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uttle value to students for lack of discussion ard Rules for Admission to the Bar be of principles. Several of the better correspondence schools, however, are not fairly

continued, and directed to send a copy open to criticism in this respect, but use of its report in full to all members of the standard elementary treatises for stu

State Boards of Bar Examiners and to dents still employed in those resident schools that have not adopted the case method of all deans of law schools, with a request study.

for suggestions and criticisms, and also In the next place, the student is usually given a circular of directions regarding bis that prior to May 1, 1910, the Commitstudy, which often contains excellent sugges

tee submit a copy of its preliminary tions. He also receives, at intervals, examination papers, containing questions which he draft, with the rules, to each member of is asked to answer, sometimes without the

the American Bar Association and the aid of his books, and sometimes with all the aid he can obtain from them. Almost with- Chief Justice of each state appellate out exception these questions are valueless

court, to each member of the State as a stimulus to thought. Frequently they follow the language or arrangement of the Boards of Bar Examiners, and to the text in such a manner that it is almost im

deans of all American law schools, with possible to answer them wrongly. Many of them simply call for conventional definitions, the request for criticisms and suggesand too few of them deal with matters of

tions, and present its final report at the any practical legal interest. The student's answers to these questions are returned to 1910 meeting of the Section, in the light him, with a few perfunctory comments, and

of the replies so received. sometimes some circular matter intended to correct the commoner mistakes. Mistakes The sixteen rules submitted in the reof an unusual character are often overlook

port of the Committee on Standard ed by this mechanical treatment. I have seen some examination answers returned by

Rules for Admission to the Bar were one of the better correspondence law schools,

then discussed, and were either approvin which the most naive and startling statements had passed unchallenged, apparently ed, amended, or disapproved. because the overworked reader had not been

After some difference of opinion, the looking for such extraordinary blunders. When the examination papers are marked, it first rule was approved as printed in the is rare that the grade is not sufficiently encouraging, so that the student will continue

report. In discussing this rule, JOHN to pay his installments. Sometimes copies H. WIGMORE, of Illinois, said: of a few special lectures upon various topics are sent at intervals to be used with the I have had an extremely harsh case of text-books. The quality of these is more this particular kind come to my notice latefrequently rhetorical than legal.

ly, and I have had occasion to reflect upon In all this we see the too familiar specta- it. I think, where there are cities which in. cle of money coined from the hopes and clude from 50,000 to 100,000 Poles, Italians, ambitions of the ignorant and ill-advised. Germans, and other foreign nationalities, we A method of education that within its prop- all realize that there are great abuses under er limits has carried new hope to thousands our law. For instance, in every Italian disis here prostituted to practically useless trict, do you think that they go to our courts? ends. I have not spoken of the grossly They have padrones that do their entire law fraudulent representations regarding the rec- business. There is a king of Little Italy in ognition of correspondence work by resident Chicago, who keeps them all out of the law schools and by bar examiners, which courts. What is the reason? One reason is are constantly made by a few correspond- that, if you do not permit an adult alien to ence law schools. I am glad to believe that become a member of the bar, you throw most of them, at least, steer clear of crim- those people back for their legal advice upinal or civil liability; but, from what I have on shysters, who cannot get admitted, and seen of the commercial and educational meth- who take away from them the advice of ods of correspondence law schools, I believe good men, who may not yet be citizens be that they belong in the same class with en- cause of our rules; and while the theory of terprises which advertise mining stocks, this is ennobling and particularly American, rubber plantations, medical cure-alls, and it seems to me it is nothing but a theory, the teaching of aërial navigation by mail. and that we had better recognize cosmopoli

tan conditions, and not for the sake of a The Section adopted a resolution to

theory have a rule which would prevent us

in the next twenty years from doing a little the effect that the Committee on Stand

more justice to our great foreign population.

While some agreed that the point the state in which he applies for admismade by Mr. Wigmore was well taken, sion. This motion to amend was lost, the majority were of the opinion that it and the rule was approved as printed in would be a mistake to allow Italians, the report. Russians, or in fact any one, to become The eleventh rule was the cause of officers of our courts and ministers of considerable discussion, but was finally justice, unless they first became Ameri- approved as printed. can citizens.

The twelfth rule was amended so as to The second rule was amended, so as include the subject "Conflict of Laws." to require the candidate, on admission, The thirteenth and fourteenth rules to prove that it is his intention person- were approved as printed. ally to maintain an office, etc.

The fifteenth rule was disapproved. The third rule was amended by strik- The sixteenth rule was approved as ing out the word "certificate" and in

printed. serting in its place the word “affidavit.”

The report of the Special Committee, The fourth rule was disapproved by appointed at the 1908 meeting, with refthe Section.

erence to conferring the decree of LL. The fifth, sixth, and seventh rules

B., was read; but, because of lack of were approved as printed in the report. The eighth rule was amended by add

time, action upon it was postponed until ing to it the words "or an examination equivalent thereto.”

On the recommendation of the ComThe ninth rule was approved as

mittee on Nominations, William 0. printed.

Hart, of New Orleans, La., was elected Franklin M. Danaher of New York, Chairman, and Charles M. Hepburn, of moved that rule 10 be amended so as to New York and Indiana, was elected Secrequire the candidate to serve his clerk- retary, of the Section for the ensuing ship in the office of a regular attorney in year.

next year.

The Meeting of the Association of American

Law Schools-1909.

THE Ninth Annual Meeting of the

University of Missouri Law School: Association of American Law

E. W. Hinton, John D. Lawson, ThomSchools convened at Detroit, August 25– as A. Street, and Henry C. Hill. 26, 1909. After the meeting was called University of Nebraska College of to order by the President, Charles Noble Law: W. G. Hastings and George P. Gregory, Dean of the Iowa State Uni- Costigan, Jr. versity College of Law, the roll of the Northwestern University School of schools belonging to the Association was Law: John H. Wigmore, Roscoe Pound, called, and disclosed the following dele- Albert M. Kales, and F. B. Crossley. gates as being present:

Ohio State University College of Law: University of Chicago Law School: G. W. Rightmeyer, A. H. Tuttle, J. J. James P. Hall and Julian W. Mack. Adams, and W. B. Cockley.

Cincinnati University Law School: University of Pennsylvania Law W. P. Rogers and F. B. James.

School: William E. Mikell. Columbia University Law School: University of Pittsburgh Law School: Francis M. Burdick.

James C. Gray and A. M. Thompson. Cornell University Law School: St. Louis Law School of Washington Frank Irvine and Alfred Hayes.

University: W. S. Curtis. George Washington University School Syracuse University College of Law: of Law: W. R. Vance, J. A. Van Ors- L. L. Waters. del, Ernest G. Lorenzen, and Melville University of Texas Law School: Church.

John C. Townes. Harvard University Law School: Western Reserve University Law James Barr Ames.

School: E. H. Hopkins, Alexander HadUniversity of Colorado Law School: den, and H. H. Johnson. John D. Fleming.

University of Wisconsin College of University of Denver School of Law: Law: H. S. Richards, R. B. Scott, and George C. Manley.

J. B. Sanborn. University of Illinois Law School: Yale University Law School: Simeon Jesse J. C. La Follette, Chester G. Ver- E. Baldwin, Henry Wade Rogers, nier, J. C. Barclay, and Charles M. Hep- George D. Watrous, and James A. burn.

Webb. University of Iowa College of Law: Drake University College of Law: C. Charles Noble Gregory and H. C. Hor- A. Dudley. ack.

University of Kansas Law School: The following schools belonging to James W. Green.

the Association were not represented : University of Michigan Law School: Leland Stanford, Jr., University Law H. L. Wilgus, J. R. Rood, J. H. Brew- School. ster, Thomas A. Bogle, and Henry M. University of Minnesota College of Bates.


Southern California University Law It was shown there are 108 law School.

schools, with 18,069 students, in the Hastings College of Law of the Uni

country at present, an increase in nine versity of California,

years in number of schools of only oneCreighton University Law School. eighth, of students of nearly one-half; University of Maine College of Law. also the increase of students in schools

South Dakota University College of represented at the first meeting of the Law.

Association was 1,429, and in other St. Paul College of Law.

schools 4,124; that the schools, which Trinity College Law School.

included two-thirds of the students of Washburn College School of Law. the country, having formed this Associa

tion had, after nine years, only about CHARLES NOBLE GREGORY, in one-fourth of the growth, and the outhis address as President of the Associa- side schools, which then had one-third of tion of American Law Schools, said, in the students, had enjoyed three-fourths part, that the Association was formed at of the growth; also that when the AsSaratoga nine years ago, and its articles sociation was formed substantially 26 per were shaped and adopted at three some- cent. of the students enrolled in the what stormy meetings at which he pre- American Law Schools graduated yearsided; that its declared object was "the ly; that now substantially 22 per cent. improvement of Legal Education in graduated yearly, a change less than America, especially in the Law Schools.” might have been anticipated. He expressed his gratitude at being The speaker said: “We do not seem chosen President of the Association aft- to be affecting the body of students in er the lapse of nine years, and thought it our law schools as we had hoped." He not inappropriate to review briefly its showed that, of the 35 schools at the past history, to see in what measure its first meeting, 21 had increased their atobjects had been met. He showed that tendance, 1 had been stationary, and 13 35 schools, out of a total in the country had diminished their attendance in nine of 96, were represented at that first meet- years, and in the latter number are ining; but the 35 schools included about cluded some of the largest, oldest, and two-thirds, and the 61 not represented in- most favorably situated schools; that the cluded only about one-third, of the law greatest number of schools and students students in attendance in schools in the is not in New England and the Middle whole country. He showed the moderate States, but in the North Central division,

, standards set as to preliminary education beginning with Ohio and extending -at first a high school course of no de- through Michigan and the Dakotas; that fined length, later of four years; as to

the schools existing nine years ago and law studies required, at first two years,

now members of the Association had then and after 1905 three years. He traced about 50 per cent. of the total number of the attendance and incidents of the meet- law students in the country, now about ings held, and gave a brief account of 40 per cent.; that these schools had inthe kindred Society of Public Teachers creased in attendance about 15 per cent., of Law in England and Wales, just or- the whole body of schools about 50 per ganized and then analyzed the statistics cent., so that the Association had a little of Law Schools in the Association and less than one-third of its proportionate country for nine years past.


Mr. Gregory said: "If our standards necessity of mankind, to which all laware desirable, it is lamentable that they yers, whether on the bench, at the bar, apply to only about four-ninths of the or in the faculties, have equally pledged law students of the country and to a di- the labors of their useful lives." minishing proportion." Yet he said he had no suggestion to make of turning Following the President's address, backward. He said the advances in Prof. HAROLD D. HAZELTINE, of standards had been very great; that the Emanuel College, Cambridge University, Association must use all feasible efforts England, spoke on the subject of "LEto induce other schools to come to the de- GAL EDUCATION IN ENGLAND." sired standards and cordially welcome Prof. Hazeltine said that the paper he them to membership; that the Associa- had prepared would take some three tion must cement the bonds of friendly hours to read, and that he would therealliance between the schools of the As- fore not attempt to give the paper in its sociation and cease certain methods of entirety, but that he would touch only on rivalry and interference which tended to the main points.* Prof. Hazeltine said: impair good relations. He suggested a

I beg to thank you, Mr. President, and the committee to draft a Code of Ethics for members of this Association, for the honor of law schools, as there had been for the

an invitation to read a paper on the present

state of legal education in England, and for bar, and said: "The Association need not

your cordial welcome this evening. My pafear too many activities. The danger is

per takes, I find, something like three hours

to read, but I beg you not to be disconsolate that it will have too few." He showed, on this account, for I shall content myself after all, that the number of law students

with reading to you certain portions of the

paper only, and with consuming not much had greatly increased in nine years as a

more of your time than the President bas whole, while the number of medical and taken in his able and most interesting ad

dress. dental students had most materially de

As the subject which you so kindly sugcreased. He spoke of the limited re- gested relates, therefore, only to the present wards of the teacher of law, compared

and only to England, the history of legal

education in Scotland, Ireland, Wales, and with those of the practitioner, but found : the other parts of the British Empire do not satisfaction in seeing one former law

come within the purview of this paper; nor

am I concerned, except incidentally, with a teacher at the head of the nation, and comparison of legal education in America another chief executive of our greatest

and on the Continent.

In looking at the present state of legal state. He said: “Lawyers, standing to- education in England, I shall endeavor to gether, have accomplished much. It is give you in the first place a simple statement

of the organization of the various law hoped that the Association of Law

schools; then, secondly, a few words on the Schools of America and their faculties, education of students before they begin their

legal studies; thirdly, some account of the even though they proceed slowly, may

courses of study at the various law schools, prove potent, not merely for their own and the examinations, degrees, and distincwelfare and that of the course of legal

tions that follow such courses; fourthly, a

summary description of methods of instruc education, but for the wider and higher tion and study at present employed in the services of justice according to law

schools; and, lastly, a hint as to the prob

“The hope of all who suffer;
The dread of all who wrong;"

that enlightened justice, which the late Lord Chief Justice Russell called a prime

*Prof. Hazeltine's address will be printed in full in the report of the Meetings of the Association of American Law Schools, which will be published in the reports of the Amer. ican Bar Association for 1909.

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