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Doth root upon.
Or lazy lakes unconscious of a flood,
leads upon the top, raised with statues intero Whose dul brown Naiads ever sleep in mud. posed.
Bacon. Parnel. Tó LEAD. v. a. [from the noun.] 'To fit What amazing stupidity is it, for men to be with lead in any manner. negligent of salvation thenisclves! to sit down
He fashioneth the clay with his arm, he aplazy and unactive.
plicth himself to lead it over; and he is diligent 2. Slow; tedious.
to make clean the furnace. Ecclesiasticus. The ordinary method for recruiting their There is a traverse placed in a loir, at the armies, was now too dull and lazy an expedient right hand of the chair, with a privy door, and to resist this torrent.
a carved window of glass leaded with gold and LD. is a contraction of lord.
blue, where the mother sitteth.
Bacon LEA. n. s. [ley, Sax. a fallow ; leag, Sax. To Lead. v. a. preter. I led; part. led. a pasture.] Ground inclosed, not open. [lædan, Saxon ; leiden, Dutcb.]
Greatly agast with this pittcous plea; 1. To guide by the hand.
Ceres, most bounteous lady, thy rich leas Looks fearfully on the confined deep:
Sbakspoare. And I'll repair the misery thou dost bear,
With something rich about me: from that place The darnel, hemlock, and rank fumitory
I shall no leading need. Shaksp. King Lear. Shakspeare's Henry v. Doth not each on the sabbath loose his ox or Dry up thy harrow'd veins, and plough torn his ass from the stall, and lead him away to leas,
Luke. Whereof ungrateful man with liqu'rish draughts, They thrust him out of the city, and led him And morsels unctuous, greases his pure mind. unto the brow of the hill.
Lile. Sbakspeare. 2. To conduct to any place. Such court guise, As Mercury did first devise,
Save to every man his wife and children, that With the mincing Dryades,
they may lead them away, and depart. i Sam On the lawns, and on the leas. Miltan.
Then brought he me out of the way, and lead The lowing herds wind slowly o'er the lea.
me about the way without unto the utter gate.
Ezekiel. Gray. He maketh me to lie down in green pastures; LEAD. H. s. [læd, Saxon.)
he leadeth me beside the still waters. Psalms, 2. Lead is the beaviest metal except gold and quicksilver. Lead is the softest of 3. To conduct as head or commander.
Would you lead forth your army against the all the metals, and very ductile, though enemy, and seek him where he is to fight? less so than gold : it is very little sub
Spenser. ject to rust, and the least sonorous of
He turns head against the lion's armed' jaws; all the metals except gold. The spe
And being no more in debt to years than thou,
Leads ancient lords, and rev'rend bishops, on cifick gravity of lead is to that of water
To bloody battles.
Sbaksp. Henry IV. as !1,322 to 1000. Lead, when kept in
If thou wilt have fusion over a common fire, throws up The leading of thy own revenges, take all other bodies, except gold, that are One half of my commission, and set down mixed, all others being lighter, except
As best thou art experienc'd. Sbakspeare
He led me on to mightiest deeds, Mercury, which will not bear that de.
Above the nerve of mortal arm, gree of heat : it afterwards vitrifies with Against the uncircumcis'd, our enemies : the baser metals, and earries them off, But now hach cast me off. Milton's Agonistes. in form of scoriæ, to the sides of the Christ took not upon him flesh and blood, that vessel. The weakest acids are the best he might conquer and rule nations, lead armies, solvents for lead: it dissolves very
or possess places.
He might muster his family up, and lead them readily in aqua fortis diluted with wa.
out against the Indians, to seek reparation upon ter, as also in vinegar. The smoke of any injury.
Locke. lead works is a prodigious annoyance, 4. To introduce by going first. and subjects both the workmen, and Which may go out before them, and which the cattle that graze about them, to a
may go in before them, and which may lead mortal disease.
Numbers. Thou art a soul in bliss, but I am bound
His guide, as faithful from that day,
As Hesperus that leads the sun his way, Fairf: Of lead, some I can shew you so like steel,
5. To guide ; to show the method of and so unlike common load ore, that the work- attaining. nen call it steel ore.
testimony is not so proper to lead us Lead is employed for the refining of gold and
into the knowledge of the essence of things, as to silver by the cupel; hereof is made common acquaint us with the existence of things. Watts. caruss with vinegar; of ceruss, red lead; of plum- 6. To draw; to entice; to allure. bum ustum, the best yellow ochre; of lead, and Appoint him a meeting, give him a shew of
half as much ein, solder for lead. Grow. comfort, and lead him on with a fine baited 2. [In the plural.] Flat roof to walk on; delay, because houses are covered with lead.
The lord Cottington, being a master of temStalls, bulks, windows,
per, knew how to lead him ito a mistake, and
then drive him into choler, and then expose Are smother'd up, leads tillid, and ridges hors’d
him. With variable complexions; all agreeing In earnestness to see him. Sbakspeare. 7. To induce ; to prevail on by pleasing I would have the tower two stories, and goodly
What I did, I did in honour,
1. One that leads, or conducts. Ld by th' impartiai conduct of niy soul.
2. Captain ; commander. Slakspeare.
In my tent He was driven by the necessities of the times, i'll draw the form and model of our battle, mcre chan ki by his ow? dispusition, to any ri
Limit each leader to his several charge, gour of actions.
And part in just proportion our small strength. What I say sill have lit:le influence on those
Sbakspeare. whose ends Lead them to wish the continuance of
I have given him for a leader and commander the war.
Isaiah. 3. To pass; to spend in any certain man
Those escaped by flight, not without a sharp ner.
jest against their leaders, affuming, that, as they The sweet woman leads an ill life with him. had followed them into the field, so it was good
Sbakspeure. reason they should follow them out. Hayward. So shalt thou lead
When our Lucians see Safest thy life, and best prepard endure
Our brave examples, they admiring say, To: murial manage when it comes.
Milton, Behold our gallant leaásrs. Him, fair Lavinia, thy surviving wife
The brave leader of the Lycian crew. Dryden. Shii breed in groves, to lead a solitary life. 3. One who goes first.
Dryden. Nay, keep your way, little gallant; you wers Luther's life was led up to the doctrines he wont to be a follower, now you are a loader. preach'd, and his death was the death of the
Fransis Atterbury: 4. One at the head of any party or face Celibat, as then practised in the church of
tion: as, the detestable Wharton was Rom-, *as commonly :orced, taken up under a and led in all uncleanness.
the leodir of the whigs. Francis Atterbury.
The understandings of a senate are enslaved by This distemper is most incident to such as liad
three or four leaders, set to get or to keep ema sedentari liie. Arbuthnot on Aliments. ployments.
Swift. 9. LEAD. v. 11.
LE'ADING. participial adj. Principal; 1. To go first, and show the way.
chief; capital. I will tra.'on softly, according as the cattle that In organized bodies, which are propagated by gesch before me, and the children, be able to en- seed, the shape is the leading quality, and most dure.
Genesis. characteristical part, that determines the species. 2. To conduct as a commander.
Locke. Cyrus was beaten and slain under the leading
Mistakes arise from the influence of private of suman, whose wit and conduct made a great persons, upon great numbers stiled leading men figure. Temple. and parties.
Swift. 3. To show the way, by going first. LEADING-STRINGS.n. s. [lead and string.)
He left his mother a countess by patent, which Strings by which children, when they was a new living example, growu before sode- learn to walk, are held from failing.
Sound may serve such, ere they to sense are The way of maturing of tobacco must be froin
grown, the rest of the carth or sun; we see some levde
Like leading-strings, till they can walk alone. ing of this in musk melons sown upon a hot-bod
Dryden. sed below.
Was he ever able to walk without leadinge The vessels heavy-laden put to sea
strings, or swim without bladders, without being With prosp'rous zales, a wonian leads the way.
discovered by his hobbling and his sinking? Dryden.
Swift. LEAD. 11. s. (from the verb.) Guidance ; LÉ'ADMAN. n. s. [lead and man.]. One first place: a low despicable word.
who begins or leads a dance, Yorkshire takes the lead of the other counties.
Such a light and mettled dance
Say you never, Li'Aden, adj. [leaden, Saxon.]
And by leadmen for the nonce, 1. Niedt of lead.
Thaç turn round like grindle stonce. Thisnger-funded rage, when it shall find
Ben Jonson. The time of unskann'd switness, will, c: no late,
LE'AdWORT. n. s. (Plumbag?.) A plant. Tye leader pounds to 's heels. Siuni Coriolanus. o murthi'rous sluniher!
LEAF. n. s. leones, plural. [leaf, Saxon ; Larist thou he loader mace upon ay tov,
kaf, Durch.) Tinat krsthee musick? Slik lius Cæsar. 1. The green deciduous parts of plants
A keten bullet shot froni one of these uns and towers. 2014? a stone wall, the space of twenty-tour
This is the state of man; to-day he puts forth peces iran it, will be beaten into a thin place.
The tender leaves of hopes, to-inorrow blossoms. Wilkins.
Sbakspecre. 2. Hory; unwilling; motionless.
A man shall seldom fail of having cherries libaldo'st find him tractable to us,
borne by his graft the same year in which his Encouzz him, and tell him all our reasons:
invision is madı, if his graft have blossom buds; If he be lader, icy, cold, unwilling,
whereas if it were only leaf buds, it will not bear B.mou s too. Sbakspeare's Richard 111. fruit will the second season.
Boyle. 3. Heavy: dull.
Those things which are removed to a distant mustrie with troubled thoughts to take a
view, ongiit to mike but one mass; as the leaves na;
on the trees, and the billows in the sea. Lest kada slumbers poize me down to-morrow,
Dryden's Dufresnoy. Whea i sould mount with wings of victory. 2. A part of a book, containing two pages.
Sbaksýrare. Happy ye loaoes, when as those lily hands LEADER ». s (from bad.]
Shall handle you.
Spenser. VOL. II.
to our own tents.
Peruse my leaves through ev'ry part,
Where fraud and falshood invade society, the And think thou seest my owner's heart
band presently breaks, and men are put to a loss Scrawl'd o'er with trides.
Stuif?. where to league and to fasten their dependances. 3. One side of a double door.
Sestb. The two leaves of the one door were folding. LEAGUE. n. s. [liezë, Fr.]
1 Kings 1. A league ; leuca, Lat. from lech, Welsh; 4. Any thing foliated, or thinly beaten.
a stone that was used to be erected at Eleven ounces two pence sterling ought to be the end of every league. Camden. of so pure silver, as is called leaf silver, and then
2. A measure of lengiă, containing three the melter must add of other weight seventeen pence halfpenny farthing.
Ere the ships could meer by twice five leagues, Leaf cold, that flies in the air as light as down, is as truly gold as that in an ingot.
We were encount'red by a mighty rock. Sbaksp. Digby on Bodies. Ev'n Italy, though many a league remote,
Addison. TO LEAF. v. n. (from the noun.] To
In distant echoes answer'd. bring leaves; to bear leaves.
LE'AGUED, adj. (from league.] Confe
derated. Most trees fall off the leaves at autumn; and if not kept back by cold, would leaf about the
Aud now thus leagu'd by an eternal bond, solstice.
Pbilips. LE'AFLESS. adj. [from leaf.) Naked of
LE'AGUER. 1. s.
s. [beleggeren, Dutcb.) leaves.
Siege ; investment of a town. Bare honesty, without some other adornment, being looked on as a leafless tree, nobody will
We will bind and hoodwink him so, that he take himself to its shelter. Gov. of tbe Tongue.
shall suppose no other but that he is carried into Where doves in flocks the leafless trees o'er- the leaguer of the adversaries, when we bring him shade,
Shakspeare. And lonely woodcocks haunt the wat’ry glade.
LEAK. a. s. [leck, leke, Dutch.] A breach Pope.
or hole which iets in water. LE'AFY. adj. (from leaf.] Full of leaves. There will be always evils, which no art of The frauds of men were ever so,
man can cure: breaches and leaks more than Since summer was first leafy. Shakspeare.
man's svit hath hands to stop.
Hecker. What chance, good lady, hath berett you The water rushes in, as it doth usually in che thus?
leak of a ship.
Wilkins. -Dim darkness, and this leefy labyrinth. Milt.
Whether she sprung a leck I cannot find, O'er barren mountains, o'er the flow'ry plain,
* Or whether she was overset with wind, The leafy forest, and the liquid main,
Or that some rock below her bottom rent, Extends thy uncontroul'd and boundless reign. But down at once with all her crew she went. Dryden.
Dryden Her leafy arms with such extent were spread, TO LEAK. V. n. That hosts of birds, that wing the liquid air,
1. To let water in or out. Perch'd in the boughs. Dryden's Flower and Leaf.
They will allow us ne'er a jordan, and then So when some swelt'ring travellers retire
we leak in your chimney. To leafy shades, near the cool sunless verge
His feet should be washed every day in cold Of Paraba, Brasilian stream; her tail
water; and have his shoes so thin, that they A grisly hydra suddenly shoots forth. Pbilips.
might leak, and let in water.
Lecke. LEAGUE. 1. s. [ligue, Fr. ligo, Lat.) A
2. To drop through a breach or disconti. confederacy; a combination 'either of
nuity. interest or friendship.
The water, which will perhaps by degrees You peers, continue this united league : leak into several parts, may be emptied out again. I every day expect an embassage
Wilkins. From my Redeemer, to redeem me hence.
Golden stars hung o'er their heads, And now in peace my soul shall part to heav'n, And seemed so crowded, that they burst upon Since I have made my friends at peace on earth.
Sbakspeare. And dart at once their baleful influence
Dryden ard Lez. What the conditions of that league must be.
LE'AKACE. n. s. (from leak.] Allowance Thou shalt be in league with the stones of the
made for accidental toss in liquid mea. field; and the beasts of the field shall be at peace with thee.
Feb. LE’AKY. adj. [from leak.] Go break thy league with Baasha, that he may 1. Battered or pierced, so as to let water depart from me.
in or out. It is a great error, and a narrowness of mind,
Thou'rt so leaky, to think, that nations have nothing to do one
That we must leave thee to thy sirking; for with another, except there be either an union in
Thy dearest quit thee. , Sbaksg. Ant. and Cleop. scvereignty, or a conjunction in pacts or leagues:
li you have not enjoy'd what youth could give, there are other bands of society and implicii confederations.
Bacon's Hoby War.
But lite sunk through you like a laky sieve,
Accuse yourself, you liv'd not while you might. I, a private person, whom my country As a league breaker gave up bound, presum'd Single rebellion, and did hostile acts. Milton. 2. Loquacious; not close. Oh Tyrians, with immortal hate
Women are so leaky, that I have hardly me Pursue this hated race; and let there be
with one that could not hold her breath longe "Twixt us and them no league nor amity.
than she could keep a secret.
Der:bam. TO LEAN. v. n. prcter. leonid or leunt TO LEAGUE. V. n.
To unite on certain [hlinan, Saxon; lenen, Durch.] terms; to confederate.
3. To incline against ; to resagainst.
L'Estrange Len thine aged back against mine arm,
quors, those that are fat and light, and those that And in that case I'll tell thee my disease. Sb.iks. are lean and more earthy, like common water. Scearity is expressed among the medals of
Burnet. Gordianus, by a lady leaning against a pillar, a 3. Low; poor : in opposition to great or Scepter in her hand, before in altar.
rich. Peacbam on Drawing. That which combin'd us was most great, and The columns may be allowed somewhat above
let noc their ordinary length, because they lean unto so
A leaner action rend us. Shaksp. Ant. and Cleop. goed supporters.
Wotton. Upon his iv'ry sceptre first he leant,
4. Jejune; not comprehensive ; not em. Then shook his head, that shook the firmament.
: as, a lean dissertation.
Dryden. LEAN. n. s. That part of Hesh which con. Oppress'd sith anguish, panting and o’erspent, sists of the muscle without the fat. His taiating limbs against an oak he leant.
With razors keen we cut our passage clean
Dryden. Through rills of fat, and deluges of lean. If God be angry, all our other dependencies
Farqubar. wil prost us nothing; every other support will Le’ANLY. adv. [from lean.] Meagerly ; fail under us when we come to lean upon it, and without plumpness. deceive us in the day when we want it most.
LEANNESS. n. s. [from lean.] Then leaning o'er the rails he musing stood. 1. Extenuation of body; want of flesh;
There are those, that for thy sake,
Ben Jonson, 2. To propend; to tend toward.
The symptoms of too great fluidity are excess They delight rather to lean to their old cus
of universal secretions, as of perspiration, sweat, tors, though they be more unjust, and more in- urine, liquid dejectures, leanness, and weakness. convenient. Spenser.
Arbuthnof. Trust in the Lord with all thine heart; and
2. Want of matter; thinness; poverty. Lae not unto thine own understanding. Prosverbs. The poor king Reignier, whose large style
& desire leaning to either side, biasses the Agrees not with the leanness of his purse. judgment strangely. Watts.
Sbakspeare. 3. To be in a bending posture.
TO LEAP. V. n. [hleapan, Saxon ; loup, She leans me out at her mistress's chamber
Scottish.] window, bids me a thousand times good night. 1. To jump; to move upward or progreso
Shakspeare. sively without change of the feet. Wearied with length of ways, and worn with If I could win a lady at leap-frog, or by vault. toil,
ing into my saddle with my armour on, I should She laid her down; and, leaning on her knees, quickly leap into a wife. Sbakspeare's Henry v. Invok'd the cause of all her miseries. Dryden. A man leapeth better with weights in his hands
The gods came downward to behold the wars, than without; for that the weight, it it be proSharp'ning their sights, and leaning from their
portionable, strengtheneth the sinews by con
Dryd: n. tracting them. In leaping with weights, the LEAN. adj. (hlæne, Saxon.]
arms are first cast backwards and then forwards
with so much the greater force; for the hands 1. Not fat; meagre; wanting flesh ; bareboned.
go backward before they take their rise. Bacon.
In a narrow pic You tempt the fury of my three attendants, He saw a lion, and leap'd down to it. Cowley. Luz famine, quartering steel, and climbing fire. Thrice from the ground she leap'd, was seen
Sbakspeare. Lan raw-bon'd rascals! who would e'er sup- Her brandish'd lance. Dryden's Æneid.
pose, Ther had such courage and audacity!
2. To rush with vehemence.
Shaksp. Lan-look'd prophets whisper fearful change.
God changed the spirit of the king into mildSbakspeare.
ness, who in a tear leap'd from isis throne, and I would invent as bitter searching terins,
took her in his arms, till she came to herself Wii full as many signs of deadly hate,
Afrer he went into the tent and found her As lan-tac'd envy in her loathsome cave.
not, he leaped out to the people. Judith. Seven other kine came up out of the river, ill
He ruin upon ruin hears, favou:'d and Lan-fieshed.
And on me, like a furious giant, leaps. Sandys. Let a physician beware how he purge after
Strait leaping from his horse he raised me up.
Rowe. bardé osty weather, and in a lean body, without preparation.
3. To bound ; to spring. Ani fetch their precepts from the cynic tub,
Rejoice ye in that day, and leap for joy. Luke. Praisng the 'can, and sallow, abstinencé. Milton.
I am warm’d, my heart Swer that Adrastus, and the lean-look'd pro
Leaps at the trumpet's voice, and burns for phet,
Addison. Are jönt conspirators. Dryden and Lee. 4. To fly; to start.
Lea people ctten suffer for want of fat, as fat He parted frowning from me, as if ruin people may by obstruction of the vessels.
Leap'd from his eyes: so looks the chased lion
Arhutbrot. Upon the daring huntsman that has galld him; No aughing graces wanton in my eyes; Then makes him nothing. Shaksp. Henry vui. But heerd srief, lean-looking sallow care, Out of his mouth go burning lamps, and sparks Dwellon my brow. Rowe's Jane Sbore. of fire leap out.
Tobo 2. N tunctuous; thin; hungry.
TO LE 1P. V. n.
Every man is not of a constitution :o lap a You rely upon my tender care, guli for the suiving of his country. L'Estrange. To hicep lúm far from perils of ambition : As onc conden.n' to icap a precipict,
All he can learn of me, will be to weep! Pbilips. Who sees belure his eyes ine depth buion, 2. To teacn. [It is observable, that in Stops short. Dryden's Spansó Firyar.
many of the European languages, the She dares pursue, if they dare lead: As their example still prevails,
same word signities to learn and to She tempts the stream, or leaps the pales. Prior. teach; to gain or impart knowledge.]
This sense is now obsolete. 2. To compress, as beasts.
Ile would learn
The lion stoop to himn in lowly wise,
Spensir's Fairy Queer. * LEAP. 11, s. [from the verb.)
You taught ine language, and my prütit on't 1. Boundl; jump; act of icaping.
Is, I know how to curse: the red plague rid you, 2. Space passed by leaping.
For learning me your language. Shaks. Tempesi, After they have carried their riders safe over A thousand more mischances than this one, all leaps, and thiough all dangers, what comes of Have learn'd me how to brook this patiently. them in the end but to be broken-winded?
Hast thou not lourn'd me how 3. Sudden transition.
To make perfumes ? Sbakspeare's Cyebeline. Wickedness comes on by degrees, as well as
TO LEARN. v. n. To take pattern: with of: virtue; and sudden leaps from one extreme to Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me; for another are unnatural.
Mai:bew. The commons wrested even the power of In imitation of sounds, that Man should be the chusing a king intirely out of the hands of the teacher is no part of the matter; for birds will nobles; which was so great a leup, and caused learn one of another. Bacon's Nutural History, such a convulsion in the state, that the constitu- LEARNED. adj. (from learn.) tion could not bear.
1. Versed in science and literature. 4. An assault ot an animal of prey.
It is indifferent to the matter in hand, which The cat made a leap at the mouse. L'Estrange.
Locks. way the learned shall determine of it.
Some by old words to fame have made pres. Embrace of animals.
tence: How she cheats her bellowing lover's eye; Such labour'd nothings, in so strange a style, The rushing leap, the doubetul progeny. Dryder. Amaze th'unlearn'd, and make the learned smile. 6. Hazard, or effect of leaping. Methinks, it were an easy leap
The learned met with free approach, To pluck bright honour from the pale-fac'd Although iney came not in a coach.
The best account is given of them by their own You take a precipice for no leap of danger,
authors: but I trust more to the table of the And woo your own destruction.
learned bishop of Bath. Arbuthnot on Coins. Behold that dreadful downfal of a rock, 2. Skilled ; skilful, knowing : with in. Where yon old fsher views the waves from high! Though train'd in arms, and learned in martial 'Tis the convenient leap I mean to try.. Dryden.
arts, LEAP-FROG. 1. s. [leop and frog.] A play
Thou chusesi not to conquer men but hearts.
Granville of children, in which they imitate the
3. Skilled in scholastick, as distinct from jump of frogs.
other knowledge. If ! could win a lady at le.ip-frig. I should quickly leap into a wife. Sbakspeare's Henry v.
Till a man cau judge whether they be truths
or no, his understanding is but little improved: LEAP-YEAR. n. ó.
and thus men of much reading are greatly Leap-year or bissextile is every fourth year, learned, but may be little knowing. Locks. and so called from its leaping a day more that year than in a common year: so that the com
LE'ARNEDLY. adv. (from learned.] Wich mon year has 365 days, but the leap-year 366 ;
knowledge; with skill. and then February hath 29 days, which in com- The apostle seemed in his eyes but learned', mon years hain but 28. To tind the leap-year
Hookera you have this rule:
Much Divide by *; what's left shall be
He spoke, and learned'y, for life; but all For leap-yeur 0: for past 1, 2, 3. Harris.
Was either pitied in him, or forgotten. Sbaks. The reason of the name of leap-year is, that a
Ev'ry coxcemb swears as learnediy as they. day of the week is missed; as, it on one year the
Swift. first of Niarch be on Monday, it will on the next
LE'ARNING. N. s. (from learn.) year be on Tuesday, but on leap-year it will leap 1. Literature ; skill in languages or scia to Wednesday.
ences; generally scholastick know. That the sun consisteth of 365 days and almost
ledge. six hours, wanting eleven minutes; which six hours omitted will, in process of time, largely
Learning hath its infancy, when it is almost
childish; then its youth, when luxuriant and judeprave the coinpute; and this is the occasion of the bissextile or leup-year.
venile ; then its strength of years, when solid;
and, lastly, its old age, when dry and exhaust. TO LEARN. v.a. [leopnian, Saxon.)
Bacon. 1. To gain the knowledge or skill of.
To tongue or pudding thou hast no pretence, Learn a parable of the big-tree. Mattbewu. Learning iny talent is, but mine is sense. Prior. He, in a shorter time than was thought possi
As Moses was learned in all the wisdom of ble, learned both to speak and write the Arabian the Egyptians, so it is manifest from this chaptongue.
Knolles. ter, that St. Paul was a great master in all the Learn, wretches! learn the motions of the mind, learning of the Greeks. And the great moral end of human kind. Disa 2. Skill in any thing good or bad.