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and convenient to the general reader, who in the mean time had come forward as a collecting dilettante. If the former has now begun to be more observant of correct printing, or of complete and unmutilated editions, so has the latter suffered himself to be determined in this selection not merely by the contents or form of what is offered, but also, and often in a still higher degree, by external and incidental circumstances. This luxurious attention to externals on the part of collectors, the speculation of printers and publishers awakened thereby, and large public sales, have rendered books an article of merchandise, while those external accidents have supplied too often very attractive motives for collecting on the one hand, and for fixing the price on the other. These considerations and these principles of buying and selling, which were first reduced into a system in Holland, and have been advanced in France and England to their present complete and connected form, are what we here term restricted bibliography. Similar to pure bibliography in its generality, it differs from it in considering the inclinations of collectors, the actual demand, and the marketable value, as its chief points of view. So far as it has also regard to scientific or historical interest, although only in a subordinate degree and merely as influencing the price, so far we consider the name, which has sometimes been given to it, of material bibliography, to be inappropriate. This latter appellation would more properly designate that method of treating the subject which essentially differs from the mere nomenclature of pure bibliography, in fully specifying the grounds and conditions on which a book is of value to the collector or the dealer.

The highly meritorious Conrad Gesner in his Bibliotheca has contributed almost all we have in pure bibliography in the abovementioned extent of the word; his Pandecta and the worthless compendium of Lipenius are, by their reference to the studies of the period, and their arrangement grounded on that circumstance, foreign to pure bibliography, and Hamberger's work is of far too confined limits. Restricted bibliography has been as yet attended to in its entire extent by the French alone (at first by Debure in the Bibliographie instructive), and Brunet's Manuel du libraire is on the whole the most useful and successful work, which we possess in this branch of bibliography. The English, Italians, and Germans must not be mentioned here, when we speak of a whole, since they have advanced bibliography only by monographies, or, as is particularly the case with the Germans, having a particular reference to other objects.

In Germany, where with the single exception of the Austrian states, there are neither collectors by profession nor large book-markets, biblio. graphy belongs to literature alone, and is treated as its handmaid and attendant. And the more this strict application protects it from the

dangers with which a dealing in trifles and a search after curiosities so easily surround the inexperienced, I am the more ready to confess that my earlier bibliographical studies proceeded from what was wanted in the science; and even in their subsequent enlargement they have not exceeded the limits of historical interest. Moreover, as on my first connexion with a library, the want of a practical knowledge of books, especially for my use as a librarian, perceptibly forced itself upon me, and was the real cause of my first stirring in the matter, so did what was scientifically important continue to receive the greatest part of my attention. But when my present office placed me in a position, where I found works valuable in themselves and a rich abundance of the treasures of collectors combined, presenting to my notice all the French works on bibliography, previously known by me only in title, and where I almost daily had opportunity of observing the different bibliographical inclinations and interests of foreigners who were disposed to exhibit them, it then became completely evident to me that there should be one bibliography for scholars and another for common use, neither of which would dispense with the assistance of the other ; and I made it my purpose in the more zealous continuation of the work I had commenced, to attempt a combination of these two sorts of bibliography. I had already worked some years on this new and extended plan, when M. Brockhaus, knowing as little of my labours as I of his intention, greatly surprised me by proposing an edition of Brunet for Germany.

In this way Brunet's work was the proximate though not the first occasion of the present enterprise ; but I also brought to my undertaking too much independence and earnestness, to be able to take his book as the exclusive basis of my own. I acknowledge with sincere gratitude, that Brunet was my instructor in method and form, and that I am indebted to him for a great part of my notices; but it does not detract from the obligation which I am consequently under to him, it is rather a no less just regard to myself, if I on the other hand claim the greatly extended plan of my work, and more than half of the contents; while even that which I took directly from Brunet, has been, I think, by important augmentations, corrections, and alterations, so adapted to the different plan of my work, and interwoven into it, that my own exertions can by no means appear to be merely partial or supplementary.

That Brunet's plan, so far as it was retained by him in the execution of his work, could not suffice for me, is evident from what I have observed above, both respecting the signification of bibliography in Germany, for which country my work is more immediately designed, and also respecting my own bibliographical education. His work is solely

and exclusively appropriated to restricted bibliography, and his highest principle is the actual or possible value in the Paris market. However multifarious also the bookselling business may be which is there carried on, yet it must happen, that such a confined reference will on the one hand render necessary

the admission of much which has a mere local, often individual and even momentary value and interest ; and that on the other hand, much will in consequence remain unnoticed which is interesting to foreign collectors, because it is either not sought after or not found in Paris. A double obligation is hence laid upon the German bibliographer ; in the first place to enlarge Brunet's original plan to such an extent, that many curiosities of an inferior class, interesting to the French collector merely (and often scarcely so to him), being omitted, the more important articles valued by foreign collectors may also be regarded in an equal degree; and in the next place, to make the tendency of Brunet's work subordinate to a higher and indeed scientific object, with such freedom, that one and the same work may suit equally the researches of the learned, and the contented, nay frivolous humour of the dilettante, preserving however its scientitic character, and not becoming uninteresting in its multifarious details. My design was, that my work should be an enlarged and corrected Brunet, and at the same time for the most part what would be understood by the expression of a General literary dictionary. The circumstance, that a work on so extensive a plan exceeds the strength of a single person, does not exempt me from the obligation of prosecuting it, so far as it may be in my power. The heartfelt consciousness of having honestly and exclusively devoted myself to the work, in the fullest sense of the word, for a period of five years, consoles me under the acknowledgment, arising from the sincerest conviction, that I have not executed my plan even in its limitation, so far as it might be attained by an individual. I by no means desire to excuse myself on account of an appointed number of sheets, (the maintenance of which number was necessary, if the work were not to lose the character of a manual, and therefore its more general circulation,) nor on account of my attempt being the first of its kind, and certainly the first more general bibliographical work in Germany. My apology is comprehended in the motto prefixed to this preface.

In the limitation to which I was obliged to subject the strictly scientific part of my original plan, with a view to the number of sheets, I had especial regard to whatever might be of more general literary interest, and expressly passed over, in the literature of any faculty, whatever occupied only a subordinate rank in the history of that science. But on the other hand, I endeavoured so much the more to make up this deficiency by an impartial and equal regard to every nation, and in order to satisfy this desire as far as my resources reached, I the more readily refused admission to the scientific works that had appeared in Germany since the middle of the last century, and the more so as in addition to Heinsius's alphabetical nomenclature we also possess an excellent work on the subject in Ersch's manual of German literature; yet I considered it proper to admit, besides whatever related to bibliography and the sciences connected with it, the more ancient and modern classics of Germany, the editions, translations, and explanatory works of the Greek and Roman classics, the most important works of engravings, and some of the more important and voluminous journals. The literature of the sciences without the circuit of the faculties has been more fully given on account of its more general interest. I have devoted especial industry to the Greek and Roman classics. Brunet was content, conformably with his object, to mention those editions only which are merely sought after, or stand at some price. I, on the contrary, paying a due regard to such editions, have also sought to combine with them such as I considered to be peculiarly indebted to the scholar, and have therefore admitted all the editions which deserved to be mentioned in the history of the text or the commentaries. The short descriptions which I have appended are immediately derived from comparison and collation of the prefaces of the different editors, but in no instance are they taken from manuals. I have described the editiones principes after the most careful examination and col. lation of the best descriptions of them, in part also from my own inspection, with such conscientiousness, accuracy, and completeness, that I think I have satisfied all reasonable demands on this head. I would willingly have omitted some editions, which either contain mere impressions of the text, or are destitute of any peculiar intrinsic value, had they not been prized and sought after in foreign countries, either on account of their external qualities, or because they belong to some series; and others I have admitted, which had hitherto been either generally unknown or incorrectly described, and have filled up by a more accurate account of them the lacunæ of other bibliographical works. For this last reason I have also pointed out critical and exegetical observations respecting the ancient classics in the Classical Journal, and similar more modern collections, although I have paid little or no regard to the notices occurring in older collections, because the limits of my book did not permit me to enter into a complete detail. I hope that this may not be misapprehended and censured as incompleteness, inasmuch as it might fairly be reckoned unnecessary. The translations of the ancient classics, particularly in foreign languages, having been carefully considered by me, offer similar completions and corrections to earlier works.

In the Spanish and Portuguese literature, the riches of the Royal library and kind contributions of new catalogues from those countries, particularly of the extremely scarce list of the word-standard works respecting the Portuguese language, published by the academy of Lisbon (see under Catalogo in this Dictionary), have given occasion for peculiar diligence. I have expressly mentioned the editions cited by the Lisbon academy with the same carefulness, as those cited by the academy della Crusca have been hitherto alone thought worthy of, and have also collected all the information in my power respecting the more ancient editions of the romances of chivalry in the Spanish literature with indefatigable industry, and with the strictest examination into the dependence to be placed on my sources of information ; but I feel that at best, notwithstanding all I have done, my work is still far removed from even a reasonable completeness in the literature of these two countries. Appropriate sources of information as to their typographical productions prior to 1500, were particularly wanting. Machado and Antonio are far too little to be depended upon in their bibliographical data; Santander has some useful information, but not much; I could not obtain a copy of Caballero's work, who also appears to be very unsatisfactory, judging from what is quoted from him in Panzer. Will there never be found one person, among those who have the good fortune to pass those richly blessed frontiers, who, instead of the thousand and first description of the bull-fights, will employ himself during his abode in that country in inquiries by which he may become a real benefactor to one of the most interesting branches of bibliography? May this wish be some time or other regarded with the same ardour and earnestness with which it is here expressed! Brunet has made far too negligent use of his excellent sources of information with respect to the rich literature of Italy. Whilst I have executed this department entirely afresh, I have at the same time paid especial attention to the popular dialects, and particularly to the literary productions of Sicily. In the French literature my predecessor left me less to do, yet my articles relative to old French romances will be found in many respects more complete than his, and I have also bestowed a greater degree of attention on the popular dialects. With respect to the literature of Great Britain a disproportionate copiousness was more to be guarded against than an unsatisfactory scantiness, both on account of the present excessive enthusiasm of the British for the more ancient typographical productions of their country, and also on account of the numerous sources of information ; although I greatly regret not having been able to make use of some principal works on the subject, and among these, Dibdin's edition of Ames. In the German literature, (in which, besides the limitations above specified, I invariably considered it most proper to pass over living authors,) suitable attention has been paid to its older productions. Nor was I without good materials for the Swedish litera

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