Peace, War, and Trade Along the Great Wall: Nomadic-Chinese Interaction Through Two Millennia
In 1577, during a great court debate over the formulation of china's policy toward its nomadic neighbors, the Ming scholar-official Feng Feng-shih observed: "When there are markets and tribute, there is no war." For two millennia, tension between nomad and chinese along China's northern frontier threatened to erupt into war, and for two millennia, the essential element determining whether peace or war existed was trade. This fascinating book tells the story of the centuries-long confrontation along the Great Wall of China.
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It is possible for me to restrain myself [ but ) it is impossible for me to forbid ( my )
subjects . " 80 In this instance , bureaucratic delay may have been the result of
court debate on the prudence of providing the nomads with grain and beans that
If Liao engages in war with the Sung , all benefits will pass to the subjects , and
damage will be done to the state Khan . " See Toghto et al . , Liao shih (
completed 1344 , reprinted Taipei , 1967 ) , 19 , chi 19 , “ Annals of Hsing - tsung
” III , 3a .
With regard to the subjects of your kingdom who have for years traded with us ,
the Celestial Empire has always looked upon them and all other nations with
equal favor . Not one single person or country is excluded from Our kindness and