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books on “Equity," "Pleading and Practice," and "Bailments and Carriers."

WAIT, Horatio Loomis, Dean of the Chicago Law School.-Born in New York City August 8, 1836. Son of Joseph Wait and Harriet Whitney Wait. Received his education at Columbia University. Married Clara Conant on May 7, 1860. Admitted to the Bar of Illinois in 1870. Master in Chancery, Circuit Court of Cook County, Ill. Dean of the Chicago Law School since 1898. Teaches the subject of "Chancery Practice."

WALZ, William Emanuel, Dean of the University of Maine Law School.-Born in Columbus, Ohio, April 13, 1860. Son of John Walz and Charlotte Newman Walz. Graduated from Harvard University in 1899. Married Mary L. Deininger on March 25, 1883. Professor of History in the Imperial Government College at Tokio, Japan, from 1883 to 1896. Decorated with the Order of the Rising Sun by the Emperor of Japan in 1896. Appointed Professor of Law at the University of Maine in 1899, and elected Dean of the law faculty of that University in 1902. Subjects taught in the law school

"Municipal Corporations," "Equity," "Partnership," and "Torts.”

"Quo Warranto” published in Cyclopedia of Law and Procedure.

WHITFIELD, Albert H., Dean of the Millsaps College of Law.-Born near Aberdeen, Miss., October 12, 1849. Son of Robert D. Whitfield and Jane McMillan Whitfield. The following degrees were conferred upon him by the University of Mississippi: A. B., LL. B., A. M., and LL. D. Married Dodie Buffalo December 13, 1876. Admitted to the Bar of Mississippi in 1874. Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of Mississippi, 1874 to 1900. Chief Justice of that court since 1900. Dean of the University of Mississippi Law School, 1871 to 1874. Dean of the Millsaps College of Law since 1903. Subjects taught in law school are “Con. stitutional Law," "Corporations,” “Criminal Law and Procedure," "Evidence,” and “Real Property." Author of the article in the Cosmopolitan Magazine in 1900, "Shall the Phil. ippines be Annexed ?"

WIGMORE, John Henry, Dean of the Northwestern University Law School.Born in San Francisco, Cal., March 4, 1863. Son of John Wigmore and Harriet Joyner Wigmore. Graduated from Harvard University with degrees of A. B. in 1883 and LL, B. in 1887. Married Emma H. Vogl September 16, 1889. Admitted to the Bar of Massachusetts in 1887. Professor of American Law in Keio Gijuka University, Tokio, Japan, from 1889 to 1892. Appointed Professor of Law in the Northwestern University Law School in 1893. Dean of the Northwestern University Law School since 1901. Subjects taught: “Carriers,” “Common-Law Pleading," "Evidence,” "International Law," "Quasi Contracts," and "Torts.” Author of "Old Japan," 1891 ; “Materials for the Study of Private Law in Old Japan," 4 vols. 1891-92; "Compiled Examinations in Law," 1898; 16th edition of “Greenleaf on Evidence," vol. 1, 1899; “Treatise on Evidence,” 4 vols., 1905 ; co-editor of "Select Essays in Anglo-American Legal History," 3 vols., 1907–1909, and legal articles published in various law magazines.


WATERMAN, Arba Nelson, Dean of the John Marshall Law School.-Born in Greensboro, Vt., February 5, 1836. Son of Loring F. Waterman and Mary Stevens Waterman. Graduated from the Albany Law School with degrees of A. B, and LL. B. Married Rebecca E. Hall on December 16, 1862. Admitted to the Bar of New York in 1861. Lieutenant Colonel of the One Hundredth Illinois Infantry during the Civil War. Judge of the Cook County, Illinois, Circuit Court from 1887 to 1903, and also Appellate Judge of the First and Second Districts. Dean of the John Marshall Law School since 1903. Subjects taught: "Constitution of the United States' and "Illinois Practice." Author of "A Century of Caste," and the article on

The Value of Correspondence Instruction

in the Law.

Vice Principal of the Sprague Correspondence School of Laro.

THE pioneers in any movement must

movement, like all new movements and expect doubt and even opposition, all reforms, has to a certain extent suffor there seems to be a natural preju- fered by reason of its devotees as well as dice against anything new, especially in at the hands of its opponents. Any methods of education, even in America, sincere and conscientious advocate of a country famous as a worshiper of the the correspondence method must admit god of all things new. Therefore those that it has its weak points and its dewho started correspondence instruction fects; but the same thing might with all and regularly organized institutions for propriety be admitted for the resident the practice of this method of instruc- law schools—in all justice must be so adtion realized that it would be hailed, if mitted. Certainly no one would claim not opposed, as a new feature in educa- that correspondence law schools are tional methods, which must overcome better than the best resident schools, prejudices even of those who should for that would be not only untrue, but have been its friends and supporters. foolish. However, admitting the weakAs the prejudice was only natural, how- nesses or defects or deficiencies properever, perhaps no one has any right to ly attributable to it, the correspondence find fault with it.

method of instruction has features of Before going further, I want it under- immense value to the public at large, stood that in referring to resident and institutions giving correspondence schools in this article in no case do I do instruction have their place—not as riso in the spirit of criticism, or even of vals of the resident schools and univerinvidious comparison. In measuring sities, not necessarily as institutions in the value of anything, we must have the same class, but as institutions that some standard from which to measure, serve that greater body of earnest and and I regard and here use the resident ambitious men and women who want to schools simply as the gold standard in learn, who want to educate themselves, methods of legal education.

who want to improve their condition In this article I hold no brief for any and prospects in life, but whose cirparticular correspondence school. I

cumstances do not permit them to atspeak simply on behalf of the corre- tend a resident school. As a matter of spondence system of instruction itself. fact, I am sure that our own school has In spite of opposition and prejudice, it created for the resident law colleges has gone steadily on advancing in popu- vastly more students than it has taken lar esteem, since the Sprague Corre- away from them, and the same is true of spondence School of Law was founded, all other good law correspondence eighteen years ago. It is true that this schools.

other way

We have many students who take up the subjects covered as has the averthe study of law with no idea of practi- age graduate of the resident law school cing it as a profession, but who have an pursuing the same course. The resiidea that they would like to study law dent schools, of course, offer the fullest and improve their minds and add to opportunities for learning, if the stutheir education, and which study they dent attending will do his part. They can pursue in no

than offer possibly fuller opportunities than through a correspondence school. They a correspondence school can offer, become interested in the study of law, though in making that statement I admit and some wish to go to a resident I hold some mental reservations, and in school, and circumstances often so no statement in this article do I speak change that these students can and do merely from theory, because I have had take advantage of the opportunity. A experience as a student in two of the correspondence law school that is con- best university law schools, and also scientiously and sincerely conducted fifteen years' experience in correspondwill always recommend that its students ence instruction since admission to the go to resident schools if they can; for bar. I repeat, therefore, that while the it must be recognized that the resident correspondence school should not and law schools offer many advantages that does not seek to take the place of the correspondence schools cannot give. resident school, it has an important The atmosphere of the classroom, the place all its own. It should not be reassociation with students pursuing the garded by the resident law schools as a same line of work, and to a more or less rival, nor should it be opposed by them. extent with the professors also, has a They should encourage it, if their facultendency to produce the best results in ty are in the broadest sense public edan earnest student in a resident school. ucators, instead of simply ambitious adOn the other hand, so far as

vocates of their own institution and of thoroughness is concerned, a

their own method. Knowing all of the spondence school need yield nothing to advantages and values of the resident the resident school, provided the school school, having seen them and particiis earnestly and sincerely conducted, pated in them as a student, and knowand the student himself earnestly and ing the advantages and values on the sincerely desires to learn and will do his one hand, and, on the other, the weakpart as a student. This is proved by the ness and deficiencies of the correspondresults attained by the graduates of cor- ence school, having seen them and takrespondence schools at State Bar Ex- en part in them as an instructor, I think aminations, and, for that matter, in the I may claim for the correspondence practice of the profession. That fact, school, in the field that it seeks to occuhowever, is quite as much a tribute to py and does occupy, a position of the the student as to the correspondence very highest service and value to the school, if not more so; for no man can public. For our own school, as an ingo through a correspondence course stitution, I ask neither consideration unless he earnestly desires to learn, and nor favors, for as an educational factor when he does go through such a course, am acquainted with the results of its and completes it, it is certain that he has work and know it to be entitled to the learned at least as large a percentage of highest consideration on behalf of its



students and in their interests, and I am them, at least, the correspondence sure the same may be said of the Chica- school offers the best opportunity that go Correspondence School of Law and is obtainable. It offers them substantialseveral other correspondence institu- ly the same course as does the resident tions.

school. It may not offer them all the The main point is that the Corre- benefits or opportunities or advantages spondence Schools of Law have their that the resident school does, but it at place, and were in fact brought into least offers them the opportunity to reexistence by the necessities of a large ceive the same information that they body of students, who were in the na- would get in a resident school, and to ture of things entitled to as much in the obtain it according to their own time way of opportunities as any one else, and opportunity for study, and by a but to whom circumstances closed the

method which, if conscientiously pracdoors of the resident schools and uni- ticed by the school and earnestly carversities. The correspondence method

ried out by the student, is, for the purof instruction, therefore, has its place, poses of thoroughness, nearly ideal. and during the last eighteen years it has

In this connection the following letter conclusively proved its value to the written to the Chicago Correspondence public. So far as individual schools are School of Law by one of its students, concerned, I speak not for them-nei- Rev. Harry White, of Natick, Mass., a ther for the one with which I am con

graduate of Harvard and a man whose nected, nor any other. Recognize the education and experience are such as to method, however. Give it the credit qualify him to form a correct judgment, that is due it, and let the individual may be of interest. It is about as clear schools stand or fall by their own mer

a statement of the merits of the correits. With all institutions it should be, spondence method as could be offered, and ultimately is, simply a case of the and is certainly a high commendation of survival of the fittest.

the work being done by the school in The students whom the correspond

which he was enrolled as a student. ence schools serve are, in the vast ma

“Dear Sirs: Being a graduate of Harvard,

I shared in the prejudice which many college jority, not very young men, but men

men have against the correspondence schools ; who have been out in the world long and, desiring some knowledge of the law, I

took the work up with you with considerable enough to have realized from their

misgiving. I am glad to be able to say that I business experience the value, yea, the have been most agreeably surprised by the necessity, of education, and by those

character of the work done in the Chicago

Correspondence School of Law. experiences to develop ambitions, many "In comparing correspondence schools with of them for the practice of law, but

resident schools and colleges, we are con

stantly unfair to the former on account of ambitions which the circumstances in

the prestige which is enjoyed by the latter. which they are placed make it impos- Any man looking back at the facts of his uni

versity days will see that, although a great sible for them to gratify through the

many scholars were on the teaching force, it means offered by resident schools. Ei- was exceptional that the great scholar was

also the great teacher. While there are some ther for family or other reasons, they

obvious advantages in favor of the resident cannot afford to give up their busi- study at a university, there are also some de nesses or their incomes to attend a

cided advantages in favor of the correspond

dence school. Take the facts about lectures. resident school. They must, there- If the student listens attentively to the lecfore, either give up their ambitions

tures, without taking notes, he soon forgets

them. If he takes notes, his attention is dior study by some other method. For

vided, and he misses a part of the lecture.

One of our students, a university graduate who was finally able to return to the law school of his own university and graduate therefrom, wrote us:

"In some respects I think your method is superior to university classroom work for a man preparing for the bar examination."

If the instructor happens to be dull and prosy, the student is at a still greater disadvantage. If the air is bad, or be chances to feel tired or ill at the time of the lecture, he misses still more of its substances. With the correspondence school, the student does not labor under these disadvantages. The instruction being printed or written, the student is able to get everything. If he does not understand, he can read it over again. If he is still unable to understand, he can have it explained for him, without making himself conspicuous or annoying the lecturer by an interruption. He is able to control his own rate of progress and to go as rapidly or as slowly as he chooses. He is not hampered by the dull students nor hurried by the bright ones.

"Your lesson papers seem to be constructed on the soundest pedagogical basis. There is the supplementary matter which illustrates or explains the matter of the text-book, and the questions by which the student may test his knowledge of the text.

"Your lectures cover the subject in a way which enables the student to grasp the subject he is studying as a whole, into which he can fit the different subordinate principles, so that it all lies in his mind as a systematized unit, rather than a mass of separate and unrelated facts and details which must be retained by sheer force of memory.

"But, however much praise may be due to the lesson papers and lectures, I think that the most effective part of your instruction is that in the Test Questions and Practice Department. It is everybody's experience that we learn best by doing things. We learn to walk by putting the principles of walking into practice, and we learn to swim in the same fashion, and the student of law learns law best by putting the legal principles, as he studies them, into practice, by working out just such Test Questions as you furnish him, and by doing such work as is prescribed in the Practice Department. He will make mistakes, of course, but there is just as much learned-if not, indeed, more-in making mistakes and being corrected, as there is in not making mistakes.

“If you will pardon this somewhat lengthy letter (which you may print, if you care to, for this work seems to me to be so desirable, not only to a man who desires to be a lawyer, but to every man who is a citizen, that I should like to have it taken up more universally), I should say that your catalogue does not fairly or adequately represent the merits of your work. Your school does suffer from two limitations, it is true. It cannot supply a student with brains, and it cannot make him work. But, if he has the average amount of intelligence and the average capacity for work, he can learn law with your system of instruction. He can learn law thoroughly, and with a great deal of pleasure in the learning.”

Both these men are qualified to form opinions that are entitled to consideration, for they are men of high education, having had considerable experience with both methods of study.

Along the same line, the late Dr. William R. Harper, while President of the Chicago University, a short time before his death, in a public address said:

“In some respects there is opportunity for better work in correspondence study than in the ordinary classroom recitation. Each student in a correspondence course has to recite on all the lessons, while in many a classroom the student recites on only about one-thirtieth of the work of a three months' course. It is safe to say that the standard of work done in correspondence courses is fully equal to that of the work done in the large class. Indeed, I may say that there is a larger proportion of high grade work done by correspondence than in class recitation. People who take work by correspondence do it because they want to get something out of it, while in many courses in colleges the students take the work because it is required in the curriculum."

Further, drawing his illustrations from the teaching by correspondence in Hebrew and other dead languages, President Harper said:

“The work done by correspondence is even better than that done in the classroom. The correspondence student does all the work himself. He does twenty times as much reciting as he would in a class where there were twenty people. He works out the difficulties bimself and the results stay with him."

In another address Dr. Harper is said to have stated that the students who took the freshman and sophomore work of his university by correspondence and came to Chicago to enter the junior class, were more thoroughly prepared

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