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PRECI'SIVE. adj. trom precisus, Latin.] tract.] To contract or bargain before
Exactly limiting, by cutting off all that hand. is not absolutely relative to the present Some are such as a man cannot make his wife, purpose.
though he himselt be unmarried, because they Precisive abstraction is when we consider those are already precontracted to so.ne other; or else things apart, which cannot really exist apart;
are in too near a degree of affinity or consanas when we consider mode, without considering
Aylife. its substance or subject.
Watts. PRECU'RSE. n. s. [from precurro, Latin.) TO PRECLL'DE, a. (præcludo, Latin.) Forerunning To shut out or hinder by some antici.
The like precurse of fierce events, pation.
As harbingers preceding still the fates,
And prologue to the omen coming on, jections of our adversaries, that we do not deter
Have heaven and earth cogether demonstrated. mine the final cause of the systematical parts of
Shakspeare. the worla, merely as they have respect to the PRECU'RSOR. n. si [præcursor, Lat.precure exigencies or conveniences of life. Bentley. seur, Fr.). Forerunner; harbinger. If you once allow them such an accepe cion
Jove's lightnings, the precursers of chance, you have precluded yourself from any
Of dreadful thunder claps, more momentary more reasoning against them.
This contagion might have been presaged upon that I entirely esteem you; none but that which consideration of its precursors, viz.. a rude winno bills can preclude, and no king can prevent. ter, and a close, sulphurous and fiery air. Harv.
Thomas Burnet played the precurser to the PRECO'CIOUS. adj. [præcocis, Lat. pie- PREDÁCeous. adj. [from prudu, Latin.]
coming of Homer in his Homerides. Pope, cose, Fr.) Ripe before the time.
Many precocious trees, and such as have their Living by prey. spring in ine winter, may be found in most parts. As those are endowed with poison, because
Broun. they are predaceous, so these need it not, because PRECO'CITY.n.s. (from precocious,) Ripe
their food is near at hand, and may be obtained without contest.
Derbam. ness before the time. Some impute the cause of his fall to a preco
PRE'D AL. adj. [from preda, Lat.] Robcity of spirit and valour in him; and that there- bing; practising plunder. This word is fore some infectious southern air did blast him. not countenanced from analogy.
Howel. Sarmatia, laid by predal rapine low, TO PRECO'GITATE.v.a. [præcogito, Lat.] Mourn'd the hard yoke, and sought relief in vain. To consider or scheme beforehand.
Sa. Boyses PRECOGNITION. n. so (pre and cognitio, PRE'DATORY. adj. [predatorius, Lat. from
Lat.) Previous knowledge; antecedent præda, Latin.) examination.
1. Plundering; practising rapine. PRECONCEIPT. n. s. [pre and conceit.] An
The king called his parliament, where he exopinion previously formed.
aggerated the malice and the cruel predatory war made by Scotland.
Bacon. A thing in reason impossible, which notwithstanding through their misfashioned preconceit, ap
2. Hungry; preying; rapacious; ravenpeared unto them no less certain than if nature had written it in the very foreheads of all the
The evils that come of exercise are, that it Hooker.
maketh the spirits more hot and predatory. To Preconcei've, v. a. [pre and con
Bacon. ceive.] To form an opinion beforehand; PREDECEASED. adj. [pre and deceased.]
Dead before. to imagine beforehand. In a dead plain the way seemeth the longer,
Will you mock at an ancient tradition, began because the eye hatii preconceived it shorter than
upon an honourable respect, and worn as a methe truth; and the frustrations of that maketh
morable trophy of predeceased valour? Sbakspo
Bacon. PREDECE'SSOR. n. s. [predecesseur, Fr. Poudness of preconceived opinions is not like pre and decedo, Latin.] to render your reports suspect, nor for want of 1. One that was in any state or place becare, deiective.
fore another. The reason why men are so weak in govern
In these pastoral pastimes, a great many days ing is, because most things fall out accidentally, and come not into any compliance with their
were spent to follow their flying predecessors. preconceived ends, but they are forced to comply
There is cause, why we should be slow and
unwilling to change, without very urgent neces. 1.9. s. (pre and concep. sity, the ancient ordinances, rites, and approved tion.) Opinion previously formed. customs of our venerable predecessors. Hooker.
Custom with most men prevails more than If I seem partial to my predecessor in the truth; according to the notions and preconcepe laurel, the friends of antiquity are not few. tions, which it hath formed in our ininds, we
Dryden. shape the discourse of reason itself. Hakewill. The present pope, who is well acquainted with PrecO'NTRACT. N. s. (pre and contract.)
the secret history, and the weakness of his pres
decessor, seems resolved to bring the project to This was formerly accented on the last
Addison. syllable. A contract previous to another. The more beauteous Cioe sat to thee, He is your husband on a a precontract;
Good Howard, emulous of Apolles' art; To bring you thus together, 'ı is no sin.
But happy thou from Cupid's arrow free,
Sbakspeare. And flames that pierc'd thy predecessor's heart. To PRECONTRA’cr. 7'. a. (pre and con
Prior, VOL. III.
it seem so.
By the civil law, their predial estates are like PREDESTINARIAN. n. s. [from predesti.
bie to fiscal payments and taxes, as not being apnate.] One that holds the doctrine of
propriated for the service of divine worship, but for profane uses.
E. adj. (predicable, Fr. prae
dicabilis, Lat.] Such as may be affirmed chives, read God's hidden decrees, when with of something. less labour he may secure an authentick trans- PREDICABLE.n. s. (predicabile, Lat.) A cript within himself?
Decay of Piety. logical term, denoting one of the five
Fr. pre and destino, Lat.] To appoint thing.
These they call the five predicables; becaus: Some gentleman or other shall 'scape a preo every thing that is attirmed concerning any being, destinate scratche face.
Sbakspeare. must be the genus, species, difference, some proWhom he did foreknow, he also did predestin- perty or accident. ate to be conformed to the image of his Son.
PREDICAMENT. 2. . (predicament
, £i. Romans, Having predestinated us unto the adoption of
Latin] children by Jesus Christ to himself. Ephesians.
1. A class or arrangement of beings or TO PREDESTINATE. v. n. To hold pre
substances ranked according to their destination. In ludicrous language.
natures: called also categorema or cate: His ruft crest he rears, gory.
Harris And pricks up his predestinating ears. Dryden.
If there were nothing but bodies to be ranked PREDESTINATION. n. s. [predestination,
by them in the predicament of place, then tha: Fr. from predestinate.] Fatal decree;
description would be allowed by them as suff
2. Class or kind described by any defiui. Predestination we can difference no otherwise
The offender's life lies in the mercy
Of the duke only, 'gainst all other voice; and predestination is only of men; and yet not
In which predicament I say thou stand'st. Slak, of all to men belonging, but of their salvation
I shew the line and the predicament, properly in the common use of divines; or per
Wherein you range under this subtle king. dition, as some have used it. Raleigh.
. Nor can they justly accuse
1.. adj. [from predica Their maker, or their making, or their fate; ment.] Relating to predicaments. As if predestination over-ruld
PRE'vicast. x.s. (predicans, Lat.) One Their will, dispos'd by absolute decree,
that affirms any thing.
To PRE’DICATÉ. v. a. (predico, Latin.] ate.) One that holds predestination or
To afiirm any thing of another thing.
All propositions, wherein a part of the code the prevalence of pre-established neces- plex idea, which any term stands for, is prees.es
ed of that term, are only verbal; v. g.to say that Me, mine example let the stoicks use,
gold is a metal.
TO PRE'DICATE, V. n.
To affirm; to
comprise an affirmation. TO PREDE'STINE. v.a. (pre and destine.]
It were a presumption to think, that any thing
in any created nature can bear any perfect reTo decree beforehand.
semblance of the incomprehensible perfection vf Ye careful angels, whom eternal fate.
the divine nature, very being itself not predicato Ordains on earth and human acts to wait,
ing univocally touching himn and any created Who turn with secret pow'r this restless ball, being.
And bid predestin'd empires rise and fall. Prior,
PRE’DICATE, n. s. (prædicatum, Latin. mination, Fr. pre and determination.]
That which is affirmed or denied of the Determination made beforehand.
subject : as, man is rational; man is * This predetermination of God's own will is so inimortal. far from being the determining of ours, that it is The predicate is that which is affirmed or de distinctly the contrary; for supposing God to
nied of the subject.
Wattie predetermine that I shall act freely; 't is certain PREDICATION. n. s. (predicatio, Latin; from thence, that my will is free in respect to from predicate.] Affirmation concerning God, and not predetermined. Hammond. The truth of the catholick doctrine of all ages,
Let us reason from them as well as we can; in points of predetermination and irresistibility, stands in opposition to the Calvinists. Hammond.
they are only about identical predications and is. fluence.
Lacda. TO PREDETE'RMINE. v. a. (pre and de- TO PREDICT. v. a. (predictus, Latin ;
termine.] To doom or confine by pre. predire, Fr.) To foretel; to foreshor. vious decree.
He is always inveighing against such unequa! We see in brutes certain sensible instincts
distributions; nor does he ever cease to pred antecedent to their imaginative faculty, where
publick ruins, till his private are repaired. by they are predetermined to the convenience of
Government of ibe Tongs the sensible life.
Hale. Prediction. n. s. (prædictio, Lat. proPRE'DIAL. adj. [prædium, Lat.) Consist- diction, Fr. from predict.} Prophesy i ing of farms.
declaration of something future.
the weighty affairs whereof should be ordered Are to the world in general, as to Cæsar.
by those deliberations, wherein such an humour Sbakspeare. as this were predominant.
Hooker. The predictions of cold and long winters, hot Foul subornation is predominant, and dry summers, are good to be known. Bacon. And equity exild your highness' land. Sbaksp. How soon hach thy prediction, seer blest !
It is a planet, that will strike Measur'd this transient world the race of time, Where 'i is predominant; and 't is powerful. Till time stand tix'd. Milton.
Sbakspeare. In Christ they all meet with an invincible evi- Those helps were overweighed by things that dence, as if they were not predictions, but after- made against him, and were predominant in the relations; and the penmen of them not prophets
Bacon. but evangelists.
Soutb. Whether the sun, predominant in heav'n, He, who prophesy'd the best,
Rise on the earth ; or earth rise on the sun. Milt. Approves the judgment to the rest;
I could shew you several pieces, where the He'd rather choose that I should die,
beauties of this kind are so predominant, that you Than his prediciion prove a lie. Svift. could never be able to read or understand them. PRELICTOR. n. s. from predict.] Fore
TO PREDO'MINATE. v. n. (predominer, Whether he has not been the cause of this Fr. præ and dominor, Lat.] To prevail ; poor man's death, as well as the predictor, may to be ascendant; to be supreme in inbe disputed.
fluence. PRE. I GESTION. n. s. [pre and digestion.] So much did love e' her executed lord Digestion too soon performed.
Predominate in this fair lady's heart. Daniel. Predigestion, or hasty digestion, fills the body The gods formed women's souls out of these full of crudities, and seeds of diseases. Bacon. principles which compose several kinds of aniTO PREDISPOʻSE. v. a. [pre and dispose.]
mals; and their good or bad disposition arises, To adapt previously to any certain
according as such and such principles predominate in their constitutions.
The rays, reflected least obliquely, may predoVegetable productions require heat of the sun,
minate over the rest, so much as to cause a heap to predispose and excite the earth and the seeds.
of such particles to appear very intensely of Burnet. their colour.
Newton's Opticks. Unless nature be predisposed to friendship by
Where judgment is at a loss to determine the its own propensity, no arıs of obligation shall be able to abate the secret hatred of some persons
choice of a lady who has several lovers, fancy
may the more allowably predominate. Clarissa. towards others.
Soutb. PREDISPOSI'tion. n. s. (pre and disposi
To PREELE'CT. v. a. I pre and elect.] To tion.] Previous adaptation to any cer
choose by previous decision
PRE E'MINENCE. n. s. [preeminence, Fr. tain purpose. The disease was conceived to proceed from a
pre and eminence. It is sometimes writ. malignity in the constitution of the air, gathered
ten, to avoid the junction of ee, prehemi. by the predispositions of seasons. Bacon. nence.]
Tunes and airs have in themselves some affi- 1. Superiority of excellence. nity with the affections; so as iç is no marvel if I plead for the preeminence of epick poetry. they alter the spirits, considering that tunes have
Dryden. a predisposition to the motion of the spirits.
Let profit have the preeminence of honour in
Bacon. the end of poetry; pleasure, though but the sea External accidents are often the occasional
cond in degree, is the first in favour Dryden. cause of the king's evil; but they suppose a pre- It is a greater prebeminence to have life, than to disposition of the body.
Wiseman. be without it; to have life and sense, than to PREDO'MINANCE. n. s. [præ and do- have life only; to have life, sense, and reason, PREDO'MINANCY.) mina, Lat.] Pre. than to have only life and sense. Wilkins. valence; superiority; ascendency; su.
The preeminence of christianity to any other
religious scheme which preceded it, appears periour influence.
from this, that the most eminent among the Pa. We make guilty of our disasters, the sun, the
gan philosophers disclaimed many of those sue moon, and the stars, as if we were knaves, thieves,
perstitious follies which are condemned by reand treacherous by spherical predominance.
Addison Shukspeare. An inflammation consists only of a sanguine
2. Precedence; priority of place.
His lance brought him captives to the triumph ou, affluxion, or else is denominable from other
of Artesia's beauty, such as, though Artesia be humours, according to the predominancy of me. lancholy, phlegm, or choler.
amongst the fairest, yet in that company were In human bodies, there is an incessant war
to have the preeminence.
Sidney. fare amongst the humours for predominancy.
He touched it as a special preeminence of JuHowel.
nias and Andronicus, that in christianity they were his ancients.
Hooker. The true cause of the Pharisees' disbeliet of Christ's doctrine, was the predominance of their
I do invest you jointly with my power, covetousness and ambition over their will. South, Preeminence, and all the large effects
That troop with majesty.
Shakspeare. The several rays in white light do retain their coloritic qualities, by which those of any sort,
The English desired no preeminence, but offer. whenever they becoine more copious than the
ed equality both in liberty and privilege, and in rest, do, by their excess and predominance, cause
capacity of offices and employments Hayward. their proper colour to appear.
Am I distinguish'd from you but by tuils,
Superior toils, and heavier weight of cares? PREDO'MINANT. adj. (predominant, Fr. Painful preeminence !
Addison, pre and dominor, Latin.] Prevalent; 3. Superiority of power or influence. supreme in influence; ascendant.
That which standech on record,
hath preemia Diiserable were the condition of chat church, mience above that which passech from hand to
hand, and hath no pens but the tongues, no book and eristent.] Existent beforehand; pre. but the ears, of men.
ceding in existence. Beyond the equator, the southern point of the Artificial things could not be from eternity needle is sovereign, and the north submits his
because they suppose man, by whose art they preeminence.
were made, preexistent to them; the workman PREE’MINENT. adj. (preeminent, Fr. pre must be before the work.
BETA and eminent.) Excellent above others. Blind to former, as to future fate,
Tell how came I here? by some great maker What mortal knews his preexistent state? Pone. In goodness and in pow'r preeminent. Milton. If this preexistent eternity is not compatible
We claim a proper interest above others, in with a successive duration, then some being, the preeminent rights of the household of faith. though infinitely above our finite comprehen
Spratt. sions, must have liad an identical, invariable cos. PREE’MPTION., n. s. (præemprio, Latin.] tinuance from all eternity, which being is no
other than God.
Beatles The right of purchasmg before another. Certain persons, in the reigns of king Ed- PRE’FACE. n. s. (preface, Fr. prafutia
, ward vi. and queen Mary, sought to make use Lat.) Something spoken introductory of this preemption, but, crossed in the prosecu- to the main design; introduction; SOILEtion, or defeated in their expectation, gave it thing proemial.
This superficial tale TO PREEN. v. a. (priinen, Dutch, to dress Is but a preface to her worthy praise. Sbali
or prank up.) To trim the feathers of Sir Thomas More betrayed his depth of jude birds, to enable them to glide through ment in state affairs in his Utopia, than which, the air: for this use nature has furnish. in the opinion of Budæus in a preface before it, ed them with two peculiar glands, which
ourage hath not seen a thing more deep.Peasban
Heav'n's high behest no preface needs. Mik secrete an unctuous matter into a per: To PRE'FacĚ. v. n. (prefari, Latin.) To forated oil bag, out of which the bird
say something introductory: draws it with its bill.
Bailey. Before I enter upon the particular parts of her TO PREENGA'GE. v. a. (pre and engage.] character, it is necessary to preface, that she's
To engage by precedent ties or con- the only child of a decrepid father. Specaia, tracts.
TO PRE'FACE. v. a. To Cipseus by his friends his suit he mov'd, 1. To introduce by something proemial. But he was preengag'd by former cies. Dryden. Wheresoe'er he gave an admonition, he fra Not only made an instrument;
faced it always with such demonstrations of tenBut preengag'd without my own consent. Dryd. derness. The world has the unhappy advantage of pre
Thou art rash, engaging our passions, at a time when we have not And must be prefac'dinto government. Scutters. reflection enough to look beyond the instrument 2. To face; to cover. A ludicrous sense
to the hand whose direction it obeys. Rogers. I love to wear clothes that are flush, PREENGA'GEMENT. n.s. (from preengage.] Not prefacing old rags with plush. Clemlost
. Precedent obligation.
PRE'FACER. n. s. [from preface.] The My preengagements to other themes were not writer of a preface. unknown to those for whom I was to write.
If there be not a tolerable line in all these sit, Boyle.
the prefacer gave me no occasion to write betta The opinions, suited to their respective tem.
Dryades pers, will make way to their assent, in spite of Pre'FATORY. adj. (from preface.] 'loaccidental preengagements.
troductory. Men are apt to think, that those obediences they pay to God shall, like a preengugement, dis
If this proposition, whosoever will be saved. annul all after-contracts made by guilt.
be restrained only to those to whom it was ir Decay of Pitty.
tended, the christians, then the anathema reacte As far as opportunity and former preengage
not the heathens, who had never heard of Christ ments will give leave.
after all, I am far from blaming even that profe 1. PREEST A'BLISH. v. a. [pre and esta
tory addition to the creed.
PRÉFECT. . s. [præfectus, Lat.] Goblish.] To settle beforehand. PREESTABLISHMENT. n. s. [from pre
He is much establish.] Settlement beforehand.
The better soldier, having been a tribune,
It was the custom in the Roman empire, Was form'd at first with myriads more,
the prefects and viceroys of distant provincest) It did thro' all the mighty poets roll. Dryden.
transmit a relation of every thing remarkable in PREEXISTENCE. n. so (preexistence, Fr.
their administration. from preexist.)
PREFECTURE. n. s. [prefecture, Fr. pra: 1. Existence before.
fectura, Latin.] Coinmand; office of Wisdom declares her antiquity and preexiste government. ence to all the works of this earth. Burnet
. TO PRETER. v. a. (preferer, Fr. præfers, 2. Existence of the soul before its union Latin.) with the body.
1. To regard more than another. As Simonides has exposed the vicious part of With brotherly love, in honour prefer one ar women, from the doctrine of preexistence; some other.
Receta of the ancient philosophers have satirized the vi- 2. With above before the thing postponed. cious part the human species, from a notion of the soul's postexistence.
If I do not remember thee, let any congue
Addison. cleave to the roof of my mouth; if I prefer no PREEXI'STENT. adj. [preexistent, Fr. pre Jerusalem above my clief joy. Puede
3. With before.
one thing above another; election of one He that cometh after me is preferred before rather than another. me; for he was before me.
John. It gives as much due to good works, as is conIt may worthily seem unto you a most shame- sistent with the grace of the gospel; it gives as ful thing, to have preferred an infamous peace much preference to divine grace, as is consistent before a most just war.
Knolles. with the precepts of the gospel. Spratt.
Leave the criticks on either side, to contend
about the preference due to this or that sort of The greater good is to be preferred before the poetry.
Dryden. less, and the lesser evil to be endured rather than We find in ourselves a power to begin or for..
Wilkins. bear several actions of our minds and motions of 4. With to.
our bodies, barely by a thought or preference of Would he rather leave this francick scene, the mind, ordering the doing or not doing such And trees and beasts prefer to courts and men? a particular action.
Locke. Prior. The several musical instruments in the hands 5. To advance; to exalt; to raise.
of the Apollos, Muses, and Fauns, might give By the recommendation of the earl of Dun- light to the dispute for preference between the bar, he was preferred to the bishoprick of Co
ancient and inodern musick.
Addison. ventry and Lichfield.
Clarendon. A secret pleasure touch'd Athena's soul, 6. To present ceremoniously. This seems
To see the pref'rence due to sacred age
Regarded. not a proper use.
The Romanists were used to value the latter
equally with the former, or even to give them
Waterlanda 7. To offer solemnly ; to propose pub- 2. With to before the thing postponed, lickly; to exhibit.
This passes with his soft admirers, and gives
him the preference to Virgil.
Dryden. To yield him more obedience or support;
Ic directs one, in preference to, or with neglect And as t'a perjur’d duke of Lancaster,
of, the other, and thereby either the continua. Their cartel of detiance they prefer.
tion or change becomes voluntary. Locke. 1, when my soul began to faint, My vows and prayers to thee preferr'd:
3. With above.
I shall give an account of some of those appro-
priate and discriminating notices wherein the
human body differs, and hath preference above Prefer a bill against all kings and parliaments
the most perfect brutal nature.
Hale. since the conquest; and if that won't do, challenge the crown and the two houses. Collier.
4. With before. Take care,
Herein is evident the visible discrimination Lest thou prefer so rash a pray'r;
between the human nature, and its preference
Hale. Nor vainly hope the queen of love
Every person within the church or common- The knowledge of things alone gives a value
Locke. quent may suffer condign punishment. Ayliffe.
knowledge over another. PREFERABLE. adj. (preferable, Fr. from
PREFE'RMENT. n. s. [from prefer.]
1. Advancement to a higher station. prefer.] Eligible before something else.
I'll move the king With to commonly before the thing To any shape of thy preferment, such refused.
As thou 'lt desire,
Shakspeare. The stronger ties we have to an unalterable If you hear of that blind traitor, pursuit of happiness, which is greatest good, the Preferment falls on him that cuts him off. Sbaks. more are we free from any necess:ry coinpliance Princes must, by a vigorous exercise of that with our desire, set upon any particular, and Jaw, make it every man's interest and honour to then appearing preferable good, till we have duly cultivate religion and virtue, by rendering vice examined it.
Locke. a disgrace, and the certain ruin to preferment or Though it be incumbent on parents to provide pretensions.
Swift. for their children, yer this debe to their children 2. A place of honour or profit. does not quite cancel the score due to their pa- All preferments should be placed upon fit men, rents; but only is made by nature preferable to
L'Estrange. Locke. The mercenary and inconstant crew of the Almost every man in our nation is a politician, hunters after preferment, whose designs are aland hath a scheme of his own, which he thinks
ways seen through.
Davenant, preferable to that of any other.
Addison. Even in such a state as this, the pleasures of
3. Preference; act of preferring. Not in virtue would be superior to those of vice, and
All which declare a natural preferment of the
one unto the motion before the other. Brown,
In preference ; in such a manner as to figuro, Lat.) To show by an antecedent
representation. the tragick poets; or how conies he to chuse
PREFIGURATION.n. s. [from prefigurate.)
Antecedent representation. to Terence? Dennis. PREFERENCE, n. s. (preference, Fr. from
The same providence that hath wrought the prefer.]
one, will work the other; the former being
pledges, as well as prefixurations of the latter. 1. The act of preferring; estimation of
justly preferable. PREFERABLENESS,