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back with me to the gate by which we entered, and thence through the streets. Numerous spires glittering with gold, amidst burnished domes and painted palaces, appear in the midst of an open plain, for several vrests before you reach this gate. Having passed, you look about and wonder what is become of the city, or where you are; and are ready to ask once more, How far is it to Moscow ? They will tell you, 'This is Moscow ! and you behold nothing but a wide and scattered suburb, huts, gardens, pigsties, brick walls, churches, dunghills, palaces, timber-yards, warehouses, and a refuse, as it were, of materials sufficient to stock an empire with miserable towns and miserable villages. One might imagine all the states of Europe and Asia had sent a building, by way of representative, to Moscow; and under this impression the eye is presented with deputies from all countries holding congress: timber huts from regions beyond the Arctic-plastered palaces from Sweden and Denmark, not whitewashed since their arrival-painted walls from the Tyrol-mosques from Constantinople—Tartar temples from Bucharia-pagados, pavilions and virandas from China-cabarets from Spain-dungeons, prisons, and public offices from France-architectural ruins from Rome-terraces and trellisses from Naples and warehouses from Wapping.

“ Having heard accounts of its immense population, you wander through deserted streets. Passing suddenly towards the quarter where the shops are situated, you might walk upon the heads of thousands. The daily throng is there so immense, that, unable to force a passage through it, or assign any motive that might convene such a multitude, you ask the cause, and are told that it is always the same. Nor is the costume less various than the aspect of the buildings; Greeks, Turks, Tartars, Cossacks, Chinese, Muscovites, English, French, Italians, Poles, Germans, all parade in the habits of their respective countries.

“We were in a Russian inn; a complete epitome of the city itself. The next room to ours was filled by ambassadors from Persia. In a chamber beyond the Persians lodged a party of Kirgisians,--a people yet unknown, and any one of whom might be exhibited in a cage, as some newly-discovered species. They had bald heads covered by conical embroidered caps, and wore sheeps' hides. Beyond the Kirgisians lodged a nidus of Bucharians, wild as the asses of Numidia. All these were ambassadors from their different districts, extremely jealous of each other, who had been to Petersburg to treat of commerce, peace, and war. The doors of all our chambers opened into one gloomy passage, so that sometimes we all encountered and formed a curious masquerade. The Kirgisians and Bucharians were best at arm's length; but the worthy old Persian, whose name was Orazai, often exchanged visits with us. He brought us presents, according to the custom of his country; and was much pleased with an English pocket knife we had given him, with which he said he should shave his head. At his devotions, he stood silent for an hour together on two small carpets, barefooted, with his face towards Mecca; holding, as he said, intellectual converse with Mahomet.

“Ambassadors of other more Oriental hordes drove into the court-yard of the inn, from Petersburg. The empere or had presented each of them with a barouche. Never was any thing more ludicrous than their appearance. Out of respect to the sovereign, they had maintained a painful struggle to preserve their seat, sitting crosslegged like Turks. The snow having melted, they had been jolted in this manner over the trunks of trees, which form a timber causeway between Petersburg and

Moscow : so that when taken from their fine new carriages, they could harly crawl, aud made the most pitiable grimaces imaginable. A few days after coming to Moscow, they ordered all the carriages to be sold for whatever sum any person would offer."

CHAP. XXXIV.

HIGH MASS IN ST PETER'S.

WHEN the Nymph had concluded, Benedict reached his hand to a shelf behind him, and took down Eustace's Tour in Italy.

6 With all Dr Clarke's merits as a traveller,” said he, “ he has produced no two such volumes as these.”

“ Yes," replied Egeria, “ I agree with you ; but then many of the topics which the doctor has handled freely and philosophically, Mr Eustace would not have ventured to touch. Besides, you will allow that much of the Tour in Italy derives its interest and beauty from the religious faith of the traveller. No Protestant can feel in that country like a Catholic;- he will see only mummery and pageants in those rites and mysteries which elevate the other into the ecstasies of holiness and adoration. But although Mr Eustace, in this respect, often awakens the sympathy even of Protestant readers, by descriptions of sights and shows which a less reverential pilgrim to the shrine of St Peter would either have passed by unheeded or scoffingly, his good taste has always preserved him from launching into extravagance in describing those scenes and solemnities, which, it is natural to suppose, he must have witnessed with the greatest awe and enthusiasm. His account of the celebration of High Mass, by the Pope in St Peter's, is a remarkable instance of this. It has the air of a simple historical statement, and yet breathes throughout a repressed spirit of devotional reverence, that renders the effect far more impressive than if the author had indulged the warmth and elevation of sentiment with which, it is not to be doubted, he was himself affected during so august and so imposing a ceremony."

“ When the Pope celebrates divine service, as on Easter Sunday, Christmas day, Whit Sunday, St Peter and St Paul, &c., the great or middle doors of the church are thrown open at ten, and the procession, formed of all the persons mentioned above, preceded by a beadle carrying the Papal cross, and two others bearing lighted torches, enters and advances slowly, in two long lines, between two ranks of soldiers, up the nave. This majestic procession is closed by the Pontiff himself, seated in a chair of state, supported by twenty yalets, half concealed in the drapery that falls in loose folds from the throne. He is crowned with his tiara, and bestows his benediction on the crowds that kneel on all sides as he is borne along. When arrived at the foot of the altar, he descends, resigns his tiara, kneels, and, assuming the common mitre, seats himself in the episcopal chair on the right side of the altar, and joins in the psalms and prayers that precede the solemn service. Towards the conclusion of these preparatory devotions, his immediate attendants form a circle around him, clothe him in his pontifical robes, and place the

tiara on his head; after which, accompanied by two deacons and two sub-deacons, he advances to the foot of the altar, and bowing reverently, makes the usual confession. He then proceeds in great pomp through the chancel, and ascends the pontifical throne, while the choir sing the Introitus, or psalm of entrance, the Kyrie Eleison and Gloria in excelsis, when the Pontiff lays aside his tiara, and, after having saluted the congregation in the usual form, the Lord be with you, reads the collect in an elevated tone of voice, with a degree of inflection just sufficient to distinguish it from an ordinary lecture. The epistle is then read, first in Latin, then in Greek ; and after it some select verses from the Psalms, intermingled with Alleluiahs, are sung, to elevate the mind, and prepare it for the gospel. The Pontiff then rises, gives his benediction to the two deacons that kneel at his feet with the book of the gospels, and, resigning his tiara, stands while the gospel is sung in Latin and in Greek; after which he commences the Nicene creed, which is continued in music by the choir. When the creed and the psalm that follows it are over, he descends from his throne, and approaching the altar, with the same attendants and the same pomp as in the commencement of the service, he receives, and offers up the usual oblations, fumes the altar with frankincense from a golden censer, and then washes his hands,

a ceremony implying purity of mind and body. He then turns to the people, and, in an humble and affectionate address, begs their prayers; and shortly after commences that sublime form of adoration and praise called the Preface, because it is an introduction to the most solemn part of the liturgy, and chaunts it in a tone supposed to be borrowed from the ancient tragic declamation, and very noble and impressive. The last words, “Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of armies,” &c., are uttered in a posture of profound adoration, and sung by the

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