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could be inflicted on him. General Early subsequently pursued him across the Potomac at Williamsport, but soon returned into Virginia, and after some time resumed position at Strasburg. During these movements the artillery could do little more than march and countermarch.

Sheridan now commanded the enemy in the Valley. General Early moved back before his large force to Fisher's Hill and took position. Meanwhile re-enforcements arrived for General Early. Cutshaw's battalion of artillery, accompanying General Anderson with Kershaw's division of infantry, and Johnston's and Shoemaker's batteries of horse artillery, accompanying General Fitzhugh Lee's division of cavalry, reached Front Royal on the 14th, and-were engaged in driving off the enemy on the 15th. The enemy, after demonstrating a few days in front of Fisher's Hill, retired. General Early again pursued, and, driv ing out of Winchester the force there remaining, once more occupied the town. The artillery was but little used on this advance. General Long, being now taken ill, turned over the command of the artillery to Lieutenant-Colonel Nelson on August 19, and Captain Kirkpatrick came into command of Nelson's battalion. The enemy, still with occasional skirmishes, in which our artillery took part, retired, and reached Harper's Ferry on the 21st.

Our troops remained in the neighborhood of Charlestown till the 25th. Moving thence to Shepherdstown, the army afterward encamped at Bunker Hill, and on the 31st Milledge's and Massie's batteries accompanied Rodes' division to Martinsburg, and Massie's was engaged with the enemy's cavalry and artillery. Kirkpatrick's battery received guns in place of those lost July 20. The army then moved to aud encamped near Stephenson's Depot.

September 9 Colonel Carter, having been detached from his immediate command below Richmond, arrived and took command of the artillery with General Early's army, in place of General Loug, disabled by sickness. From this date to the 19th several movements occurred, with considerable skirmishing, on the line toward Martinsburg.

On the 19th was fought a sanguinary battle near Winchester. Ramseur's division, aided by Colonel Nelson's artillery, first received Sheridan's attack on the Berryville turnpike, and well held their ground. Braxton's battalion artillery, with Rodes' and Gordon's divisions, was then hurried up and posted on Ramseur's left, and received the concentrated assault hurled against that point. The artillery did noble service. Nelson's guns held back the enemy on the right and enabled Ramseur's infantry to rally after being much broken; and Braxton's pieces, in the center, were equally effective, sweeping from the field the enemy's masses as they rushed on, pursuing Gordon's yielding line, and enabling a portion of Rodes' division to dash in and drive back their shattered column a considerable distance. Unhappily the accomplished division commander, General Rodes, here fell when his practiced skill was greatly needed. Meanwhile Breckinridge's division, with King's artil lery battalion, which had held the Martinsburg turnpike, was removed toward the right, and Generals Fitzhugh Lee and Lomax left to withstand the enemy's large force of cavalry. This, however, becoming impracti cable one of Breckinridge's brigades was detached to aid General Lee in keeping back the enemy's cavalry. At the same time the enemy's main force was massed nearer to their cavalry and advanced on Gordon's left. This necessarily gave ground to the rear, and our whole left wing swung back nearly at right angles to the original front, Braxton's guns at the salient still maintaining their hold and doing noble service. King's

battalion held a hill in rear of Breckinridge's line, fronting to the left, and Breathed's guns, of the Horse Artillery, were operating with good effect from point to point, as occasion offered. Late in the day the right was still steady, but the left was becoming more and more critical. The enemy's cavalry in driving back Fitzhugh Lee's small force dashed through the infantry brigade sent to his support and captured many of its men. Our left still receding, the center became more and more salient, and had also to be gradually drawn back. The retrograde movement was, of course, each time more difficult and the infantry was becoming unmanageable.

Fortunately (says Colonel Carter), the artillery was under perfect control to the last, and maneuvered and fought with untiring courage. The guns retired from point to point, halting, unlimbering, and firing, while efforts were made by general officers to rally the infantry.

Near the close of the day Colonel Carter received a painful wound from a fragment of shell, which compelled him to turn over the command of the artillery to Lieutenant-Colonel Nelson. Happily, it did not permanently disable him. For a fuller account of the battle I refer to Colonel Carter's intelligent and interesting report. It is, however, just that one or two more of his important statements be here quoted: The whole army (he adds) will testify to the stout resistance made by the artillery in this long and exhausting struggle. It may be safely said that had the other arms of service done their duty as faithfully as did the artillery the army might have rested afterward on the Potomac. Our loss of the day was mainly due to the enemy's immense excess in cavalry. This, by enveloping our left, forced it steadily back and ultimately compelled the abandonment of the field. For a strictly defensive battle as this soon became I had not artillery enough. Another artillery battalion to have held the Martinsburg turnpike and the heights northwest of Winchester would have prevented the fatal progress of the enemy's cavalry.







Three guns were lost on this occasion-two lent by Lieutenant-Colonel King to the cavalry, and another from the same battalion late in the evening on the retreat. Cutshaw's battalion was all the time absent with Kershaw's division on an expedition resisting a force of the enemy east of the Blue Ridge in Fauquier and Culpeper Counties. After this serious reverse of September 19 the army retired during the night, and reaching Fisher's Hill, beyond Strasburg, formed line of battle early on the 20th, King's guns on the right, Braxton's next, and Nelson's still farther to the left. Owing to some misapprehension or oversight certain precautions recommended by the acting chief of artillery in adjusting the line on the left, where the enemy's movements indicated his chief attack was to be made, were neglected and the result proved again disastrous.

On the evening of the 22d the enemy made a dash upon our extreme left, occupied by General Lomax's cavalry. It soon gave way, and the enemy swept down the line, capturing 4 of Nelson's, 2 guns from Lomax's Horse Artillery, 7 of Braxton's, and 1 of King's-14 in all. Yet the artillery was not in fault. Colonel Nelson affirms that they did their duty fully and efficiently, as testified by all officers and men who had opportunity to observe. All was brought off which could possibly be secured, and while retiring halted, unlimbered, and checked the enemy from point to point, that the trains might be gotten safely to the rear.

The army still moved back on the 24th oeyond New Market retiring in line of battle, and portions of each artillery battalion from time to time taking position and operating effectually in keeping the enemy in check. While assisting in keeping the enemy at bay, about seven


To mention all who have thus admirably done their duty would be well nigh to repeat the rolls of our battalions and companies. I can only designate those chief commanders whose position has necessarily rendered their services most conspicuous, and refer to their reports and those of their sub-commanders for fuller details. General Long, until disabled by sickness, managed his command (artillery Second Corps) with characteristic judgment and vigor; and Colonel Carter who then succeeded him, earned, as usual, high encomiums for the care, sagacity, and skill, as well as boldness, with which he handled the com mand, as also did Lieutenant-Colonel Nelson during the brief but important intervals in which the command devolved upon him. General Alexander, ever active, full of resources, energetic, and enterprising, conducted his command (artillery First Corps) at all times with skill and success, and in the interval of his absence from a disabling wound his place was well supplied on one part of his line by Colonel Cabell, on another by Lieutenant-Colonel Huger. Colonel Walker, zealous, bold, and vigorous, directed his force (artillery, Third Corps) with efficiency throughout the campaign, and was aided in his responsible charge by the judicious co-operation of Colonel Cutts; and Colonel Jones, first as chief of artillery of General Beauregard's command, and subsequently of General Anderson's corps, earned high commendation by diligent, intelligent, and successful attention to his arduous trust on a portion of the line most exposed and harassed during all the latter months of the campaign.

These officers speak in high terms of their subordinates and of the men in their respective commands, and describe instances more than a few of extraordinary good conduct and admirable achievement. Their reports and those of battalion commanders are herewith submitted.

Of the several members of my own staff-Capt. Dudley D. Pendleton, assistant adjutant-general; Lieut. George W. Peterkin and Acting Lieut. Charles Hatcher, aides-de-camp; Capt. John Esten Cooke and Lieut. E. P. Dandridge, assistant inspectors-general; Maj. John G. Barnwell, ordnance officer; Dr. John Graham, surgeon, and Maj. John Page, quartermaster-it is just I should say that they have uniformly discharged their duties with faithful alacrity and to my entire satisfaction.

In conclusion, I am enabled to report that our artillery remains at the close of this arduous campaign in a condition of most encouraging efficiency, and that with reasonable effort toward supplying it with a few guns to replace some lost in unfortunate affairs that have been ́described, and with horses to re-establish a number of teams disabled in action or worn down by hard service, it will be in full strength for the campaign of the ensuing spring. It may be confidently relied upon to accomplish, by the Divine blessing, during the next season, as it has so well done through the last, its entire share in the defense of our country.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. N. PENDLETON, Brig. Gen. and Chief of Artillery, Army of Northern Virginia. Lieut. Col. W. H. TAYLOR,

Assistant Adjutant-General, Army of Northern Virginia.

[For report of casualties in artillery of Army of Northern Virginia, from May 4 to December 1, 1864, see Vol. XXXVI, Part I, p. 1052.]

No. 354.

Report of Maj. James F. Milligan, Signal Officer, C. S. Army, of operations October 1-December 31.

SIGNAL OFFICE, Petersburg, Va., January 1, 1865. GENERAL: In accordance with orders, I beg leave to submit the following report for the quarter ending December 31, 1864:

The Independent Signal Corps consists of two companies. The First Company consists of 119 men, rank and file, on duty as follows: At Drewry's Bluff, 1 sergeant and 5 men; at Chaffin's Bluff, 1 sergeant and 6 men; at Battery Brooke, 1 sergeant and 4 men; at Battery Semmes, 5 men; at Battery Dantzler, 5 men; on special duty in deciphering enemy's signal messages, 2 men. The above men form a signal line from Drewry's Bluff to Battery Dantzler, on James River, and co-operating with our fleet under Commodore Mitchell. This district is under command of Second Lieut. J. B. Smith of the Second Company, Lieut. S. C. Wells of the First Company having tendered his resignation in consequence of continued ill health. In connection with the above men there are fourteen men of the company on duty upon the James River fleet and under command of Corporal Handy. In Pickett's front, from Battery Dantzler to Swift Creek, there are twenty-two signal-men, stationed at various points, who watch and report the movements of the enemy from lookouts. This duty is extremely arduous and not without much danger. The men perform it cheerfully and with much satisfaction and information to General Pickett. This line is in command of Sergeant Rooney, of the First Company. On the Nansemond and lower James River there are sixteen men under Lieutenant Woodley (in charge of the scouts of this department). These men watch and report the movements of the enemy and their peculiarities along the lower James and Nansemond; cross to the north side of the James and get information from Old Point, Newport News, Yorktown, and Williamsburg. This is an important connection, and great care and caution are necessary to keep it up. The scouts upon this service are able and true men, and have performed their duties with credit to themselves and the satisfaction of the various generals commanding this department. The importance of their serv ices has been duly appreciated, and credit accorded to them for their operations by General Lee, which will be referred to in this report under the head of these operations. Stable guard, 1 man; signal office, 5 men; an adjutant, commissary, clerk, and couriers; courier-line between Petersburg and Fort Boykin, 3 men; forage detail, 1 man; quartermaster department, 1 man: sick, 3 men; prisoners of war, 2 On furlough by War Department, 1 officer, Lieutenant Cannon; on furlough by Navy Department, 2 men; on furlough from headquar ters Army of Northern Virginia, 3 men. Detailed by order of War Department, 22 men.


The Second Company consists of 117 men, rank and file, on duty as follows, Lieut. R. A. Mapp commanding the company: The First Signal District, Lieut. R. A. Forbes commanding, consists of four posts, viz: At the custom-house, in Petersburg, 1 sergeant and 4 men; post I, at Blandford, 1 sergeant and 5 men; post G, at General A. P. Hill's headquarters, 5 men; post L, at General Ransom's headquarters, in the trenches, 3 men. The Second Signal District, along the immediate front of Petersburg, consists of 4 posts: Post K, at Dunn's Hill, 6


men; post D, at Whitehead's, Chesterfield County, Va., 7 men, an important post, as it reports all movements of the enemy's train in the rear of their defenses from City Point to the Weldon railroad; post E, at Cumming's battery, 3 men; post B, at Fort Clifton, 9 men; stable guard, 3 men; headquarters-as clerk and acting assistant surgeon, 2 men. On courier-line, 3 men; teamster, 1 man; scouts with Lieutenant Woodley and Sergeant Emmell, 20 men. Absent with leave, 4 men; absent without leave, 2 men; absent sick, 9 men. tailed by order of War Department, 12 men. Prisoners of war exchanged but not reported, 1 officer, Captain De Jarnette, and 4 men; prisoners of war, 10 men. The Second Company for the last quarter have been performing signal duty in our front at Petersburg and extending to General Pickett's right in Chesterfield. Connection has been at all times kept up between the posts; the number of men performing this duty is 46, and the majority are excellent operators. This company, since the 8th of October, have been furnished, as well as the First Company, with clothing complete, with the exception of overcoats, which have never been issued to the corps as an organization, about forty having been drawn in all upon special requisition.

The arms and equipments of the corps are good, but owing to the exchanged prisoners not having been furnished, and the arms of the sick having been turned over last summer, the corps lacks some ten Enfield rifles in the Second Company and some few Austrian rifles in the First Company. The corps has been at all times prepared to render able and efficient services in the trenches or wherever else called upon to do duty as soldiers. As operators and signal men, they stand on their own merits, and can compare favorably with the best in the service. Feeling a deep interest in the success and utility of the signal organization and its deportment, if I find a man worthless as an operator I report it at once and request his transfer to some other branch of the service, where he can be made more efficient to the public interest. The men detailed upon the blockade-runners from Wilmington from the Independent Signal Corps are highly spoken of for efficiency and ability by Lieutenant Wilmer, in charge of marine signals (stationed at Wilmington). This is highly gratifying, and conclusively proves that where harmony prevails duty and co-operation are appreciated. It affords me infinite pleasure to record the courtesy and laudable interest of the Signal Bureau in Richmond, under charge of Captain Barker, Signal Corps, C. S. Army, who shows at all times a lively interest in the utility of the service by suggesting and perfecting improvements of great service to its successful operation, both in the field and the security of our communications from the scrutiny of the enemy.

On 1st of October I introduced a new system, with an entire change of alphabet, which, experience has developed, works with ease and satisfaction to all concerned. The system consists in a series of arbitrary abbreviations, contractions, and combinations, which have the advantage of speed and security from the enemy. By a slight preconcerted signal agreed upon every message can be sent by a different key-word or letter. I have, therefore, fully demonstrated the fact that abbreviations do not sacrifice certainty to speed, and I feel confident of proving it to any intelligent mind in the signal service not blinded by prejudice or incapable of judging upon the merit of the system by success. The operations of the scouts of the Independent Signal Corps in this quarter have been confined to the lower James and Nansemond Rivers; their duties have been dangerous and onerous; onerous from the fact that their movements have to be concealed; no fixed abode or camp; cross

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