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cannot afford to buy many law books, very modest men, and one or two very procure a lot of Patent Office reports, great men, who do not resort to any of agricultural books, etc. Any kind will these little tricks to attract the attention do, so they are books and wili make a of the public. But the mass of the proshowing Congressional documents are fession spend more time trying to catch a good kind of literature to fill in space the eye of the public, than they do over with, and your member of Congress will their books or cases, and the custom has gladly furnish you with a cart load of become pretty much as stated above. them, particularly if his name is in them. Never be seen on the street, without legal

Always have your table and desk full papers in your hands, in your pockets, in of court papers, spread out like war your hat or under your arm. You maps. When you are retained in a case, should bristle with papers as a war veseither procure the original papers or sel does with cannon. If you have no copies of them, and keep them in your papers to file, catch up a piece of biank office, opened to their fullest extent, iy- paper and run on to the street with it. ing on chairs or the floor, so arranged No one will notice the difference.

It that persons coming in can see them. It amounts to the same thing; it attracts makes them think you are doing a large attention, and that is all you need care business. If you have no cases in court, about. go to the clerk's office and borrow a lot When you address the jury, either look of files and papers in cases disposed of, cross as though you were mad at them and scatter them around your office pro- and wanted to eat them, or smile and miscuously; no one will read them, and smirk on them as though you wanted to it makes it look like business. It has the swallow them. If you are defending a same effect on the observer that new dry man charged with a criminal offense, goods boxes have in front of a store. bring in all his female relations, espeWhen a merchant desires to advertise cially his wife and babies. Seat them new goods, he hustles around, rolls sev- around the accused in such order that at eral new boxes on to the sidewalk, and the proper moment (of which you have the deed is done, the goods have arrived. duly posted them) they can all embrace When you do business, be sure to let him, and weep over him. Make them every one know about it.

cry frequently, and at stated intervals If you have prepared a paper and must have them groan. Tears, sighs and file it at the court house, do not fold it groans from a criminai's friends, comand place it in your pocket, or in your bined with flattery and tact from the lawhat, where no one can see it. On the yer, often clears men guilty of the most contrary, open it out wide; catch it by heinous crimes. If the prisoner has no the corner, and holding it at arm's length wife or babies, or female relations, bring before you, rush wildly to the court in your own—as the average jury will house, run against every man you meet, not know the difference and the court bump every woman you pass, and stum- and other lawyers will not give you ble over every child in your path; that away. gives you a chance to stop, apologize, Some lawyers make it a rule to never and explain that you are a lawyer and in give an opinion or "talk law,” out of a great hurry, etc., etc. Nearly all law- their offices; which is a grave mistake. yers do this. Of course there are a few You should not only give an opinion

ness.

whenever and wherever asked, but you fice, it is a duty you owe to yourself and should talk so loud that all passers-by the public to call him aside into an alley would be attracted, and would stop to or hallway, and inquire as to his busilisten to you as they would to any other

Do not hesitate to tell him you street fakir. When a client comes to can attend to his legal matters equally as your office and asks an opinion on a mat- well, and much cheaper than the attorter, do not give it at once, not even ney he has selected. While the other though you are very familiar with the lawyer will be as “mad as a hatter” at law involved. On the contrary, look what he will call your officiousness, the over your books; the more books the client will feel grateful to you, as lawbetter; contract your eyebrows; look yers always charge too much, and you wise; then, after mature deliberation and owe it to society at large to beat down deep reflection, give him an elaborate fees and bring the services of the legal answer—and charge him accordingly. fraternity within the reach of the most He will pay it willingly, and go away impoverished. happy; while, if you had answered him Make it a point to abuse every other quickly, he would have grumbled at any member of the bar at every opportunity. charge, no matter how small it might Do more, make opportunities. Being have been; and if you had charged him one of them, you know all their vulnernothing, he would have gone away and able points, and can make friends with consulted another attorney.

litigants by talking about the weaknesses You should wear collars. If standing of brother advocates.

Of course you collars, wear them so high that when you have no weak points. Follow to the letsee a creditor approaching, you can draw ter the rules laid down in this code, and down you head by telescoping your neck, you are all right. You are the one altoand thus escape his notice. Or if turn- gether lovely, and the one in whom there down collars, wear them so large that is neither guile nor gall. By doing this you can raise your shouiders and slip you may lose the good opinion and your head behind your shirt front, and friendship of other lawyers, but you thus avoid him. Do not change your make the fee and secure the clients, and linen too often, as it makes your laundry your conscience is clear. You have done bill run up, and then you might be con- your duty. If you have sinned, it is not sidered a dude, and that is "so horrid, a sin of omission. don't you know?" “Cleanliness is next To be successful at it you must cultito godliness,” and if you can not be vate nerve, immobility of countenance, godly, for God's sake be cleanly. Some dissimulation, deceit, quickness of eye people think to be clean personally, and hand, good temper, affability, apparphysically, and mentally, is effeminate; ent generosity; in fact, all the graces and therefore rather than be considered like accomplishments of a gentleman, and a woman, they go dirty-unclean linen, the cunning and tenacity of the devil. dirty body, and filthy conversation. In You must learn to avoid any physical the beginning of the Christian era, they demonstration or symptom, by which a were called lepers; now they are called close observer could form any opinion as anarchists.

to the operation of your mind. You When you see a client going to or must not manifest any feelings of joy or coming away from another lawyer's of- sorrow. While your mind and body are performing all the functions for which that, no matter what transpires, you neithey were created, you must so control ther turn pale, nor fush. While you are the action of your eyes that they see in fact all attention and animation, and everything going on about you, but the on the alert to catch any and all moveother persons present must be led to ments, utterances, even looks; of all think otherwise. The action of your others, you must seem to be stone, wood, hands must be so dextrous that while heartless, bloodless, anything but what they do your bidding, your next neighbor you are. You must stifle conscience and can notice nothing unusual. The move- : bring your mind and cool judgment ment of your heart must be so regulated down squarely to the business in hand.

From a practical knowledge of the professional work of the young
lawyers in this state who are graduates of our modern law schools, I
am fully convinced that at least a part of the course of study in a law
school should be devoted to the art of brief-making. As a rule the
graduate of a law school does not make as logical and comprehensive
a brief as one who enters the profession well equipped from a good,
first-class lawyer's office. This I believe to be because many of the
schools provide for no course of instruction on that subject.

JOHN B. BARNES,
Supreme Court of Nebraska.

Teaching Legal Ethics in Law Schools.

A

T THE meeting of the American Bar Association held in Seattle, Wash., in

August, 1908, the Association adopted the report of the Committee on the Code of Professional Ethics. This report included a special recommendation to the effect that the subject of Professional Deportment and Legal Ethics be taught in all the law schools in America.

Many law schools promptly responded to the recommendation of the American Bar Association by adding to their regular class room instruction a required course of study on Legal Ethics. Other schools met the request of the Association by inaugurating a course of lectures on Legal Ethics, usually delivered by some prominent judge or member of the profession. A great many law schools, however, failed to respond to the appeal of the Association, and have not as yet placed Legal Ethics among the subjects required or offered in their course of instruction.

The 1909–10 catalogues of all the law schools in the country show thirtytwo schools where Legal Ethics is being taught as a part of the regular course. These schools are as follows:

University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Cal.
The George Washington University Law School, Washington, D. C.
John B. Stetson University Law School, DeLand, Fla.
Atlanta Law School, Atlanta, Ga.
John Marshall Law School, Chicago, Ill.
University of Florida Law School, Gainesville, Fla.
Northwestern University Law School, Chicago, Ill.
University of Notre Dame Law School, Notre Dame, Ind.
University of Kansas Law School, Lawrence, Kan.
Kansas City Law School, Kansas City, Mo.
Baltimore University School of Law, Baltimore, Md.
Baltimore Law School, Baltimore, Md.
Suffolk School of Law, Boston, Mass.
University of Mississippi Law School, Oxford, Miss.
City College of Law and Finance, St. Louis, Mo.
Benton College of Law, St. Louis, Mo.
Creighton University Law School, Omaha, Neb.
University of Nebraska School of Law, Lincoln, Neb.
New Jersey Law School, Newark, N. J.
Brooklyn Law School, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Syracuse University Law School, Syracuse, N. Y.
Wake Forest College of Law, Wake Forest, N. C.
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N. C.
Cleveland Law School, Cleveland, Ohio.
Toledo Law School, Toledo, Ohio.
Western Reserve University Law School, Cleveland, Ohio.
Cincinnati Law School, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Northern University Law School, Ada, Ohio.
Temple University School of Law, Philadelphia, Pa.
Chattanooga College of Law, Chattanooga, Tenn.
University of Virginia Law School, Charlottesville, Va.
Marquette University Law School, Milwaukee, Wis.

28

According to the announcements made in the latest catalogues of the law schools, lectures on Legal Ethics are delivered in twenty-eight schools. These schools are as follows:

University of Arkansas Law School, Little Rock, Ark.
University of Colo. School of Law, Boulder, Colo.
Yale University Law School, New Haven, Conn.
Georgetown University Law School, Washington, D. C.
Mercer University Law School, Macon, Ga.
Illinois Law School, Chicago, Ill.
Chicago Law School, Chicago, Ill.
Chicago-Kent College of Law, Chicago, Ill.
Lincoln College of Law, Chicago, Ill.
University of Chicago Law School, Chicago, Ill.
Illinois Wesleyan University Law School, Bloomington, Ill.
Indianapolis College of Law, Indianapolis, Ind.
Indiana University School of Law, Bloomington, Ind.
Indiana Law School, Indianapolis, Ind.
Tri-State College of Law, Angola, Ind.
University of Valparaiso Law School, Valparaiso, Ind.
Transylvania University School of Law, Lexington, Ky.
University of Maryland School of Law, Baltimore, Md.
The Y. M. C. A. Law School, Boston, Mass.
Detroit College of Law, Detroit, Mich.
University of Michigan Law School, Ann Arbor, Mich.
St. Louis University Institute of Law, St. Louis, Mo.
University of Missouri Law School, Columbia, Mo.
Washburn University College of Law, Topeka, Kan.
Albany Law School, Albany, N. Y.
Fordham University Law School, New York City, N. Y.
University of South Dakota Law School, Yankton, S. D.
University of Washington Law School, Seattle, Wash.

There are some sixty law schools where no instruction of any kind is given on the subject of Legal Ethics and Professional Deportment.

I am satisfied that the cause of legal education would be greatly advanced by some special training with respect to the making of briefs. Education in this line would lead the young men, upon being retained in any matter which requires investigation and examination of authorities, to begin making a study of the principles involved, and along with it a brief in support of the propositions which they feel that they must maintain at the outset. The effort should be to learn what the law is. This, of course, involves the intelligent investigation of authorities, and a study as to the real, rather than merely the apparent, force and scope of legal decisions. It would be well, in my judgment, to have instruction in this field given in every law school.

WILLIAM T. SPEAR,

Supreme Court of Ohio.

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