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glabrous, and flat on their upper surface, of a very glaucous green, and placed very near each other. The flowers are small, greenish, and axillary; usually solitary. The stamens are generally longer than the divisions of the calyx; and the styles, which are 2-3 in number, are reddish. It is found wild on the shores of the Mediterranean, both in Europe and Africa; and on the sea coasts in England. It is perfectly hardy; and, even when killed down to the ground by severe frost in winter, it is sure to throw up fresh shoots in spring. It is not very ornamental, but is useful, in some situations, as a glaucous evergreen bush. It may be propagated by seeds, layers, cuttings, or suckers. It should be planted in a sheltered situation, as it is an evergreen, and the leaves, from their succulency are easily affected by the frost, which turns them black. The branches are very brittle, and apt to break off: they should not, however, be tied up closely, as the leaves will rot if they are not allowed abundance of light and air.

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2. C. PARVIFOLIUM R. et S. The small-leaved Goosefoot. Identification. Rom. et Schult. Syst. Veg., 6. p. 266.

Synonymes. C. fruticosum Bieb. in Fl. Taur.-Cauc., 1. p. 181., exclusively of all the synonymes; C
microphyllum Bieb. in Suppl. to Fl. Taur.-Cauc., 1. p. 275.; Salsola fruticosa Bieb. Casp., p. 149.
App. No. 22, Pall. It., 3. p. 524.; Suaèda microphylla Pall. Illust., 3. t. 44.
Engraving. Pall. Ill., 3. t. 44.

Description, &c. Imperfectly evergreen, frutescent, much branched, spreading, glabrous, about 2 ft. high. Leaves taper, oblong, obtuse, glaucescent, fleshy; the lower half an inch long, the floral ones shorter. Flowers of the shape of those of C. marítimum, three together, attached to the petiole above its base, not bracteated. The sepals that attend the fruit are equal and convex at the back. (Bieb.) Frequent in the plains of Eastern Caucasus, towards the Caspian Sea, and near the salt river Gorkaja, where it is believed to be deleterious to horses. (R. et S. Syst. Vég.) It was introduced into England in 1825, but is very seldom found in collections.

3. C. HORTENSE R. et S. The Garden Goosefoot. Identification. Rom. et Schult. Syst. Veg., 6. p. 268.

Synonymes. Suaèda hortensis Forsk. Egypt. Arab., p. 71.; Delile Descr. de l'Egypte., No. 297.; Salsola divergens Poir. Enc. Meth., 7. p. 299.

Description, &c. Subevergreen. A shrub, about 2ft. high, very diffuse. Stem, branches, and leaves spotted with white, having upon their surface a mealy matter that may be rubbed off. Leaves flat above, linear, fleshy. Flowers axillary, sessile, in groups. Stigmas 3, united at the base. Calyx, as it attends the fruit, fleshy, diverging. It is very similar to, if not identical with, Salsòla trigyna Cas. (R. et S. Syst. Veg.) A low uninteresting shrub, a native of Asia, and the south of Europe, supposed to be in British gardens; but we are not certain that we have seen the plant.

GENUS II.

A'TRIPLEX L. THE ORACHE. Lin. Syst. Polygàmia Monce'cia. Identification. Lin. Gen., 745.; Eng. Flor., 4. p. 255.

Derivation. From ater, black; according to some by antiphrasis, in reference to the whitish, or mealy, hue of the plants.

Description, &c. Shrubs, with imperfectly woody branches, and succulent leaves, white or glaucous from being covered with a mealy powder. Natives of Britain or the south of Europe, of easy culture and propagation in any common garden soil.

1. A. HA'LIMUS L. The Halimus Orache, or Tree Purslane. Identification. Lin. Hort. Cliff., 469.; Gron. Virg., 195.; Roy. Lugdb., 218.; Mill. Dict., No. 2., Pall. It., 1.; Append. It., 2. p. 477.; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836.

Synonymes. Halimus latifolius sive fruticosus Bauh. Pin., 120., Ger. Emac., p. 522.; Halimus i Clus. Hist., 1. p. 53.; the broad-leaved Sea Purslane Tree; Arroche, Fr.; strauchartige Melde, Ger. Engravings. Park. Theatr., 724. t. 2.; Ger. Emac., p. 522. f. 1.; and our fig. 1158.

Spec. Char., &c. Stem shrubby. Leaves alternate or opposite, their figure partaking of an oblong and a rhomb, entire. (Willd.) It inhabits hedges on the coast of Spain, Portugal, Virginia, and Siberia; and was introduced in 1640. An evergreen shrub, which grows about 5 ft. or 6 ft. high, and forms a large broad head. The young branches are covered with a smooth white bark, which becomes grey, and peels off lengthwise, as the tree gets old. The branches are very brittle, and have but little pith. The leaves are soft, white, and silvery, and, in shape, resemble the Greek A. The shrub seldom flowers in Britain; but, from its not being quite deciduous, and from the silvery hue of its foliage, it is a valuable plant for shrubberies and other ornamental plantations. It may be propagated by cuttings made in the usual manner, but carefully protected from sparrows, which are so fond of the leaves of this shrub, that "when they once find them out, they will never leave or forsake them, until they have entirely stripped the plants; and though the shrub will shoot out afresh, yet they will as constantly repair to their repast; and will thus continue to prey upon them, until they have entirely destroyed them." (See Marshall on Planting and Rural Ornament, vol. ii. p. 29.) It requires a sheltered situation, being liable to injury from frost. Price of plants, in the London nurseries,

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1s. 6d. each.

2. A. PORTULACÖI'DES L. The Purslane-like, or shrubby, Orache, or Sea Purslane.

Identification. Lin. Fl. Suec., 828. 919.; Mill. Dict, No. 3.; Willd. Sp.
Pl., 4. p. 957.; Smith Eng. Flor., 4. p. 256.
Synonymes. Hálimus secundus Clus. Hist., 54. f.; H. vulgàris Ger.
Emac., 525. f.; Halimus seu Portulaca marina Bauh. Pin., 120.;
A'triplex marítima, Hálimus et Portulaca marina dicta, angustifolia,
Raii Syn., 153.; the narrow-leaved Sea Purslane Tree.
Engravings. Eng. Bot., t. 231.; and our fig. 1159.

Spec. Char., &c. Stem shrubby, spreadir. Leaves.
opposite, obovate-lanceolate, entire. Flowers gene-
rally unisexual; those of both sexes upon one plant.
(Smith Eng. Flor.) It inhabits the northern shores
of Europe; and, in Britain and Ireland, is occasion-
ally found in muddy places by the sea side. It is a
low shrub, or trailer, with less silvery leaves than
those of the preceding species; the whole plant, also,
is much smaller. It may be grown in the open gar-
den, or in pots among alpines. The name of Háli-
mus, given to this and the preceding species by Clu-
sius, has probably been the source of the epithet ha-
limifòlia, applied to several other plants; so that

LAT

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Baccharis halimifòlia, &c., ineans that the leaves are glaucous, and resembling those of certain kinds of A'triplex.

GENUS III.

DIO TIS Schreb. THE DIOTIS. Lin. Syst. Monce'cia Tetrándria. Identification. Lin. Gen. Pl., ed. Schreber, No. 1423.; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 368.; Nutt. Gen. and Cat. N. Amer. Pl., 2. p. 207. It is not the Diòtis of Desf. Fl. Atl.; Dcc. Fl. Fr.; Smith Eng. Flor., 3. p. 402.; which is the Otánthus of Link Enum., and the Santolina maritima L. Synonymes. Ceratöldes Tourn.; A'xyris, Lin.; Ceratospermum Pers.

Derivation. From dis, twice, and ous, otos, an ear. The calyx of the female flower ends in two segments, which fancy may compare to ears, although they more resemble horns: and this second idea is doubtless that referred to in Tournefort's generic name Ceratöides, from keras, a horn, gen. keratos, and eidos, likeness.

1. D. CERATOI DES W. The two-horned-calyxed Diotis.

Identification. Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 368.
Synonymes. A'xyris Ceratöldes Lin. Sp. Pl., 1389.; Jacq. Icon. Rar., 1. t. 189.; Ceratospermum
papposum Pers.; A'xyris fruticosa, floribus foemineis lanatis, Gmel. Sib., 3. p. 17. No. 10. t. 2. f. 1.;
Achyranthes pappòsa Forsk. Descr., 48.; Krascheninnikovia Guildenst. Act. Petrop., 16. p. 548. t. 17.;
Urtica foliis lanceolatis, foemininis hirsutus, Roy. Lugdb., 210.; Ceratöldes orientalis fruticosa
Elágni folio Tourn. Cor., 52.; Orientalisches Doppelohr, Ger.
Engravings. Jacq. Ic. Rar., 1. t. 189.; Gmel. Sib., 3. p. 17. No. 10. t. 2. f. 1.; Act. Petrop., 16. t. 17. ;
and our fig. 1160.

Description, &c. A shrub, a native of Siberia and Tartary. Introduced in 1780, and producing its obscure apetalous flowers in March and April. It grows 2 ft. or more high, much more across,

and abounds in slender spreading branches. Its leaves are lanceolate, narrow, and alternate. The whole plant is hoary. The male flowers are very abundant, and disposed mostly in approximate axillary groups about the terminal part of the branches. The female flowers are less numerous, and mostly upon a lower part of the branch, axillary, and generally two in an axil. Both male and female flowers are sessile, or nearly so. The female flowers are not obvious. The male flowers are not showy; though their number, grouped character, and the yellow anthers prominent from them, render the flowering of the shrub obvious. They have a slight scent of a honey-like sweetness. The stocky part of this plant is persistently ligneous. D. Ceratöides thrives in a light soil, and is easily propagated by layers, or by cuttings inserted in the soil and kept covered with a hand-glass, Plants in the Cambridge Botanic Garden, in August, 1836, growing, some in calcareous soil, and one or more in heath mould, were about 2 ft. high, and with widely spreading recumbent branches. This shrub, therefore, appears particularly well adapted for rockwork; and, if gardens were laid out with a view to the geographical or topographical distribution of plants, the D. Ceratöìdes, with the different species of Nitrària, Callígonum, &c., would form suitable species for the rockwork of Siberia.

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D. lanata Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 2. p. 602., Nutt. Gen. N. Amer., 2. p.207., resembles D. Ceratöldes, but is easily distinguished, at first sight, by the long, woolly, white tomentum which pervades all its parts. The stem is zigzag. The groups of flowers are so crowded as to produce the resemblance of spikes.

App. I. Half-hardy Species of Chenopodiacea.

Anábasis tamariscifolia L., Cav. Ic., 3. 293., is a curious little salsola-like plant, a native of Spain, where it grows 2 ft. high. It was introduced in 1752; but, being of little interest, except to the botanist, it is rarely to be met with even in botanic gardens. A. aphylla L., Salsòla articulata Forst., is another plant of the same genus, a native of Asia Minor.

Kochia prostrata Schr., Jacq. Au., 3. 294.; Salsòla prostrata L.; is a native of the south of Europe, growing to the height of 5 ft., with the general habit of a salsola. It is almost sufficiently hardy to stand in the open air without protection. A plant in the Cambridge Botanic Garden, in a partly open border, is a freely growing shrub, about 5 ft. high, with its lower branches prostrate, and its upper ones drooping. It is clothed with abundance of narrow, pointed, pubescent leaves, which are a little canescent.

Bosca Yervamòra L., Walt. Hort., 24. t. 10., Encyc. of Plants, f. 3453., is a native of the Canaries, where it grows to the height of 8 ft. or 10 ft. A plant in the Horticultural Society's Garden has stood out since 1834, against a wall. It is generally killed to the ground during winter, but grows up again vigorously during summer, and usually reaches from 5 ft. to 6 ft. high.

Camphorósma monspeliaca Schk. Hand., 1. t. 26., is a low heath-like shrub, a native of the south of Europe, common in various places in France; for instance, at Avignon, on the ruins of the old castle. It is of a decumbent babit, with red bark to its young shoots, and with hairy narrow-pointed leaves, in groups along the branches. It is a most desirable plant for conservative rockwork; and if trained against a wall, we have no doubt it would cover several square yards of wall in a very short time. Other Genera belonging to Chenopodiacea contain species which may be reckoned half-hardy; but as they may be readily found by turning to the enumeration in our Hortus Britannicus, we do not give them here.

CHAP. XCII.

OF THE HARDY LIGNEOUS PLANTS OF the order pOLYGONA CEÆ.

DISTINCTIVE Characteristics. Leaves alternate. A filmy cylindrical sheath, called an ochrea (which signifies a boot), arises from the base of every leaf, except in three genera, and surrounds the stem or branch for more or less of the interval between that leaf and the next above it. Generally speaking, this is sufficient to distinguish the Polygonàceæ from all other plants. Additionally, they have an erect ovule, with a superior radicle, and, in most, farinaceous albumen. (Lindley Nat. Syst. of Bot.) The hardy ligneous species are included in the three genera, Tragopyrum Bieb., Atrapháxis L., and Callígonum L.; which have the following characters.

TRAGOPY RUM Bieb. Calyx inferior, with 5 sepals, that are imbricate in æstivation, permanent; the 2 exterior smaller, the 3 interior investing the fruit, which is an achenium that is 3-cornered in a transverse section of it. Stamens 8. Styles 3. Undershrubs, with the habit of Atrapháxis, but decumbent or trailing; and the leaves of one of the species, at least (T. buxifolium Bieb.), are deciduous. In the stamens and pistil they resemble Polygonum, and in the calyx Rùmex. (Bieb. Fl. Taur-Cauc., iii. p. 284. ; Lindley Nat. Syst. of Bot.; and observation.) Pedicels jointed in T. lanceolàtum Bieb. and T. polygamum Spr. (Vent.)

ATRAPHA'XIS L. Calyx inferior, of 4 leaves, in an outer smaller pair and an interior pair, the latter resembling petals; or 4-parted, with the lobes equal. Stamens 6. Stigmas 2, in one species; style bifid, in the other. Fruit compressed, in one species; roundish, in the other. Seed 1. Species 2. Small shrubs, with leaves more or less ovate. (Willd. Sp. Pl., 2. p. 248, 249., and obs.) CALLIGONUM L. Calyx inferior, persistent, turbinate in the lower part, ending upwards in a 5-parted spreading border; the 2 outer lobes rather the smaller. Stamens about 16; the filaments slightly united at the base, and then diverging. Anthers peltate. Germen 4-sided, acuminate. Styles 4 or 3, united at the base for a little way, slender, spreading. Stigmas capitate. Fruit an achenium that has 4 sides and 4 wings; and the wings are either membranous, longitudinally 2-parted, toothed, and curled, or rough with branched bristles. C. Pallàs, the best-known species, is an crect shrub 3 ft. or 4 ft. high, with rush-like shoots, without obvious leaves, with the flowers in groups, and their calyxes partly white. (L'Héritier in Lin. Soc. Trans., i. p. 177.; and Rees's Cyclop.)

GENUS I.

TRAGOPY RUM Bieb. THE GOAT WHEAT. Lin. Syst. Octándria Trigynia.

Identification. Bieb. Flor. Taurico-Caucas., 3. p. 284.

Synonyme. Polygonum Lin. Hort. Ups., 95., Willd. Sp., 2. p. 440., Bot. Mag., t. 1055., Bot. Reg. t. 255. Derivation. Tragos, a goat, and puros, wheat. The S-cornered fruits of such of the Polygonaceæ as have them are comparable, with some allowance, to wheat; and goats may feed upon those of the Tragopyrum, or upon the shrubs themselves; or it may be that the name has been invented as one readily distinctive from the name Fagopyrum, now the name of a genus that includes the different kinds of buck-wheat.

1. T. LANCEOLA TUM Bieb. The lanceolate-leaved Goat Wheat. Identification. Bieb. Fl. Taurico-Caucas.

Synonymes. Polygonum frutescens Willd. Sp. Pl., 2. p. 440., Willd. Baumz., p. 286., Bot. Reg t. 254.; strauchartiger Knöterig, Ger.

Engravings. Gmel. Sib, 3. t. 12. f. 2.; Bot, Reg., t. 254.; and our fig. 1161.

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Spec. Char., &c. Stem spreading widely. Leaves lanceolate, tapered to both ends, flat. Ochrea lanceolate, shorter than the internode. The 2 exterior sepals reflexed, the 3 interior ones obcordate. Flowers octandrous, trigynous. A native of Siberia and Dahuria. (Willd.) A shrub, a native of Siberia, growing from 1 ft. to more than 2 ft. high, branchy, even to the base. Introduced in 1770, but rare in collections. Branches twiggy. Leaf with a frosty hue, spathulate-lanceolate, nearly 1 in. long, several times longer than broad; its edge obscurely indented. The petiole short. The ochrea ends in 2 acuminate points. The flowers are borne on terminal twigs, are pediceled, erect, axillary, 1-3 in an axil, often 3, and are so disposed as to constitute leafy racemes. The calyxes are whitish, variegated with rose colour, and persistent; and of the 5 sepals to each flower, the 3 that invest the ovary after the flowering become more entirely rosy. The pedicels, erect while bearing the flower, after the flowering become deflexed, and render the fruit pendulous. (Bot. Reg.) There is a plant in the Horticultural Society's Garden, in an unfavourable situation, being much shaded by trees, which is upward of 1 ft. in height; and there is one in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges, which forms a hemispherical bush 24 ft. high; which, during great part of July and August, 1836, was covered with its beautiful white flowers, tinged with pink; and formed a truly admirable object. It thrives best in peat soil, and is worthy of a prominent place in the most select collections.

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2. T. BUXIFO'LIUM Bieb. The Box-leaved Goat Wheat. Identification. Bieb. Fl. Taurico-Caucas. Synonymes. Polygonum crispulum var. & Sims Bot. Mag., t. 1065.; P. caucasicum Hoffmannsegg. Engravings. Bot. Mag., t. 1065.; and our fig. 1162.

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Spec. Char., &c. Leaf obovate, obtuse, tipped with a short mucro; the lateral margins undulated and reflexed, glabrous. Ochreas with 2 awns. (Sims in Bot. Mag, t. 1065.) A shrub, a native of Siberia. Introduced in 1800, and flowering in July. Its decumbent branches will extend 2 ft. and upwards on every side of the root; their bark is ash-coloured. The leaves are of a light green colour, rather rounded in outline, about 1 in. in diameter, and deciduous. The flowers are produced in long racemes, are nodding, and white. The fruit is enclosed by the 3 inner sepals, which become, as the fruit ripens, of a rosy colour. This, and the preceding species, are extremely interesting and beautiful little shrubs, and it is much to be regretted that they are so very seldom seen in collections. Though they require heath soil, and some little time to be firmly established, yet when once they are so, from their compact neat habit of growth, very little care will be necessary afterwards. They never can require much pruning, are quite hardy; and, provided the soil be not allowed to get too dry in the heat of summer, they are always certain of flowering freely. We hope in due time to see our provincial horticultural societies encouraging the growth of plants of this kind, by offering premiums for well grown specimens; and for those who collect the greatest number of sorts.

3. T. POLY GAMUM Spr. The polygamous-sexed Goat Wheat. Identification. Spreng. Syst. Veg., 2. p. 251.

Synonymes. Polygonum polygamum Vent. Cels, t. 65. ; P. parvifolium Nutt. Gen., 1. p. 256.
Engravings. Vent. Cels., t. 65. ; and our fig. 1163.

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