Peace, War, and Trade Along the Great Wall: Nomadic-Chinese Interaction Through Two Millennia
In 1577, during a great court debate over the formulation of china's policy toward its nomadic neighbors, the Ming scholar-official Feng Feng-shih observed: "When there are markets and tribute, there is no war." For two millennia, tension between nomad and chinese along China's northern frontier threatened to erupt into war, and for two millennia, the essential element determining whether peace or war existed was trade. This fascinating book tells the story of the centuries-long confrontation along the Great Wall of China.
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49 . Ibid . , 24 , chüan 15 , “ Biography of Lu Kung , ” 76 - gb . 50 . Ibid . , 41 ,
chüan 31 , “ Biography of Sung I , " that is attached to the “ Biography of Sung
Chung ” 24a - 25a . 51 . The biography of Pan Ch ' ao is in Hou Han shu 47 ,
chüan 37 .
After achieving power , his son posthumously designated Kao Huan to be
Emperor Shen - wu of the Northern Ch ' i dynasty . 18 . Li Po - yao , Pei Ch ' i shu
( reprinted Taipei , 1967 ) 9 , chüan 1 , “ Biography of Empress Lou of ( Emperor ]
See his biography attached to that of Wu Ch ' eng - ssu in Chiu T ' ang shu 183 ,
chüan 133 . 50 . Ibid . , 194 I , chüan 144 I , “ Account of the Turks , ” I , 11a . 51 .
Ibid . 52 . Charles O . Hucker , China ' s Imperial Past ( Stanford , 1975 ) , 142 .