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S. betaceum Cav., Bot. Rep., t. 411., is a native of South America, from which country it was introduced into Britain in 1803. It forms a splendid shrub, 10 ft. or 12 ft. high, and produces egg-shaped fruit, of a deep crimson colour. The fruit are about the size and shape of magnum bonum plums, and hang down in clusters of three or four together. (Gard. Mag., vol. ii. p. 105.) A plant of this species in the Cambridge Botanic Garden, in 1816, produced leaves nearly a foot in length, and half a foot in breadth; giving out, when handled, an odour resembling that of the bruised wood of S. Dulcamara. This species resembles, in its free habit of growth, Brugmansia suaveolens; and it is observed by a correspondent of the Gardener's Magazine, that it is likely to thrive and flower under the same treatment as that plant. The same writer adds, "did the plants of S. betaceum, when planted out, produce only a copious clothing of such leaves, they would, in themselves, be striking, and impart an additional tropical feature to the British flower-garden." (Ibid., p. 155.) The plants of this species in the Bristol Nursery are said to be somewhat different from that figured in the Botanical Repository. (Ibid., p. 269.)

S. angulatum R. et S., Dun. Sol, 2. 95. t. 1., is a native of Lima, introduced in 1825. It has large angulated prickly leaves, with purple veins and petioles. Preserved through the winter in a stove, and turned out in the spring, it makes a splendid appearance in the flower border.

S. marginatum W., Bot. Mag., t. 1928., is a native of Africa, and forms an evergreen shrub, 4 ft. or 5 ft. high., striking from the mealy whiteness of its leaves.

S. Pseudo-Capsicum L., Capsicum Amòmum Plínií Gerard, is a native of Madeira, an old inhabitant of our green-houses. It grows 4 ft. or 5 ft. high, and produces red, or yellowish fruit, about the size of cherries. Gerard says, "it is a rare and pleasant plant, kept in pots and tubs in green-houses during the extremity of winter, and set abroad in March and April."

S. sodomeum L., the apple of Sodom, is a native of different parts of Africa, and also of Sicily, and the south of Italy. It is à shrub, with numerous short and thick branches, armed with many spines. The leaves are above 4 in. long, and 2 in. broad. The flowers are blue, and the berries yellow, as large as walnuts. It abounds, along with Spártium infestum Prest, on the coast of Calabria, and at the foot of Mount Etna. (Comp. Bot. Mag., 1. p. 95.)

Sligástrinum Lodd. Bot. Cab., t. 1963., and our fig. 1107., is a native of Chili, introduced by Mr. Cumming in 1831, and flowering in a sheltered border from May to September. It is a free-growing shrub, readily propagated by cuttings; and judging from the plant in the Chelsea Botanic Garden, from which our figure was taken, we should think it tolerably hardy,

GENUS II.

An

LY'CIUM L. THE BOX THORN. Lin. Syst. Pentándria Monogýnia. Identification. Lin. Gen., 1262.; Lam. Ill., t. 112.; H. B. et Kunth Nov. Gen. Amer., 3. p. 50.; Lindl. Nat. Syst. Bot., 2d edit., p. 295.; Don's Mill., 4. p. 457.

Synonymes. Jasminoides Niss. in Act. Gall., 1711, Mich. Gen., 224. t. 105.; Matrimony Vine, Amer.; Lycien, Fr.; Bocksdorn, Ger. One species, L. bárbarum, is commonly called the Duke of Argyll's tea tree, from the circumstance of a tea plant (Thèa viridis) having been sent to the Duke of Argyll at the same time as this plant, and the labels having been accidentally changed. Derivation. Derived from Lycia, in Asia Minor; hence the lukion of Dioscorides; a name given by him to a thorny shrub, which was supposed by Dr. Sibthorp to have been the Rhamnus infectorius, but which Mr. Royle, with greater probability, regards as identical with a species of Bérberis, which he has denominated Bérberis Lycium.

Description, &c. Thorny rambling shrubs, in general producing long slender shoots, and assuming the character of climbers. Natives of Europe, Asia, Africa, and America. Hedges may be formed of the first nine sorts.

1. L. EUROPE'UM L. The European Box Thorn.

Identification. Lin. Syst., 228.; Mant., p. 47.; Willd. Enum., 1. p. 246.; Sibth. et Smith Fl. Græc., t 236.; Don's Mill., 4. p. 458.; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836.

Synonymes. L. salicifolium Mill. Dict., No. 3., Mich. Gen., p. 224. t. 105. f. 1., Mill. Icon., t. 171. f. 2.; Jasminöldes aculeatum Mich.

Engravings. Mich. Gen., t. 105. f. 1.; Mill. Icon., t. 171. f. 2. ; and our fig. 1108.

Spec. Char., &c. Branches erect, loose. Buds spinescent. Leaves fascicled, obovate-lanceolate, obtuse, or spathulate, bent obliquely. Flowers twin or solitary. Corolla funnel-shaped. Stamens exserted, but shorter than the limb. Calyx 5-cleft, ruptured at the side. Corollas pale violet, reticulated with red veins; tube greenish. (Don's Mill., iv. p. 458.) A rambling

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shrub, with long slender shoots, and prone to throw
up innumerable suckers; a native of the south of
Europe, where it grows to the height of from 10 ft.
to 12 ft.; flowering from May till August. It was
introduced in 1730, and is common in British gardens;
where it is valuable for covering naked walls, as it
grows with extreme rapidity, and flowers and fruits
freely, in almost any soil or situation. Established
plants, in good soil, will make shoots 10 ft. or 12 ft.
in length in one season; and the plant, when trained
against a house or high wall, will reach the height of
30t. or 40 ft., as may be seen in some courts in
Paris. Trained to a strong iron rod, to the height
of 20 ft. or 30 ft., and then allowed to spread over an
umbrella head, it would make a splendid bower. Its
shoots would hang down to the ground, and form a
complete screen on every side, ornamented from top
to bottom with ripe fruit, which is large, and bright
scarlet or yellow; with unripe fruit, which is of a
lurid purple; or with blossoms, which are purple
and white. Some idea of the quantity of ripe and
unripe fruit, and of blossoms, which may be found on
a shoot at one time, may be formed from fig. 1108.,
which is only a portion of a shoot, the upper part of
which (not exhibited in the figure) contained two or
three dozen of fruit, all ripe at once. If it were re-
quired to open the sides of a bower covered with
this plant, the shoots could be tied together so as
to form columns, at regular distances all round: but
they must be untied in an hour or two afterwards,
to prevent the shoots in the interior of the column
from being heated so as to cause them to drop their
leaves and fruit. Price of plants, in the London nur-
series, from 6d. to ls. each; at Bollwyller, 30 cents;
and at New York, 37 cents.

Varieties. There is a variety with yellow fruit, and
another with the fruit roundish; and, in our opinion,
L. bárbarum, chinénse, ruthénicum, Sháwi, and Tre-
wianum, all which we have seen in Loddiges's arbo-
retum; and, probably, other sorts which we have not
seen, are nothing more than variations of the same
form.

2. L. (E.) BA'RBARUM L. The
Barbary Box Thorn.

Identification. Lin. Sp., 277.; Willd. Sp., 4.
p. 1059., exclusive of the synonymes of Shaw
and Lam.; Don's Mill., 4. p. 458.; Lodd.
Cat., ed. 1836.

Synonymes. L. halimifolium Mill. Dict., No.
6.; Z. bárbarum & vulgàre Ait. Hort. Kew.,
1. p. 257. Schkuhr Handb., 1. p. 147. t. 46.,
Hayne Term. Bot., t. 10. f. 5., Du Ham.
Arb., 1. p. 306. t. 121. f. 4., Mich. Gen., t.
105. f. 1.; the Duke of Argyll's Tea Tree.
Engravings. Wats. Dend. Brit., t. 9.; and
our fig. 1109.

Spec. Char., &c. Branches depend- 1109 ent. Buds spiny. Leaves lanceolate, flat, glabrous, acute. Flowers twin, extra-axillary, pedicellate. Corolla funnel-shaped. Stamens exserted, about equal in length to the limb. Branches angular.

[graphic]

Buds often without spines. Calyx 2-3-lobed. Corolla with a purple limb, and yellowish base. Stigma 2-lobed. Berry ovate, yellow. Stamens bearded near the base. There is a variety of this, having livid or pale corollas, and reddish yellow berries. (Don's Mill., iv. p. 458.) A climbing shrub, a native of the north of Asia, Africa, and south of Europe; where it flowers from May till August. It was introduced in 1696; and what has been said respecting L. europæ'um is equally applicable to this sort, which, we think, may, without any hesitation, be pronounced only a variety of it.

3. L. (E.) CHINE'NSE Mill. The Chinese Box Thorn.

Identification. Mill. Dict., No. 5.; Bunge in Mem. Acad. Petersb., 2. p. 123.; Don's Mill., 4. p. 458. Synonymes. L. bárbarum 8 chínénse Ait. Hort. Kew., 1. p. 257.; L. bárbarum Lour. Cock, 1. P. 165. ?; L. ovàtum N. Du Ham., 1. p. 107.

Engravings. Lam. Ill., t. 112. f. 2.; Wats. Dend. Brit., t. 8. ; and our

1110. from the N. Du Ham., and fig. 1111. from, we think, a specimen in the Horticultural Society's Garden.

Spec. Char., &c. Branches pendulous, prostrate, striated. Buds spinescent. Leaves by threes, ovate, acute, attenuated at the base. Peduncles much longer than the calyx, which is entire. Stamens

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exserted. Said by Bunge to be nearly allied to L. ruthénicum; but differs in the leaves being broadovate. Corollas purple. Berries orange-coloured. Shoots very long (ex Mill.). We know not whether the plants described by Miller and by Bunge are the same: the plant here meant is that of Bunge. (Don's Mill., iv. p. 458.) A climbing shrub, a native of China, about Pekin and Canton; and of CochinChina; where it flowers from May till August. It is uncertain when it was introduced; but there are plants in the Horticultural Society's Garden, and in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges; and the chief difference between it and L. europæ'um is, that it is a smaller, weaker plant.

4. L. (E.) TREWIA'NUM G. Don. Trew's Box Thorn.

Identification. Don's Mill., 4. p. 458.; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836.

[graphic]

1111

Synonyme. L. bárbarum Lam. Dict., 3. p. 509., ex Poir. Suppl., 3. p. 427., Trew Ehret., t. 68., exclusive of the synonymes'; L. chinense N. Du Ham., 1. p. 116., Pers. Ench., 1. p. 231. No. 9. Engraving. N. Du Ham., t. 30.

This

Spec. Char., &c. Branches diffuse, angular. Buds spinose. Leaves petiolate, lanceolate, acute. Peduncles 1-flowered, solitary, or twin, extra-axillary. Calyx 2-3-cleft. Corolla funnel-shaped. Stamens exserted. species differs from L. chinénse Mill. in the spines, and from L. bárbarum in the leaves. Branches rufescent. Spines few. Corolla fine purple, with a white star in the centre. Filaments pilose at the base. Berry ovate. (Don's Mill., iv. p. 458.) A shrub, a native of China, where it grows 6 ft. high, flowering from May till August. It was introduced in 1818; and, judging from the plants in the Hackney arboretum, is scarcely, if at all, different from L. europæ'um.

5. L. (E.) RUTHENICUM Murr. The Russian Box Thorn. Identification. Murr. Comm. Goett., 1779, p. 2. t. 2.; Bieb. Fl. Taur. Cauc., 1. p. 166.; Don's Mill., 4. p. 458.; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836.

Synonymes. L. tatáricum Pall. Fl. Ross., 1. p. 78. t. 49.; Lycien de la Russie, Fr.
Engravings. Murr. Comm. Goett., 1779, p. 2. t. 2. ; and our fig. 1112.
Spec. Char., &c. Branches dependent. Buds spinescent.
Leaves linear-lanceolate, fleshy, obtuse, attenuated
at the base, solitary, or sub-fasciculate. Peduncles
longer than the calyx. Calyx with 5 unequal teeth.
Stamens exserted, equal to the limb. Calyx usually
irregularly 5-toothed, rarely 2-3-lobed, as in L.
bárbarum. Corolla with a white tube and purplish
limb. Leaves grey, like those of L. àfrum. (Don's
Mill., iv. p. 458.) A climbing shrub, a native of
Siberia, in nitrous places; on the Wolga, and in
Hyrcania; flowering from June till August. It was
introduced in 1804; and, judging from the plants
in Messrs. Loddiges's collection, is scarcely, if at
all, different from L. europæ'um.

Variety.

AL. r. 2 cáspicum Pall. Fl. Ross., t. 49. f. A.-
Leaves shorter. Buds more spinose. Flow-
ers smaller. Native about the Caspian Sea.
(Don's Mill., iv. p. 458.)

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6. L. (E.) LANCEOLA TUM Poir. The lanceolate-leaved Box Thorn. Identification. Poir. Suppl., 3. p. 429.; Don's Mill., 4. p. 458.

Synonyme. L. europæ'um 8 Dec. Fl. Fr.. No. 2699., Pers. Ench., 1. p. 251. No. 8., N. Du Ham., 1. p. 123. t. 32., Loud. Hort. Brit., ed. 1829.

Engraving. N. Du Ham., t. 32.

Spec. Char., &c. Branches dependent, reflexed. Buds spinescent. Leaves lanceolate, nearly sessile, acute at both ends. Flowers solitary, extra-axillary, pedicellate. Corolla funnel-shaped. Stamens exserted. Calyx unequally 5-toothed. Corolla purple, with a white bottom. Berry oblong, red. (Don's Mill., iv. p. 458.) A climbing shrub, a native of the south of Europe, particularly of Naples, Greece, &c.; where it flowers from May till August. When it was introduced is uncertain, and we have never seen the plant.

7. L. (? E.) TURBINA TUM Du Ham. The turbinate-fruited Box Thorn. Identification. N. Du Ham., 1. p. 119. t. $1.; Pers. Ench., 1. p. 231., exclusive

of the synonyme of Lam., No. 3.; Don's Mill., 4. p. 458.

Synonymes. L. halimifolium Mill. Dict., No. 6. ?; L. bárbarum 8 Dec. Fl.
Fr., No. 2700.

Engravings. N. Du Ham., t. $1.; and our fig. 1113.

Spec. Char., &c. Stems erect, fascicled. Branchlets dependent, terete. Buds spiny. Leaves sessile, lanceolate, acuminated. Flowers aggregate, pe. dicellate, extra-axillary. Corolla funnel-shaped. Stamens exserted. Calyx trifid. Berry red, and turbinate. Corolla violaceous, with a white bottom. (Don's Mill., iv. p. 458.) It is a climbing shrub, a native of China, where it flowers from May till August. It was introduced in 1709; but we have not seen the plant. Though we consider many of the sorts of this genus, which are described as species, as only different varieties, it does not follow from that circumstance that each sort may not be tolerably distinct. Wherever plants are raised in great numbers from seed, it is easy to pick out from among the seedlings many different varieties, which, if propagated by extension, will remain distinct till the end of time. We must confess, however, that we know of very few genera of ligneous plants, indeed, where so many of the different alleged species so very closely resemble each other, as in Lycium. We have no doubt that by taking a dozen plants of any one of the kinds, from numbers 1 to 9 inclusive, and placing them in a dozen different climates, soils, and situations, we should have a dozen sorts, as well entitled to be considered as species, as most of those which are here described as such.

8. L. (? E.) TETRA'NDRUM Thunb. The tetrandrous-flowered Box Thorn. Identification. Thunb. Prod., p. 37.; Lin. Suppl., 150.; Thunb. in Lin. Trans., 9. p. 154. t. 15.; Don's Miil., 4. p. 460.

[graphic]

Engraving. Lin. Trans., 9. t. 15.

Spec. Char., &c. Spiny, erect. Branches angular, straight. Leaves fascicled, ovate, obtuse. Flowers nearly sessile. Corollas quadrifid, tetrandrous. Stem twisted, glabrous, angular, grey, stiff. Branches horizontal, spiny. Leaves a line long. Flowers solitary, rising from the fascicles of leaves on short pedicels. Very like L. àfrum, but is distinguished from that species in the leaves being more fleshy, and in the flowers being tetramerous and tetrandrous. It is also, perhaps, the L. capénse of Mill. Dict., No. 7., of which the following description is given:-"Leaves oblongovate, thickish, crowded. Spines strong, leafy. Leaves scattered, selitary, or fascicled, thick, pale green, permanent." (Don's Mill., iv. p. 460.) A shrub, a native of the Cape of Good Hope, about Cape Town; where it grows to the height of 6 ft. or 7 ft., flowering in June and July. It was introduced in 1810; but we have not seen the plant.

19. L. (?E.) SHA'WI Rom. Shaw's Box Thorn. Identification. Ram. et Schultes Syst., 4. p. 693.; Don's Mill., 4. p. 458. Synonyme. L. europæum Mill. Dict., No. 4., Shaw Afr., p. 349. f. 349.

Spec. Char., &c. Branches dependent, rather tomentose at the apex. Buds spinescent. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, thickish. Branches scattered. Prickles strong. Leaves short, thick, scattered. Flowers lateral, small, white. (Don's Mill., iv. p. 458.) A shrub, a native of Barbary, where it grows 7 ft. or 8 ft. high; flowering in June and July. It was introduced in 1700.

10. L. A FRUM L. The African Box Thorn.

Identification. Lin. Sp., 277.; Don's Mill., 4. p. 459.

Engravings. Mill. Icon., t. 171. f. 1.; Swt. Fl. Gard., 2d ser. t. 324.; Bot. Reg., t. 354.; Lam. Ill., 112 f. L.; N. Du Ham., 1. p. 107-110.; Trew Ehret, 4. t. 24. f. 2.; Plenck Icon., t. 127., Mich. Gen., p. 224. t. 105. f. 2.; Nis. Act. Par., 1711., p. 420. t. 12.; and our figs. 1114. and 1115. Spec. Char., &c. Erect, spiny. Leaves fascicled, linear, canescent, attenuated at the base, obtuse, fleshy. Flowers almost axillary, solitary, drooping. Corola tubular, 3 times longer than the calyx. Stamens enclosed. Bark

grey-coloured; the smaller branches frequently spiny. Leaves 1114 glaucous. Filaments bearded near the base, as in all the true species. Stigma slightly 2-lobed. Corolla violaceous rich purple above. Berry globose, violaceous. Calyx 5-toothed. (Don's Mill., iv. p. 459.) It is a shrub, a native of some parts of Spain, the north of Africa, Palestine, Syria, Egypt, and Arabia Felix; where it grows to the height of from 6 ft. to 10 ft., flowering in May and June. It was introduced in 1712, and is very commonly kept in the green-house; but a plant in the Chelsea Botanic Garden has stood out against a wall since 1825, where it has attained the height of 12 ft., and flowers profusely every year.

x

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It is readily distinguished from all the other sorts by its dark blue or black fruit. Belon, in speaking of the plain of Jericho, and of the banks of the river Jordan, says, the bushes which bear the lycion grow in this plain; and we find in the Bible (Genesis, chap. 1. v. 10, II.), that the Children of Israel, in their journey from the land of Goshen to Canaan, came to the threshing-floor of Atadad; that is, in Hebrew, lycium; the plant being cultivated there for its berries, which were used in medicine as a purgative, known to the ancients by the name of lucion, and the mode of preparing which is indicated by Dioscorides. It is, however, doubtful, whether the berries of Rhámnus saxátilis, which are known to be cathartic, are not confounded with those of the Lycium in this passage. Lycium àfrum is one of the most ornamental species of the genus; and, though rather tender, it well deserves a place in every collection, against a wall. Plants, in the London nurseries, 2s. 6d. each.

L. ovatum Hort. There are plants bearing this name in the Horticultural Society's Garden, and at Messrs. Loddiges's.

L. spathulatum Hort. There is a plant bearing this name in the Horticultural Society's Garden against the wall.

GENUS III.

GRABOWSKIA Schlecht. THE GRABOWSKIA. Lin. Syst. Pentándria Monogynia.

Identification. Schlecht. in Linnæa, 7. p. 72.; Lindl. in Bot. Reg.

Synonymes. Lycium sp. Lin.; Ehretia sp. L'Hérit.; Crabówskia Don's Mill., 4. p. 480.
Derivation. In honour of Dr. H. Grabowski, one of the editors of Flora Silesiaca.

Description, &c. A shrub, with the habit of the genuine species of Lycium, much branched, furnished with axillary spines. Leaves scattered, quite entire. Flowers from fascicles of leaves, or the revolute branchlets; or subcorymbose from the tops of the branchlets: hence, they appear as if they were panicled at the tops of the branches. (Don's Mill., iv. p. 480.)

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