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ness that exist in the country to which he is :! C'eredited. And under a system that selected men for their political activities rather than for their ability, it was next to impossible to secure men who would give the attention to the work that was required.

There is every reason why the consular service of this country should furnish as desirable an avenue for the exercise of a man's talents as the army or navy as it should eventually lead to the diplomatic service. This is the rule in foreign countries. Abroad men are trained as carefully for diplomatic positions as they are for the army and navy, and the same course should be pursued bere.

But the plan proposed of collecting money from the manufacturers of the country for the support of the school is not one to be encouraged, although the manufacturers are heartily in favor of it, for they realize the benefits to be derived from it. Such an insti. tution should be established; but it should be supported, directed, and controlled by the government. The necessity for a school of this character is so great that Congress should be asked to establish it; for there is as much need for special training in the government's consular service as in the army or navy, and it is the duty of the government, and not of private individuals, to provide it.

business that he can still continue his annual lectures in the New York Law School. Judge William W. Goodrich, formerly Presiding Justice of the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court in one of the departments of the state, was a lecturer on Admiralty Law in this school for several years. He died a year ago. and the trustees have lately appointed as his successor in this lectureship his son, Ileury W. Goodrich, a well-known practitioner at Admiralty Bar in New York City. The law school has had a flourishing year, with about 860 students in attendance. This is a slight falling off from the figures of last year, but it is due to the fact that, in amending its rules regulating a standard of preliminary requirements for students seeking admission to the Bar, the Court of Appeals made those requirements more onerous and exacting. Students must now meet the higher standards before they can enter the law schools. The falling off in attendance will prove merely temporary, and under the new rules a better educated body of students will be developed in the law schools.

The New York Law School has been spending the first year in its new building at No. 174 Fulton street, New York City, and has found the new site very convenient. The building is exposed on all four sides-a thing which is getting to be rare in Greater New York-and so has abunda nce of light and air. With the large classes which the school has, the problem of ventilation has in the past been found a very difficult one to solve. In the new building a special ventilation plant has been installed, and by this means a constant current of fresh air is poured into each lecture room whenever a class is in session. Safety elevators are also used, which cannot start until the doors are closed. There is now, therefore, no fear that the elevator will start while a number of students are pressing into it and several are at the door. Professor Alfred G. Reeves has just completed his treatise on the law of Real Property, upon which he has been engaged for several years, and it will be used with this year's classes. One volume of it was issued a year ago, and received very high praise for its clearness of style, its accurary and thoroughness of knowledge, and its systematic arrangement of principles. William H. Hotchkiss of Buffalo, who has for several years delivered a course of lectures in the law school on the United States Bankruptcy Law, has recently been appointed National Superintendent of Insurance. This is an office of great responsibility and of increasing duties, but Mr. Hotchkiss expects to be able so to arrange his official

The Law Department of the University of Texas moved into its new building at the opening of the current school year. The building is large and well arranged, having four large classrooms, with a seating capacity of 135 each, besides an auditorium with a seating capacity of about 400, and a library that will accommodate 350. There is also a large basement, with rooms for Literary and Law Societies, and on the main floor a number of offices for the professors. The new building was dedicated on Thanksgiving day with appropriate ceremonies. Among the interesting items on the programme were addresses delivered by Samuel Williston, of the Harvard Law Faculty, and Judge Yancey Lewis, an alumnus, and former Dean of the Texas Law School. There are 360 students matriculated this year, an increase of over 30 as compared with last session. The Board of Regents have recently raised the entrance requirements to the Department, to take effect at the beginning of next session, 1909–10, and from and after that time, in addition to the ordinary high school attainments, the student must have at least five collegiate courses to his credit. During last year Dean Clarence II. Miller resigned, both as Dean and Professor. John C. Townes was elected to succeed him as Dean, and Lauch McLaurin, prominent at the Texas bar, succeeded him in his professorship. At the opening of last session, Ira P. Hildebrand, of San Antonio, Texas, was added to the faculty.

Recent events of national interest have turned the public eye toward Cincinnati, and incidentally toward the Cincinnati Law School. At least five of her sons have within the past few months been elevated to positions of prominence and honor. The first of these is President William Howard Taft. After having graduated from Yale in 1878, Mr. Taft in the fall of the same year entered the Cincinnati Law School (then the Cincinnati College). He graduated in 1880, dividing with Mr. A. B. Benedict, of the Cin. cinnati Bar, the prize for the first honors of the school. This closed Mr. Taft's connection with the institution until 1896, when he assumed the position of Professor of Law and Dean of the school. But in 1896 a law department of the University of Cincinnati was established. In 1897, under the leadership of Mr. Taft, the Cincinnati College (founded in 1833) and the law department of the university were consolidated. The school was to be known as the Cincinnati Law School, and the degree of Bachelor of Laws was to be conferred by the joint action of the Boards of Trustees of the two insti. tutions. Mr. Taft continued as an active professor of the school until 1900, when the public service called him from Cincinnati.

Another of the honored sons of the Cincinnati Law School is Judson Harmon, who last fall was elected Governor of Ohio. Mr. Harmon graduated from this school in 1869. Many years later he became a member of its faculty, and despite his official duties still holds that position.

Champ Clark of Missouri, lately elected minority leader in the House of Representatives, graduated from the Cincinnati Law School in 1885.

Joseph G. Cannon, Speaker of the Ilouse, is also an alumnus of this school. A Cincinnati paper recently declared that many of his clever tricks were learned in the Law School.

Mr. John W. Warrington, who has just accep tell a seat on the bench of the United State's Circuit Court for the Sixth Circuit, graduated from the Cincinnati Law School in 1969. It is said this same position was offered him in 1892, but, not then being in such circumstances as warranted his acceptance, he proposed the name of Mr. William Howard Taft. Mr. Taft received the appointment-his first prominent office. From that time Mr. Warrington continued to practice law, and from 1901 to 1908 was a member of the Law School faculty. Then in 1909, Mr. Taft, now President Taft, returned the old compliment by appointing Mr. Warrington to the judgeship which formerly he did not accept.

as students in so-called special standing those who had never been through a high school, and to permit them to make up what was called an equivalent during their law course. The growth of the John Marshall Law School has brought to it many young men who, while full of energy, ambition, and enthusiasm for the law, have never had a high school education. Some enter on certificates of special examinations by high school principals, obtained in not a few cases after a minimum of work, which, however, under the present rules of the Board of Law Examiners of Illinois is taken by the Board as a compliance with its rule regarding preliminary education. According to this rule any high school principal may examine and certify a student as qualified. There is no uniform test or uniform marking, so that, even when work is honestly done, it may represent one thing in the case of one student, and another thing in the case of another.

It is to meet this condition and to raise the standard of admission that the John Marshall Law School has adopted its new rule. It is the hope of the Faculty of the School that the Supreme Court of the State may one day organize a State Examining Board on preliminary studies similar to the Law Examining Board. In the meantime the School will continue to offer courses in Gen. eral History, Sociology, Political Economy, Finance, Logic, and Ethics—subjects that every law student should know-with a view to enabling students deficient in preliminary work to qualify for admission to the School. But all such work hereafter will have to be taken before a student can enter the law school, and not during his course.

The Law Department of the George Washington University has for many years been carrying on a very thorough system of training for actual practice in its Moot Courts. For two hours each week three nisi prius judges sit, each presiding over a separate court, in some one of which every student in the third year is obliged to be regular in his attendance. At intervals during the year statements of fact are furnished to the students, from which they are required to prepare their pleadings and then to try their cases, all in strict accordance with the ruleg of practice prevailing in the District of Columbia, which follow very closely the common-law system. The judges of the courts are lawyers who have been in practice for many years. The Clerk of the Court is one of the Assistant Clerks of the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia. The Assistant ('lerks in each of the Courts, as well as the criers, bailiffs, etc., are drafted from the store dent body, as are also the jurors. In each case brought at common law, juries are actually impaneled, witnesses examined and cross-examined, prilyers for instructions sub

After this year no student will be admitted to the John Marshall Law School of Chicago who has not had the equivalent of a high school education. Where an applicant for admission is unable to furnish proof of such an education, he will have to take a special examination on high school branches or their equivalents. Heretofore it has been the practice of the school, in common with most evening schools and many day schools, to admit

C. L., has been added to the teaching force of the College during the present school year.

mitted and ruled upon, arguments to the juries made, the charge submitted, verdict returned, and judgment rendered as in actual practice. The idea of the Legal Debating Society merely is eliminated in this work, and the student is called upon to face the actual situations which present themselves in the trial of cases. From start to finish there is no difference whatever between the conduct of the Moot case and the actual case in court.

There are also in this Law Department a Moot Court for the trial of patent litigation, as well as an Appellate Court, both of which are likewise presided over by lawyers in active practice. In addition to this, a member of the Washington Bar conducts a course on Legal Tactics, in which definite practical instruction is given as to the actual work involved in the preparation and trial of cases, the conduct of office work, dealing with clients, professional ethics, drafting of legal documents, etc. The student who receives a degree from the Law Department of this institution is bound to have, not merely a theoretical knowledge, but a very practical knowledge of law and practice.

There is a vague popular belief that lawyers are necessarily dishonest. I say vague, because when we consider to what extent confidence and honors are reposed in and conferred upon lawyers by the people, it appears improbable that their impression of dishonesty is very distinct and vivid. Yet the impression is common, almost universal. Let no young man choosing the law for a calling for a moment yield to the popular belief. Resolve to be honest at all events; and if in your own judgment you cannot be an honest lawyer, resolve to be honest without being a lawyer. Choose some other occupation, rather than one in the choosing of which you do, in advance, consent to be a knave.—Abraham Lincoln.

Owing to an increase or raise in the entrance requirements of the Boston University Law School, there has this year been a slight falling off in attendance; but the entering class contained an unusually large number of those who have had preliminary college work. At the meeting of the Trustees last June Natt Thurston Abbott was elected to a professorship in the school, and at the same meeting James Tower Keen, John Edward Macy, and Frank Leslie Simpson were made assistant professors. Theodore P. Ion, of the school faculty, recently wrote an article on "Diplomatic Conflicts in the Near East," which was published in the Hellenic IIerald of London. This is the second article brought out by him on the same general subject; his article on Roman Law and Mohammedan Jurisprudence being published in the Michigan Law Review in 1908. In the Annual Report of the Dean of the Law School the fol. lowing feeling reference is made to the lamented death of Professor George E. Gard

ner:

During the present school year there are 607 students enrolled in the College of Law in the University of Minnesota. This is the largest enrollment in the history of the College, which is now closing its twenty-first year. C. M. Ferguson, of the Minneapolis Bar, who is local counsel for the Western Union Telegraph Company, has devoted much time in the department of practice during the present year. This department is receiving special attention. Five thousand dollars have been spent during this year for books, which, in addition to the same amount spent last year, supplies the school with an excellent library of about 25,000 volumes. Beginning with the rext school year, a raise in the standard of requirements for admission to the school will go into effect. Hereafter one year of academic college or university work in addition to the regular high school course, as at present, will be required for admission to regular standing in the law school. There are indications that the Regents will continue to advance the entrance requirements for regular students in the law school. Whether the Regents will continue to allow students to enter as special students when they do not have the entrance qualifications necessary to matriculate as regular students is unsettled. It is very doubtful how effective the new rule will be if the present policy as to admission of special students is maintained. The course of study in the evening school has already been extended to four years, and the requirements for entrance for a degree are the same for both day and evening students. Harry C. Mitchell, graduate of Oxford, England, with the degree of B.

“Professor Gardner had had a large and conspicuous place in the work of the Law School, more work falling to him than to any one else ; and his work, I need hardly say, was always of the highest order. "His death, therefore, was a hard blow to the school, and a cause of grave anxiety."

William L. Lile, Dean of the University of Virginia Law School, who, owing to ill health, spent last session abroad, returned in time to take up his duties at the beginning of the current term. By the liberality of the Virginia Legislature, handsome appropriation was made for the purpose of erecting a handsome law building for the University of Virginia. The plans have been made and approved. Ground is to be broken as early as possible, as it is hoped that the new building will be ready for occupancy next fall.

Beginning with the session of 1909-10, the University of Virginia will abandon the present two-year law course, and will inaugurate a new three-year course. The new course will embrace 1,000 lecture periods, of 112 hours each, of which 600 are obligatory courses, while the elective courses embrace 230 lecture periods. Among the new courses offered are the following: Study of Cases, Legal Bibliography, Brief Making, Public Speaking Code Pleading, Parliamentary Law, Making and Interpretation of Statutes, Taxation and Tax Titles, Roman Law, Conveyancing, Mining and Irrigation, Damages, Admiralty, Practice of Law and Preparation of Cases, Public Officers, Suretyship and Guaranty, and Legal Ethics.

velopment of the Law based on his wellknown treatise on Jurisprudence. James Schouler, of Boston, having completed his twentieth year as teacher in the school, has offered his resignation. Last year Dr. Schouler resigned his chair at Johns Hopkins, and in future he will devote himself exclusively to legal literature. This year, which is the fortieth in which the school has been running, has been successful from all points of view. Many of the students are taking part in a competition for a thesis prize, consisting of a set of a well-known legal publication. The subject is of unusual interest, and was suggested by the sentence of imprisonment of the leader of the American Federation of Labor for contempt. It is as follows:

"The President's right to pardon persons adjudged to be in contempt of the federal courts, its extent and limitations."

Charles J. Hugh, Jr., who, ever since the founding of the school, has been professor of Mining Law at the Denver Law School, has been elected to the United States Senate. He has been in active practice for many years, and bas acted as counsel for numerous large corporations. It is understood that in accepting the Senatorship he is surrendering upwards of $50,000 per year in annual retainers. Some time ago the Denver Law School established a Legal Dispensary or Legal Aid Department, which affords gratuitous services to needy litigants. Each day two or three of the class under the direction of a preceptor are assigned to meet all applicants for assistance. The students prepare all papers and conduct the litigation generally, both in and out of court. Excepting that no criminal cases are taken, a great variety of cases have been dealt with in this way, some of which have been carried up to and through the Supreme Court. The object and effect of the course is to give the student practical experience in meeting and consulting with clients and in conducting actions to obtain remedies. Heretofore the preceptor's name has been entered as attorney of record in all court cases, but a bill is now pending in the state Legislature to permit the students to practice in courts of record in dispensary cases.

Dudley 0. McGovney has left the Law School of the University of Illinois and is now teaching in the Tulane University Law Department, where he has charge of the courses on Contracts, Quasi Contracts, Con. stitutional Law, and Corporation Law. Mr. McGovney also has charge of the executive work of the school, though E. D. Saunders will continue as Dean. Professor McGovney's training may be summed up as follows: A. B., Indiana University; A. M., Harvard; LL. B., Columbia. He has also taken the general examinations at Columbia for the Ph. D. degree, to which he will be entitled upon the acceptance and publication of a dissertation. Mr. McGovney spent two years as instructor in Government and Political Science in the Normal School of the Philippine Islands, where he wrote the first text-book published on the subject of Government for the natives.

The Tulane University Law Department has recently changed from a two to a three year course, and adopted a four year high school course, or the equivalent, as an entrance requirement. The purpose is to offer a full curriculum (1) in public law; (2) in those branches of private law common to all American jurisdictions ; (3) in the civil law; (4) in those branches of the common law which do not obtain in Louisiana. Thus both students who intend to practice in Louisiana and students who intend to practice in common-law states will be fully provided for.

Charles F. Carusi, Dean of the National University Law School in Washington, D. C., has announced the following changes in that school: Charles H. Turner, formerly member of Congress from New York, and now Assistant United States District Attorney, will be added to the faculty, and will teach the course on Criminal Procedure in 1909-10. John G. Capers, United States Commissioner of Internal Revenue, and formerly United States District Attorney, will continue in charge of the subject of Contracts in place of Dr. Hannis Taylor, who will next year offer an extended course upon the Ilistory and De

"Mark Twain is the most interesting character in American literature to-day, and has made more money out of it, than any other author,” said A. S. Swanson, representative of one of the great publishing houses. “He is never so happy as when telling a story. He was telling me that recently he went into the sales department of our house, and, be

ing attracted by a particular book, asked the price.

“ Four dollars,' said the clerk.

“ 'Well, now,' said Mr. Clemens, 'I am a newspaper writer. Don't I get a discount for that?'

" "Certainly,' replied the obliging clerk.

“ 'I am also a magazine writer. Do I get something off for that?

“'Yes,' said the clerk, ‘you get a discount for that.'

"'I am also an author. Don't I come in on the author's discount?'

“ 'Yes, sir; you get the author's discount.'

“'In addition,' said Mr. Clemens, 'I am a stockholder in this house. Does that entitle me to something off ?'

" 'Yes, sir,' the clerk returned.

"Now,' continued Mr. Clemens, 'I would like to state that I am Samuel Clemens. Does that fact entitle me to another rakeoff?

'It does,' said the clerk after a moment's hesitation.

"That's good,' replied the author; ‘now how much do I owe you?'

“'We owe you 80 cents,' said the clerk.”

Fiero not only stands high as a practicing lawyer, but he has had much varied experience outside of his practice. A native of Ulster county, he was admitted to the bar in 1869, and three years later entered practice at Saugerties, and later at Kingston, and still later moved to Albany. There he has represented the state in many important proceedings, notably as special counsel to the Attorney General in the Special Franchise Tax Cases. He took a prominent part in the New York State Constitutional Convention of 1890, and later was Secretary of the Commission appointed by Gov. Odell to inquire into the condition of the Statutes. In 1892 and 1893 he was President of the New York State Bar Association, having previously been active in that organization as chairman of various committees. To accept the appointment of Reporter to New York's court of last resort, he has resigned from the State Assembly, to which he was lately elected. His choice by the Court of Appeals appears to have met with entire approval on all sides.

The Summer Quarter of the University of Chicago Law School begins June 21st and closes September 3d. The First Term ends July 28th. The following courses will be given : Property, by Dean William R. Vance, of the George Washington Law School; Criminal Law, by Hon. Emlin McClain, Judge of the Supreme Court of Iowa; Persons and Administrative Law, by Professor Ernst Freund, of the University of Chicago Law School ; Partnership, by Professor Francis M. Burdick, of Columbia University Law School; Mortgages and Quasi Contracts, by Professor Walter W. Cook, of the University of Wisconsin Law School; Sales, by Professor George L. Clark, of the University of Illinois Law School; Constitutional Law, by Dean James P. Hall, of the University of Chicago Law School; and a course of lectures on Mining Law, by John M. Zane, of the Chicago and Utah bars. During the Winter Quarter Dr. Sydney Kuh of Chicago gave a course of lectures before the University of Chicago Law School upon the psychological aspects of certain practical problems that concern lawyers in dealing with abnormal states of mind. The psychology of testimony, of insanity, and of hypnotism as related to the practice of law were specially discussed.

“I suppose, Uncle Jim, you remember a good deal about the politics of the early days?”

"Well, I never tuk much intrest in polytics, but I kin recollect when John C. Fremont was 'lected President."

"Fremont! Why, Fremont was never elected."

"He wun't? Well, now, thet gits me. I heerd a leadin' lawyer talk the night 'fore 'lection, an' be said if John C. Fremont wun't 'lected the country would fall to ruin, an' everybody would have to shut up shop. 'Course I didn't take the papers; but, noticin' thet things went on 'bout same as before, I calculated John won. So he won't 'lected? Well, b’jinks, thet gets me!"Judge.

The Law and Medical Departments of the University of Arkansas are located at Little Rock on account of the advantages of a large and learned Bar and the advantages of clinical study for the medics. Neither the Law nor the Medical Departments receive any aid from the state, excepting that the Board of Trustees of the University grant the diplo. mas. The Law Department now requires for graduation two full years' work of nine months each, and the candidate for degrees must pass a satisfactory written examination upon sixteen subjects. The law classes meet at night only. The professors and lecturers render their services gratuitously, and among those who have taken an active part in the school in the past are the following: John Fletcher, lerturer on Real Property for fifteen years; Jacoh Trieber (Judge of the United States District Court), lecturer on Federal Jurisdiction; George W. Mur

The announcement that J. Newton Fiero, for the last thirteen years the Dean of the Albany Law School, has been appointed Reporter to the New York Court of Appeals, has been received with satisfaction by both the bench and bar of that state. Dean

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