously from shorthand notes. These, however, in self defence and for the sake of his literary reputation, he afterwards published himself. It is stated that his public sermons became a family book in his own day. Judging from the discourses in this volume, he appears to have been remarkably free from the affectations that greatly disfigured the pulpit productions of his own time. He was too earnest to play the punster or the polemic. If he had not the logic of Goodwin or the pathos of Brookes, he had a spiritual insight into truth as piercing as either, and a power of presenting what he saw with remarkable vivid

ness and effect. We class this volume amongst the best sermonic productions of the preachers of olden times.


WILLIAM GOUGE, D.D. Vol. II. Edinburgh: James Nichol.

London: James Nisbet and Co. Dublin : G. Herbert. In the last volume of the Homilist, page 238, our readers will find a brief sketch of the author of this volume and our judgment upon his productions. This volume completes his work on the Hebrews, which was his masterpiece, and which is considered to contain the substance of his public ministry, which was one of great brilliancy and influence. Critically, of course, these volumes are below the mark. Since the author's days, nay, within the last twenty years, biblical criticism and Jewish archæology have made wondrous advances. But in the power of seizing and lucidly exhibiting in condense suggestiveness the great ideas of a text the work is equal to most of the best of modern times. It is strictly a homiletic exposition. On every page there are seeds of




and Co., 21, Berners Street. Tuis volume contains a course of lectures, which the distinguished author delivered to the young men of his congregation. In matter they are not exhaustive, but suggestive; in style they are not rhetoric, but conversational; and in effect upon the reader, they are interesting, refreshing, and stimulating in the highest degree. Though the author goes not as minutely into the circumstances of Paul's adventurous life, nor as critically into the phraseologies, either of himself, his biographer, of his friends, or of his foes, as Conybeare and Howson, he, nevertheless, sketches the incidents with a remarkable accuracy, hits out the meaning of utterances with a stroke, seizes the leading idea, disrobes it of its old costume, detaches it from its old relations, and holds it forth a powerfully living lesson to modern men. Indeed no book has ever brought Paul so near to English intelligence and consciousness.

Six Ple Truth: Spoken to Working Men. By Norman MACLEOD,

D.D. Alexander Strahan, 56, Ludgate-hill, London. This is a small volume of sermons, the subjects are “The Wonder of Indifference not Saved,” “Publicans and Sinners hearing Christ,' “The Love of Christ for Sinners,” “The Story of the Prodigal Son,” “The Gadarene Demoniac," "The Home Mission Work of Christians,"

Prayer,” “Principles of Christian Toleration,” “ The End of the Year.” We need scarcely characterize the author's treatment of

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