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that it hould surpass in depravity of morals, in impiety and mischief, all other civil societies, which had ever existed before it in the world,
· To justify this interpretation of the two meanings of the word earth, it is necessary to remind the reader, that he is upon hieroglyphic ground, and that the Apocalypse is written in a dialect, the types and figurative exprefsions of which are taken from the forms, faculties, and qualities of things in the natu. ral world. Here then the prophet tells us, that he faw this “ beast come up out of the earth," a great body in the natural world, possessing divers faculties and qualities. Now that which comes up out of, or springs from a thing, either in the vegetable or animal world, partakes of the faculties and qualities, and of course bears the resemblance of the thing itself, out of which it came up, or from which it arose : as a tree, for instance, partakes of the nature and qualities of the feed of the tree from which it came up; or an elephant, or a man, of the elephant or man from which he sprang. To justify, therefore, the interpretation here, we must prove that the Power intended to be foretold by the word farth, muft refemble, in its abilities and qualities, those of that particular body.
Now the earth is one great, distinct, independent body in the natural world, and so is a proper symbol for one great, diftinct, independent nation in the moral and political world. The earth is a revolutionary body, performing revolations not only upon its own axis, but round the sun. It must therefore be al. lowed, that the earth is a proper type for a revolutionary power or nation, which has undergone sundry political revolutions. The earth again is a revolutionary body, which performs its revolutions, without the aid of any other natural body; and therefore it is an apposite figure, to denote a revolutionary
nation, which performs its revolutions, without the assistance of any other political body. The earth is also the great body, out of which all the additional means of fin and misery are acquired; such as arsenic, and all other deadly poisons; sulphur and salt. petre; also the principal ingredients of that destroying composition, gunpowder ; together with iron, steel, and fint, which complete the system of modern destruction. Moreover, gold and silver, those common means of human corruption, excess, and intemperance, are thence extracted. “ Effodiuntur “ opes, 'irritamenta malorum *." " Riches, which “ lead to all manner of evil, are dug out of the " earth.”. By the use of thefe metals, mankind are drawn into all manner of fin, intemperance, and disease, by which a greater number of the species is cut off before their time, in the career of sensuality and fin, than by all other means whatever. Hence it is, that " a beast coming up out of the earth” is an accurate figure for a revolutionary Power, the most wantonly destructive and consummately finful.
Nor will this exposition appear more subtle than true, when it shall be proved, that the word earth is often made use of, in the language of prophecy, as a significant and comprehensive bieroglyphic, to denote all that I have here said of it. Jeremiah makes use of it in predicting the captivity of the Jews, because they formed one great revolutionary, and very finful nation, and had undergone several. great changes in their government, namely, from a theocracy, to judges, kings, and high priests, without the foreign aid of the pagan nations. He says of “ For 66 I will call for a sword upon the inhabitants " of the earth ;” and, « The Lord shall give a “ shout against all the inhabitants of the “ earth f.” And if any greater authority can be rea
# Chap. xxv. 29.
quired, Christ himself makes use of the same figure, in foretelling the destruction of Jerusalem *: 6. Then " shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they “ shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds,
with power and great glory." It is here evident, that neither the prophet nor Christ referred to all the inhabitants of the earth, in the literal sense of the word ; but figuratively to the revolutionary na. tion of the Jews only; for upon whom does it ap. pear from the context, that “the sword was to be “ called for," but for the Jews? Against whom was “. the Lord to give a shout," but the Jews ? And who were the tribes of the earth, that were to mourn for the destruction of Jerusalem, the temple, and the altar, but the Jewish nation : Not the Romans, therefore, could be meant, who were never divided into tribes, and were appointed to destroy and triumph over the city, the temple, and altar; but the Jews, who alone suffered by that dreadful judgment
, If, then, we take the text in this sense, the power foretold, as “ coming up out of the earth,” must arise out.cf one nation ; that nation must be revolutionary; it must, like the Jewish nation, have produced and maintained its revolutions by its own jlrength; and it mutt be very finful, and disobedient to the laws and word of God. And if, ever since the
* Matth. xxiv. 30. ,
* The word earth is figuratively used, on many occasions in the prophecies. It being an opake body, which neither receives nor reflects the light of the fun, it is used as a figure for the wicked and wickedness in general, which neither receives nor promotes the word of God, the true light, Pialın x. 18. lxxvi. 8. lxxxii. 8. lfa. xi. 4. ; for heachen kingdoms or nations, Pfalm x. 18. xlvi. 6. Rev. vi. 15.; for the Jewish nation in its' revolutionary and degenerate state, Jer. xxv. 29, 30. Matth. xxiv. 30.; for Christian Rome, in her schisimatic and wicked state, Rev. viii, 13.; for Papal apostacy, Rev. xvi. 4. ; for atheism, Rev, xii. 9. ; for the German nation, Rev. xii. 16.; and for the revolutionary power of France, xiiie 11, 12. 14.
prophet wrote, there has been in the world no civil fociety or state, which will bear any comparison with the meanings of this prophetic type, one only excepted, and if that one Thall accurately fulfil all of them, surely no man of reason and candour will dcny, that such civil society must be the true prototype of the beast. And this is the fact ; for history bears no teftimony of any such civil society, except REVOLUTIONARY FRANCE ; and that nation has so perfectly fulfilled all the different meanings of this comprehensive figure, that nothing is wanting. For the French republic, as it is called, has risen out of one great nation ; it is an independent political body; it has performed a variety of revolutions in its government, by its own strength and energy, and has, supported its authority without the aid of allies, and even against a very powerful coalition; and from the dawn of its existence, it has surpassed all other states, hitherto known in the world, in the extension and extremity of impiety, depravity, and mischief to mankind.' Nor has it stopped short in its Satanical career, of publicly denying the existence of a God, and of teaching and enforcing this horrible and pernicious doctrine upon the minds of mankind, with design to subvert the order, happiness, and peace of: the world.
Such are only the general features of this political monster. I shall next consider and interpret the more particular types of this prophecy into their literal senses, and apply them to their proper and respective events, which, I hope to convince the reader, peculiarly exist in the institution of the government, and acts of the constituted authorities of the French republic. : Ver. 11.-" And he (the beast) had two, 9. horus."..
The “ two horns" is fo fingular and certain a mark of the power foretold, that it is impossible not to know it, from all others, when it should appear. And it seems to be here given for that purpofe : for throughout the prophecies, the hieroglyphical device of “ a benft" is made ufe of to fignify a wicked, despotic, mischievous, civil society; the head of a beast, in which its supreme will resides, and by which it directs the actions of the members of the body, de, notes the legisative authority; and the horns of a beast, the executive power of the civil society foretold; because, as a beast protects and defends its body with its horns, fo a state protects the body.politic, or nation, by its executive power. Upon comparing these prophetic signs, thus interpreted into their literal signification, with the constituted authorities of France, we cannot fail to perceives the beast" in the republic, “the head of the beast” in the legiflature, and the “ two horns” in the two executive powers, the Committees of Safety. The last is so peculiarly and exclusively characteristic of the two Committees of Safety, that, as I have before hinted, it leaves no doubt respecting its allusion. For in all civil societies hitherto formed, there has never been more than one legislative authority to declare the general will, and one executive power to carry that will into execution. The people, in a civil society with two supreme legisatures, or executive powers, would be in a more insecure and wretched state, than in that of nature. In the first, different and repugnant laws would be made, and no man, however great the penalties, would know which to obey : and in the second, competition for power between the two departments, opposition to the measures of each other, and unceasing anarehy, would be the result. Mankind heretofore have ever perceived this self-evident truth, and therefore have never before committed an absurdity in political ethics, fo pal-' pably subversive of the purposes of civil society. It