Europe's Third World: the European Periphery in the Interwar Years
Economic historians have perennially addressed the intriguing question of comparative development, asking why some countries develop much faster and further than others. Focusing primarily on Europe between 1914 and 1939, this present volume explores the development of thirteen countries that could be said to be categorised as economically backward during this period: Albania, Bulgaria, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Turkey and Yugoslavia. These countries are linked, not only in being geographically on Europe's periphery, but all shared high agrarian components and income levels much lower than those enjoyed in western European countries. The study shows that by 1918 many of these countries had structural characteristics which either relegated them to a low level of development or reflected their economic backwardness, characteristics that were not helped by the hostile economic climate of the interwar period. It explores, region by region, how their progress was checked by war and depression, and how the effects of political and social factors could also be a major impediment to sustained progress and modernisation. administrations, ethnic and religious diversity, agrarian structures and backwardness, population pressures, as well as international friction, were retarding factors. In all this study offers a fascinating insight into many areas of Europe that are often ignored by economists and historians. It demonstrates that these countries were by no means a lost cause, and that their post-war performances show the latent economic potential that most harboured. By providing an insight into the development of Europe's 'periphery' a much more rounded and complete picture of the continent as a whole is achieved.
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accounted activity agrarian agriculture Albania backward Balkan Baltic base became Berend Bulgaria capital cent century commodity costs countries currency debt decade declined dependent Despite domestic early Eastern Europe economic effect Empire enterprises especially estimates Europe European countries example exchange exports fact farming forces foreign Germany given gold Greece Greek growth half hand hectares holdings Hungary import substitution important improvement income increased industrial institutions interests interwar Italy labour land latter less levels limited loss major manufacturing million noted output peasants period peripheral peripheral countries Poland political population Portugal postwar prewar primary probably problem production progress reform relatively remained result rise Romania Russian sector social Source Spain stabilisation standards structure Table territory third trade Turkey Western Yugoslavia
Page 186 - Progressive instruction, particularly during the period between World War I and World War II...