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little farther, by way of confirmation of the observations made upon it.

The special and personal interest of the word Abba, derives another authority, from the customs and manners of the East. It is well known, that the ancient nations of the Arabs, retain many of the usages we read of in sacred history. And although they know nothing of the true religion of the patriarchs, yet in provincial acts and habits, they are much the same people that they were, two or three thousand years ago. Hence, among many proofs in point, which might be given in confirmation of this sameness of manners, the mode of salutation is one, in which there is nothing changed. We find among the patriarchs, the general expression was, “ Peace be to you.” (Gen. xliii. 23.) In the days of the Judges, the salutation was the same. (Judges xix. 20.) So in the days of David, (1 Sam. xxv. 6.) and in the days of our Lord, and by Christ himself. (John xx. 19.) In like manner the limitation of the word Abba is still the same as ever, not being brought into common use, but wholly restricted to relations, and of the nearest and tenderest kind. One proof more.

In the common acts of respect observed in the East, when servants do reverence to their masters, or superiors, it is always done by kissing the feet, or the garment. Hence the poor woman we read of, Luke vii. 38.

But when children meet their parents, and do reverence, they kiss the hand, or the head. Hence the father in the parable. (Luke xv. 20.) Moreover, the posture which is observed upon those occasions, differs materially according to the rank of the parties. From inferiors, in giving what is called the Asslem-mah, (Salutation) they always offer it, by laying their right hand upon their breast. Persons

of equality, or relations, do it by kissing the hand, head, or shoulder of each other. So Dr. Shaw relates in his Travels to Aleppo, page 301. Let the reader connect this with Jacob kissing his son, and the church's call unto Christ. (Song i. 2.) How beautiful and striking both cases ! How little the change made in those things, in a period of near four thousand years !

From the whole of these observations, I cannot but conclude, that the word Abba hath a peculiar sweetness in it, and is intended to intimate what a nearness and dearness of affinity there is, between Christ and his church. And I venture to believe, that our holy faith, not only warrants the use of it, but enjoins it, from the personal union, and oneness, of the Lord Jesus Christ with our nature. And under such high encouragement and authority, I confess, that I feel a disposition, upon every occasion, to adopt it, considering it the peculiar privilege of all true believers in Christ, to bring it into constant use, whenever they draw

nigh to a throne of grace. See Ammi. ABEDNEGO. This name was given to Azariah,

by the Chaldeans. (See Daniel, i. 7.) I should not have thought it necessary, in a work of this kind, to have noticed the change of name ; neither perhaps the name itself, more than many others, to be met with in Scripture, which I shall pass by ; had it not been for the purpose of making an observation

upon it; and which I hope will not be found improper or unprofitable. I humbly conceive, that the motive with the Chaldeans, for changing the names of the children of the captivity, was somewhat more than the naturalizing them. The Hebrew, and the Chaldee language were very similar. The Chaldeans perfectly understood the Hebrew names. And they

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no less knew, how tenacious Hebrew parents were
to give names to their children, which bore some
relation to the Lord God of their fathers. In
changing their names therefore, they not only de-
signed to make them forget their beloved Jerusa-
lem, but the yet more beloved Lord God of Abra-
ham, Isaac, and Jacob. And what a change they
wrought here, in the instance of this man!
Azariah, or more properly speaking, Azar-Jah,
meant, as the words themselves indeed express,
the Lord is my help; from Azar, assistance; and
Jah, Lord. But Abed-nego means the servant of
Nego; Abed or Obed being the Chaldee for ser-
vant. And Nego mosi probably was one of the
dunghill idols of Babylon. So that from Azariah,
to remind him, as often as he heard himself called,
he might remember that Jehovah was his help; he
is brought into remembrance whenever he now
heard his name, that he was the servant of an idol,
in whom there is no help. Lord ! keep thy peo-
ple from “mingling with the heathen, and learning

their works.” (Psalm cvi. 35.)
ABEL. The second son of Adam and Eve. His

name is mentioned by the Holy Ghost with pecu-
liar honour, in that illustrious list of Old Testament
saints, who all died, as they had lived, by faith.
(Heb. xi. 4.) By faith, Abel offered unto God
a more excellent sacrifice than Cain.” By which
we derive full authority to conclude, that Abel's
faith in Christ, the promised seed, gave a blessed-
ness in the acceptance of his sacrifice, which Cain's
had not. Abel came to the Lord as a sinner; and,
by the lamb he offered in sacrifice, testified the
sense he had of sin, and his hopes of salvation by
Christ. Cain came to the Lord, not under the
apprehension of sin, but to present an offering of
tribute. He therefore slighted the promised seed,

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and redemption by Christ : and stands in the front of the Bible, the first deist the world ever knew. (Gen. iv. 3—5.) It may be not amiss to add, that the word Abel signifies vanity, a vapor, emptiness,

and the like. ABEL-BETH MAACHAH. We meet with this

name, 2 Sam. xx. 15. And as Abel means vanity, mourning, and emptiness ; so Beth, an house : and therefore the whole taken together implies; vanity

or mourning to the house of Maachah. ABEL-MAIM. The mourning of the waters.

(2 Chron. xvi. 4) ABEL-MEHOLAH, The mourning of sickness.

(Judges vii. 13.) ABEL-MIZRAIM. This name was given at the

floor of Atad, on the occasion of the funeral of Jacob. The margin of the Bible, renders it, “the mourning of the Egyptians.” (Gen. i. 11.) ABEL-SHITTIM, A place in the encampments of

Israel ; meaning the mourning in Shittim, in the

plains of Moab. (Numb. xxxiii. 49.) ABIB. See Month. ABIDE. To abide, in the language of Scripture, means somewhat more than merely the remaining in one place. It implies an adherence to a thing; or an union with, and connection with it. Thus Jesus saith, (John xv. 4.) “Abide in me and I in you.” So, speaking of the Holy Ghost, he saith, “He shall abide with you for ever.” (John xiv. 16.) And his servants, the apostles, use similar expressions, in the same sense. The apostles, Paul and John, describe the indwelling residence of the Holy Ghost, and a vital union with Christ, under this character of abiding. (See 2 Tim. ii. 13. 1 John ü. 27, 28.) It is a blessed consideration, in the view of this doctrine, that when Jesus saith, “ Abide in me, and I in you;” and a little after ;.“ Continue

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ye in my love :” (John xv. 4. 9.) it is not a mere precept, without imparting with it ability. But it is, willing them into an ability, by virtue of a oneness with them, as the head of efficiency, to the members of his body. He directs the thing to be done, and he enables them to do it ; according to that blessed promise : “ Thy people shall be will

ing in the day of thy power.” (Psalm cx. 3.) ABIEZER. We read of several of this name in the

Scriptures. (Joshua xvii. 2. Judges vi. 34. 2 Sam.
xxii. 27.) The name is interesting, signifying my
Father (God) is my help : from Ab, father; and

Hazar, to help
ABIGAIL. A memorable name in Scripture, whom

the Lord, in his providence, made instrumental to
save David from blood-shedding. (See the history,
1 Sam. xxv. 2 to 35.) Her name is as remarkable,
for the event the Lord enabled her to accomplish;
for it means, the joy of the Father; from Gul, to
rejoice, and Ab, father. I have often admired the
sweet and gracious conclusion, which David made,
on occasion of the sin-preventing providence, the
Lord accomplished on the patriarch's mind, through
the instrumentality of this woman. He saw the
hand of the Lord in the appointment; and, first,
he blessed God; and next, he blessed her advice;
and next, he blessed her: for all come in for a
blessing, since the Lord had wrought deliverance
by such means from sin. « Blessed (said he) be
the Lord ; and blessed be thy advice; and blessed
be thou that hast kept me this day from shedding

blood.” (1 Sam. xv. 32, 33.) ABIHU, Son of Aaron, whose awful death, by the

immediate judgment of the Lord, with his brother Nadab, is recorded Lev. x. 2. I refer the reader to that history, for the particulars of this visitation. Some have thought, that they were drunken, when

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