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My heart dropp'd love; my power rain'd ho- It warns a warier carriage in the thing,

Lest blind presumption work their ruining. On you, than any: Sbakspeare.

Daniel, 3. To venture without positive leave. I had the presumption to dedicate to you a very There was a matter we were no less desirous

unfinished piece.

Dryden. to know, than fearful to ask, lest we might pro- s. Unreasonable confidence of divine fa. sume too far.

Bacon. I to the heav'nly vision thus presumd. Milt. The awe of his majesty will keep us from pre4. To form confident or arrogant opi.

sumption, and the promises of his mercy from nions : with upon before the cause of Presu'MPTIVE. adj. [ presomptif, Fr.


Rogers. condence. The life of Ovid being already writeen in our

from presume.) ] language, I will not presume so far upon myself, 1. Taken by previous supposition. to think I can add any thing to Mr. Sandy's his

We commonly take shape and colour for so undertaking.

Dryden. presumptive ideas of several species, that, in a This man presumes upon his parts, that they good picture, we readily say this is a lion, and will not fail him at time of need, and so thinks

that a rose.

Loche. it superfluous labour to make any provision be- 2. Supposed: as, the presumptive heir : forehand.

Locke. opposed to the heir apparent. 3. To make confident or arrogant at. 3. Confident ; arrogant; presumptuous. tempts.

There being two opinions repugnant to each In this we fail to perform the ching which other, it may not be presumptive or sceptical to God seeth meet, convenient, and good; in that doubt of both.

Brown, we presume to see what is meet and convenienc, PRESU'MPTUOUS, adj. [ presumptueur, better than God himself.

Hooker. French.)
God, to remove his ways from human sense,
Plac'd heav'n from earth so far, that earthly

1. Arrogant; confident; insolent.

Presumptuous priest! this place cortimands my If it presume, might err in chings too high,



I follow him not And no advantage gain.


With any token of presumptuous suit ; 6. It has on or upon sometimes before the

Nor would I have him till I do deserve him. thing supposed.

Sbakspeare. He, that would not deceive himself, oughe to The boldness of advocates prevails with judges; build his hypothesis on matter of fact, and not whereas they should imitate God, who repressa presume on matter of fact, because of his hypo- eth the presumptuous, and giveth grace to the thesis. Locke. modest.

Bacon. Luther presumes upon the gift of continency. Their minds somewhat rais'd Atterbury. By false presumptuous hope.

Milton. 5. It has of sometimes, but not properly. It being not the part of a presumptuous, but of

Presuming of his force, with sparkling eyes, a truly humble, man to do what he is bidden, and Already he devours the promis'd prize. Dryd. to please those wbom he is bound in duty to


Kettlervell. PRESU'MER. n. s. (from presume.] One Some will not venture to look beyond received that presupposes; an arrogant person. notions of the age, nor have

so presumptuous a Heavy with some high minds is an overweight thought, as to be wiser than their neighbours., of obligation; otherwise great deservers do grow

Locke. intolerable presumers.

Wotton. 2. Irreverent with respect to holy things. PRESU'MPTION. n. s. [prasumptus, Lat.

The sins whereinto he falleth, are not preo presomption, Fr.]

sumptuous; but are ordinarily of weakness and intirmity.

Perkins. 1. Supposition previously formed.

Thus 1 presumptuous ; and the vision bright, Thou hast shewed us how unsafe it is to offend

As with a smile more brighten'd, thus reply'd. thee, upon presumptions afterwards to please

Millen. thee. King Charles,

The pow'rs incens'd Though men in general believed a future state, Punish'd his presumptuous pride, yet they had but confused presumptions of the That for his daring enterprize she dy'd Dryado nature and condition of it.


Canst chou love 2. Confidence grounded on any thing pre

Presumptunis Crete, that boasts the comb of supposed : with upon.



PRESU'MPTUOUSLY. adv. [from preA presumption upon this aid, was the principal motive for the undertaking: Clarendon. sumptuous. ]

Those at home held their immoderate engrosso 1. Arrogantly; confidently.
ments of power by no other tenure, than their 2. Irreverently.
wn presumption upon the necessity of affairs.

Do you, who study nature's works, decide,

Sevift. Whilst I the dark mysterious cause admire ; 3. An argument strong, but not demon- Nor, into what the gods conceal, presumptuously strative; a strong probability:


Addison. The error and unsufficience of their arguments 3. With vain and groundless confidence doch make it, on the contrary side against them, in divine favour. a strong presumption, that God hath not moved

I entreat your prayers, that God will keep me their hearts to think such things, as he hath not

from all premature persuasion of my being in enabled them to prove.


Christ, and not suffer me to go on presumptio 4. Arrogance ; confidence blind and ad.

ously or desperately in any course. Hammond. venturous; presumptuousness.

PRESU'MPTUOUSNESS. n. s. [from preLet my presumption not provoke thy wrath ; For I am sorry, that with reverence

sumptuous.] Quality of being presumpI did not entertain thee as thou art. Sbakspo fuous ; confidence ; irreverence.


Presurro's AL. n. s. [pre and supposal.]

Lucagus, to lash his horses, bends Supposal previously formed.

Prone to the wheels, and his left fvol pretends. All things necessary to be known that we may

Dredes. be saved, but known with presuppesal of know

2. To simulate ; to make false appearledge concerning certain principles, whereof it ances or representations; to allege receiveth us lready persuaded. Hocker.

falsely. 10 PRESUPPO'SE. v. a. I preslipposer, Fr.

This let him know, pre and suppose.] To suppose as pre

Lest wilfully transgressing he pretend vious ; to imply as antecedent.

Surpusal. In as much as righteous life presupposeb life,

What reason then can any man pretend 27.9.s in as much as to live virtuously it is impossible

religion, when it is so apparently for the benctii, except we live; the first impediment, wilich we

not only of human society, but of every particu. endeavour to remove, is penury and want of

lar person?

Tiletsas. things without which we cannot live. Hocker. 3. To show hypocritically.

All kinds of knowledge have their certain 'T is their interest to guard themselves from bounds; each of them presupposeth many neces

those riotous ettects of prcterisch zeal, nor is it sary things learned in other sciences, and known

less their duty.

Decay of Pitt beforehand.

Hooker. 4. To hold out as a delusive appearance; PRESUPPOSI'TION. n. .s. (presupposition, to exhibit as a cover of soinetbing hide

Fr. pre and supposition.) Supposition den. This is rather Latin. previously formed.

Warn ail creatures from thee PRESURMI'SE. *. s. Į pre and surmise.]

Henoeforth; lest that too heav'nly form, Art

tended Surmise previously formed.

To hellish falsehood, snare them.
It was your resurmise,
That, in the dole of blows, your son might drop.

5. To claim. In this sense we rather say,

Skakspeare. pretend to. PRETE'NCE. N. s. [prátensus, Latin.]

Chiefs shall be grudgid the part which they preter.d.

Dreka. 1. A false argument grounded upon ficti

Are they not rich? what more can they pro tious postulates.

tena? This pretence against religion will not only be TO PRETE'ND. V. n. baffled, but we shall gain a new argument to persuade men over.


1. To put in a claiın truly or falsely. It

is seldom used without shade of cente 2. The act of showing or alleging what is

sure. not real ; show ; appearance. With flying speed and seeming great pretence

What peace can be, here both to one eritera? Came running in a messenger. Spenser.

But they more diligent, and we more strung; So strong his appetite was to those executions he had been accustomed to in Ireland, without

In those countries that pretend to freedoni

, any kind of commission or pretence of authority.

princes are subject to those laws which : Ciarendonte

people have chosen. Let not Trojans, with a feigu'd prelunce

2. To presume on ability to do any thing; Of proffer'd peace, delude the Latian prince. tu profess presumptuously.

Dryden. Of the ground of redness in this sea are te I should have dressed the whole with greater not fully satisfied for there is another red sea, care; but I bad little time, which I am sure y u whose name we pretend not to make out from know to be more than pretence.

Wake. these principles. 3. Assumption ; claiin to notice.

PRETE'NDER. n. s. [from pretend.) 02 Despise not these few ensuing pages; for who lays claim to any thing: never was any thing of this pretence more inge- The prize was disputed only till you were nuously imparted.


seen; now all prelenders have withdrawn their 4. Claim true or false.


Dnder. Spirits on our just pretences arm’d

Whatever victories the several preteadors to Fell with us.

Milton. the empire obtained over one another, they are O worthy not of liberty alone,

recorded on coins without the least reflection, Too mean pretence, but honour. Milton.

Primogeniture cannot have any fretence to a The numerous pretenders to places would right of solely inheriting property or power.

never have been kept in order, it expectata Locke. had been cut oft.

Saito 3. Shakspeare uses this word with more To just contempt ye vain pretenders fall, affinity to the original Latin, for some

The people's fable and the scorn of all. Popis thing threatened, or held out to terrify.

Pretenders to philosophy or good sense gre fond of this sort of learning.

Watts. I have conceived a most faint neglect of late, which I have rather blamed as my own jealous PRETE'NDINGLY. adv. [from pretendo curiosity, than as a very pretence and purpose of

ing.) Arrogantly; presumptuously. unkindness.

Sbakspeare. I have a particular reason to look a little fire In the great hand of God I stand, and thence tendingly at present.

Calir. Agrinst the undivulg'd gretence I tight Of treas'nous malice.


PRETE'NSION. n. s. [ pretensio, Lat. prea He hath writ this to feel my affection for your

tention, French.) honour, and to no other pretence of danger.

1. Claim true or false.

Kino Lear. But if to unjust things thou dost prerend, To PRETEND. V. a. (prætendo, Latin ;

Ere they begin, let thy pretensi as end. P. pretendre, Fr.)

Men indulge those opinions and practices, that

L'Eirune. 1. To hold out; to stretch forward. This

favour their pretensions.

The commons derrsnd that the conseisip is mere latinity, and not used; perbaps should lic in common to the pretensions of any it should be protends.





or sense.



2. Fictitious appearance. A Latin phrase The same natural aversion to loquacity has of

late made a considerable alteration in our lanThis was but an invention and pretension

guage, by closing in one syllable the termination given out by the Spaniards.


of our preterperfect tense, as drown'd, walk’d, for He so much abhorred artifice and cunning; PRETERPLUPERFECT.adj. [ præteritum

drowned, walkéd.

Spectator. that he had prejudice to all concealments and pretensions.

Fell. plusquam perfectum, Lat.] The gramPRETER. (præter, Latin.) A particle matical epithet for the tense denoting

which, prefixed to words of Latin ori- time relatively past, or past before some ginal, signifies beside.

other past time. Puk'TERIMPERFECT. adj. In grammar, PRETE'XT.n. s. [prætextus, Lat. preterie, denotes the tense not perfectly past.

Fr.] Pretence ; false appearance;

false PREʼTERIT. adj. [preterit, Fr. præteri

allegation. tus, Lat.] Past.

My pretext to strike at him admits PRETERITION. 1. s. [ preterition, Fr.

A good construc:ion.

Sbakspeare. from preterit.] The act of going past;

He made pretext, that I should onely go

"And helpe convey his freight; but thought not the state of bcing past.

Chatman. PREʼTERITNESS. n. s. [from preterit.] Under this pretext, the means he sought State of being past; not presence; not

To ruin such whose might did much exceed futurity.

His pow'r to wrong:

Daniel. We cannot conceive a preteritness still back

As chymists gold from brass by fire would wards in infinitum, that never was present, as

draw, we can an endless futurity, that never will be

Pretexts are into treason forg'd by law. Denb. present; so that though one is potentially inti

I shall not say with how much' or how little nice, yet nevertheless the other is positively pretext of reason they managed those disputes. finite: and this reasoning doth not at all aftect

Decay of Piety: the eternal existence of the adorable divinity, in

They suck the blood of those they depend whose invariable nature there is no past nor fu

upon, under a pretext of service and kindness. Bentley

L'Estrange. PRETERLA'PSED. adj. [preterlapsus,Lat.]

PRETOR. n. s. [preetor, Lat. preteur, Past and gone.

Fr] The Roman judge. It is now We look with a superstitious reverence upon

sometimes taken for a mayor. the accounts of preterlapsedd ages. Glanville.

Good Cinna, take this paper; Never was there so much of either, in any And look you lay it in the pretor's chair. Shak. prderlupsed age, as in this.

Walker. Porphyrius, whom you Egypt's pretor made, PRETERLE'GAL. adj. [preter and legal.]

Is come from Alexandria to your aid. Dryden. Not agreeable to law.

An advocate, pleading the cause of his client I expected some evil customs preterlegal, and

before one of the pretors, could only produce a abuses personal, had been to be removed.

single witness, in a point where the law required King Charles.

Spectator. PRETERMI'SSION. n. s. [pretermission,

PRETO'RIAN. adj. [pretorianus, Lat. preFr. prætermissio, Lat.] The act of omit.

torien, Fr.] Judicial; exercised by the ting.

pretor. TO PRETERMI'T. v. a. [prætermitto,

The chancery had the pretorian power for

equity; the star-chamber had the censorian Lat.) To pass by.

power for offences.

Bacch. The fees, that are termly given to these de- PRETTulY. adv. (from pretty.] Neatly ; puties, for recompense of their pains, I do pure posely pretermit; because they be not certain.

elegantly; pleasingly without dignity Bacon.

or elevation. PREʼTERNATURAL, adj. [preter and

How prettily the young swain seems to wash The hand was fair before.

Shakspeare. natural.] Different from what is natur

One saith prettily; in the quenching of the al; irregular.

fame of a pestilent ague, nature is like people We wil, enquire into the cause of this vile and that come to quench the fire of a house; so prelernatural temper of mind, that should make

busy, as one letteth another.

Bacon. á man please himself with that, which can no Children, kept out of ill company, take a pride ways reach those faculties, which nature has

to behave themselves prettily, after the fashion made the proper seat of pleasure. South. of others.

Locke. That form, which the earth is under at pre- PRE'ITINESS. n. s. [from pretty. ] Beauty sent, is preternatural, like a statue made and broken again.


without dignity; neat elegance without

elevation. PREʼTERNATURALLY. adv. [from pre- There is goodliness in the bodies of animals,

ternatural.] In a manner different from as in the ox, greyhound, and stag; or majesty and the common order of nature.

stateliness, as in the lion, horse, eagle, and cock; Simple air, preternaturally attenuated by heat, grave awfulness, as in mastifts; or elegancy and will make itself room, and break and blow up all prettiness, as in lesser dogs and most sort of birds; that which resisteth it.


all which are several modes of beauty. More.

Those drops of prettiness, scatteringly sprinkled PRE'TERNATURALNESS. n. s. [from pre

amongst the creatures, were designed to defecate ternatural.] Manner different from the and exalt our conceptions, not to inveigle or deorder of nature.

tain our passions.

Boyle. PRE'TER PERFECT. adj. [præteritum per. PREʼTTY. adj. [præt, finery, Sax. pretto,

fectum, Lat.) A grammatical term ap- Italian ; prat, prattigh, Dutch.]
plied to the tense which denotes time 1. Neat; elegant ; pleasing without sur-
absolutely past.

prise or elevation.


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the contrary.

PRE Of these the idle Greeks have many pretty the unist hatred and jealousness of too many, tales.


which thou hast suffered to prevail 1: 67 me. They found themselves involved in a train of

King Charles. mistakes, by taking up some pretty hypothesis I told you then he should prevail, and speed in philosophy. Watts. On his bad errand.

Milten, 2. Beautiful without grandeur or dignity.

The millenium prevailed long against the The pretty gentleman is the most complaisant

truth upon the strength of authority. creature in ihe world, and is always of my mind.

Détav of Piety: Spectator.

While Marlbro's cannon thus prevails b; land,

Britain's sea-chiefs, by Anna's high command, 3. It is used in a kind of diminutive con- Resistless o'er the Thuscan billows ride. tempt in poetry, and in conversation :

Blackmore, as, a pretty fellow indeed!

Thus song could prevail
A pretty task; and so I told the fool,

O'er death and o'er hell,
Who needs must undertake to please by rule.

A conquest how hard and how glorious:

Though fate had fast bound her
He'll make a pretty figure in a triumph,

With Styx nine times round her,
And serve to trip before the victor's chariot:

Yer musick and love were victorious. Pune

Addison. This kingdom could never prevail against the 4. Not very small. A very vulgar use.

united power of England.

Serijft A knight of Wales, with shipping and some

3. To gain influence; to operate efec. fritty company, did go to discover those



Abbot, I do not pretend that these arguments are deCut off the stalks of cucumbers, immediately

monstrations of which the vacure of this thing after their bearing, close by the earth, and then

is not capable: but they are such strong probacast a pretty quantity of earth upon the plant,

bilities, as ought to prevail with all those sha and they will bear next year before the ordinary are not able to produce greater probabilities to time. Bacon.

Wilkins. I would have a mount of some pretty height, 4. To persuade or induce. It has witb, leaving the wall of the enclosure breast high. upon, or on, before the person persuaded.

Bacon. With minis obdurate nothing prevaileth; as Of this mixture we put a parcel into a crucible, well they that preach, as they that read unio and suffered it for a pretty while to continue red such, shall suill have cause to complain with the hot.

Boyle. prophets of old, Who will give credit unto our A weazle a pretty way off stood leering at teaching?

Hooker. him.


He was prevailed with to restrain the earl of PRE'TTY. adv. In some degree.

Clarerden, This

Bristol upon his first arrival. word is used before adverbs or adjec

The serpent teith me

Persuasively has so prevail'd, that I tives to intend their signification : it is Have also tasted.

Milten. lers than qery.

They are more in danger to go out of the The world begun to be pretty well stocked way, who are marching under the conduct of a with people, and human industry drained those guide, that it is an hundred to one will mislead unhabitable places.

Burnet. them, than he that has not yet taken a step, and I shall not enquire how far this lofty method is likelier to be prevailed or to enquire after the may advance the reputation of learning; but I

right way.

Locke. am pretty sure 't is no great addition to theirs There are four sorts of arguments that men, who use it.

Collier. in their reasonings with others, make use of to
A little voyage round the lake took up five prevail on them.

days, though the wind was pretty fair for is all
the while.

Addison. He would resume the conduct of the day,
I have a fondness for a project, and a pretty

Nor let the world be lost in endless night; tolerable genius that way myself. Addison. Prevaild upon at last, again he took

These colours were faint and dilute, unless the The harness'd steeds, which still with horror light was trajected obliquely ; for by that means


Addison, they became pretty vivid.

Newton. Upon assurances of revolt, the queen was preThis writer every where insinuates, and, in pailed with to send her forces upon that expeone place, pretty plainly professes himself a sin- dition.

Sscift. cere christian.

Atterbury. Prevail upon some judicious friend to be The copper halfpence are coined by the pub- your constant hearer, and allow him the utmost lick, and every piece worth pretty near the

freedom. value of the copper.

Swift. The first attempts of this kind were pretty

PKEVA'ILING. adj. [from prevail.] Premodest.


dominant; having most influence; havTO PREVA'IL. v. n. (prevaloir, French ;

ing great power; prevalent ; efficacious.

Probabilities, which cross men's appetites and prevalere, Latin.}

prevailing passions, run the same fate: let never 1. To be in force ; to have effect; to have so much probability hang on

one side of a power; to have influence.

covetous man's reasoning, and money on the This custom makes the short-sighted bigots,

other, it is easy to foresee which will outweigh. and the warier scepticks, as far as it prevails.


Save the friendless infants from appression; 2. To overcome; to gain the superiority:

Saints shall assist thee with prevailing prayers, with on or upon, sometimes over or

And warring angels combat on thy side. Rowe. against.

PREVA'ILMENT, n. s. [from prevajl.) They that were your enemies are his,

Prevalence. And have prevail'd as much on him as you.

Messengers Sbakspeare. Of strong prevail ment in unharden d youtk. Nor is it hard for thee to preserve me amidst


The gods pray


PRE'v ALENCE. n. s. [prevalence, Fr. PREVARICA'ror. n. s. (prevaricator, PRE'VALENCY. præralentia, low La- Latin ; prevaricateur, French; from

tin.]. Superiority ; influence ; predo. prevaricate.] A caviller ; a shuffler. minance ; efficacy; force ; validity. PREVE'NE. v. a. (pravenio, Latin.)

The duke better knew what kind of argu- To hinder. ments were of prevalence with him. Clarendon.

If thy indulgent care Others finding that, in former times, many Had not preven'd, among unbody'd shades churchmen were employed in the civil govern- I now had wander'd.

Pbilipr. ment, impured their wanting of these ornaments PREVE'NIENT. adj. ( præveniens, Latin.] their predecessors wore to the power and prevalency of the lawyers.


Preceding; going before ;, preventive.

From the mercy-seat above Animals, whose forelegs supply the use of

Prevenient grace descending, had remov'd
arms, hold, if not an equality in both, a preva.
lency oft times in the other.

The stony from their hearts, and made new flesha

Millon, Why, fair one, would you not rely

Regenerate grow instead. On reason's force with beauty's join'd?

TO PREVENT. v. a. ( prævenio, Latin ; Could I their prevalence deny,

prevenir, French.] I must at once be deaf and blind. Prior. 1. To go before as a guide; to go before,

Least of all does this precept imply, that we making the way easy. should comply with any thing that the prevalence Are we to forsake any true opinion, or to of corrupt fashion has made reputable Rogers.

shun any requisite action, only because we have PRE'v Alent.adi. [pr.evalens, Latin.] in the practice thereof been prevented by idola1. Victorious; gaining superiority; pre


Hooker, dominant.

Prevent him with the blessings of goodness.

Psalms. Brennus told the Roman ambassadors, that prevalent arms were as good as any ciele, and

Prevent us, O Lord, in all our doings with that valiant men might account to be their own

thy most gracious favour.

Common Prayer. as much as they could get.


Let thy grace, O Lord, always prevent and follow us.

Common Prayer. On the foughten field, Michael and his angels prevalent encamping

2. To go before ; to be before.

Milton. Mine eyes prevent the night-watches, that I The conduct of a peculiar providence made might be occupied in thy words. Psalms. the instruments of that great design prevalent

The same officer told us, he came to conduct and victorious, and all those mountains of oppo- us, and that he had prevented the hour, because sition to become plains.

Soutb. we might have the whole day before us for our 2. Powerful; eficacious.


Bacon. Eve! easily may faith admit, that all

Nothing engendred doth prevent his meat: The good which we enjoy, from heav'n descends;

Flies have their tables spread, ere they appear; But, that from us ought should ascend to heav'n,

Some creatures have in winter what to eat; So prevalent, as to concern the mind

Others do sleep.

Herbert. Of God high blest; or to incline his will; 3. To anticipate. Hard to belief may seem.

Milton. Soon shalt thou find, if thou but arm their 3. Predominant.

hands, This was the most received and prevalent opi

Their ready guilt preventing thy commands ;. nion, when I first brought my collection up to

Couldst thou some great proportion'd mischief London.


frame, PREVALENTLY. adv. (from prevalent.]

They'd prove the facher from whose loins they

Popeo Powerfully; forcibly. The ev'ning-star so falls into the main,

4. To preoccupy; to preengage; to at. Torise at morn more prevalently bright. Prior.

tempt first. To PREVARICATE. V. n. I prævaricor,

Thou hast prevented us with overtures of love,

even when we were thine enemies. K. Charles. Latin ; frevariquer, French.) To cavil ;

s. To hinder ; to obviate ; to obstruct. to quibble ; to shume. Laws are either disannulled or quite prevari

This is now almost the only sense.

I do find ic cowardly and vile, isted through change and alteration of times, yet

For fear of what might fall, so to prevent they are good in themselves.

The time of life.

Shakspeare. He prevaricates with his own understanding,

This your sincerest care could not prevent, and cannot seriously consider the strength and discern the evidence of argumentations against

Foretold so lately what would come to pass.

Milton. his desires.


Too great confidence in success is the likeliest Whoever helped him to this citation, I desire he wil never trust him more; for I would think

to prevent it; because it hinders us from makbetter of himself, than that he would wilfully

ing the best use of the advantages which we prevaricate.


Atterbury. PREVARICATION. n. s. (prevaricatio, TO PREVE'NT. v.n. To come before the

time. A latinism. Latin ; prevarication, Fr. from prevari

Strawberries watered with water, wherein cate.] Shuthe ; cavil.

hath been steeped sheep's dung, will prevent and Several Romans, taken prisoners by Hanni- come early.

Bacon, bal, were released upon obliging themselves by PREVE'NTER. n. s. [from pretent.] an oath to return again to his camp: among these was one, who, thinking to clude the oath,

1. One that goes before. went the same day back to the camp, on pre

The archduke was the assailant, and the pron tence of having forgot something ; but this pre

venter, and had the fruit of his diligence and varication was so shocking to the Roman senate,


Bacon. that they ordered him to be delivered up to

2. One that hinders; a hinderer ; an obHannibal.

Addison. structer.



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