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had such an aversion to them, that they || Abyssinians have at divers times expressed would not converse freely with any who used an inclination to be reconciled to the see of them. This is plainly the reason which Rome; but rather from interested views James assigns in the very next words, the than any other motive. They practice cir21st verse, and it is abundantly sufficient. cumcision on females as well as males. This reason is now ceased, and the obliga-They eat no meats prohibited by the law of tion to abstain from eating these things | Moses. They observe both Saturday and ceases with it.

But were

we in like Sunday sabbaths. Women are obliged to circumstances again, Christian charity would the legal purifications. Brothers marry surely require us to lay ourselves under brothers' wives, &c. On the other hand, the same restraint.”—The spiritual mo- they celebrate the Epiphany with peculiar narchy of the western world introduced festivity; have four Lents; pray for the another sort of abstinence, which may be dead; and invoke angels. Images in paintcalled ritual, and consists in abstaining from | ing they venerate ; but abhor all those in particularmeats at certain times and seasons, relievo, except the cross. They admit the the rules of which are called rogations. If apocryphal books and the canons of the I mistake not, the impropriety of this kind apostles, as well as the apostolical constituof abstinence is clearly pointed out in 1 Tim. tions, for genuine. They allow of divorce, iv. 3 - In England, abstinence from flesh has which is easily granted among them, and by been enjoined by statute, even since the re. the civil judge ; nor do their civil laws proformation ; particularly on Fridays and Sahibit polygamy. They have, at least, as turdays, on vigils, and on all days commonly many miracles and legends of saints as the called fish days. The like injunctions were Romish church. They hold that the soul of reneved under queen Elizabeth ; but at the man is not created ; because, say they,

God same time it was declared, that this was finished all his works on the sixth day. Thus done not out of motives of religion, as if there we see that the doctrines and ritual of this was any difference in meats, but in favour sect form a strange compound of Judaism of the consumption of fish, and to multiply and Christianity, ignorance and superstition. the number of fishermen and mariners, as | Some, indeed, have been at a loss to know well as to spare the stock of sheep. See whether they are most Christians or Jews : FASTING.

it is to be feared, however, that there is little ABSTINENTS, a set of heretics that beside the name of Christianity among them. appeared in France and Spain about the end Should the reader be desirous to know more of the third century. They are supposed to | of this sect, he may consult Father Lobo's have borrowed part of their opinions from Voyage to 'Abyssinia ; Bruce's Travels ; the Gnostics and Manichæans, because they | Ludolph's Hist. of Ethiopia ; and Dict. of opposed marriage, condemned the use of Arts and Sciences, vol. i. p. 15. flesh meat, and placed the Holy Ghost in the ACACIANS, a sect of heretics in the 4th class of created beings.

century ; so named from Acacius, bishop of ABYSS in a general sense, denotes some-Cæsarea, who denied the Son to be of the thing profound; in its literal sense it signifies || same substance with the Father, though without a bottom; in a more particular sense,

some of them allowed that he was of a it denotes a deep mass or fund of waters. similar substance. Also the name of anoIn this last sense the word is used in the ther sect, named after Acacius, patriarch Septuagint for the water which God created of Constantinople, in the fifth century, who at the beginning with the earth, which our favoured the opinions of Eutychus. See translators render by deep. Thus it is that || EUTYCHIANS. darkness is said to have been on the face of ACADEMICS, a denomination given to the abyss, Gen. i. 2. Abyss is also used for an the cultivators of a species of philosophy immense cavern in the earth, wherein God originally derived from Socrates, and afteris supposed to have collected all those waters wards illustrated and enforced by Plato. on the third day, which in our version is The contradictory systems which had been rendered the seas, and elsewhere the great successively urged upon the world were bedeep. Abyss is likewise used to denote the come so numerous, that, from a view of the grave or common receptacle of the dead, variety and uncertainty of human opinions, Rom x. 7; also hell, or the bottomless pit, many were led to conclude that truth lay Luke viii. 31. Rev. ix. 1. Rev. xi. 7. See beyond the reach of our comprehension. DELUGE.

The consequence of this conclusion was abABYSSINIAN CHURCH, that which || solute scepticism: hence the existence of is established in the empire of Abyssinia. God, the immortality of the soul, the preThey are a branch of the Copts, with whom | ferableness of virtue to vice, were all held they agree in admitting only one nature in as uncertain. This sect, with that of the Jesus Christ, and rejecting the council of Epicurears, were the two chief that were Chalcedon ; whence they are also called in vogue at the time of Christ's appearance, Monophysites and Eutychians, which see. and were embraced and supported by perThe 'Abyssinian church is governed by a sons of high rank and wealth. A considebishop styled abuna. They have canons ration of the principles of these two sects also, and monks. The emperor has a kind (see EPICUREANS] will lead us to form an of supremacy in ecclesiastical matters. The idea of the deplorable state of the world at

the time of Christ's birth ; and the necessity || same sense, 2 Tim. i. 3. where it obviously there was of some divine teacher to convey signifies after the manner of. to the mind true and certain principles of

°ACEPHALI, such bishops as were exreligion and wisdom. Jesus Christ, there-empt from the discipline and jurisdiction of fore, is with great propriety called the Day their ordinary bishop or patriarch. It was Spring from on High, the Sun of Righteous- also the denomination of certain sects; 1, of ness, that arose upon a benighted world to those who, in the affair of the council of dispel the clouds of ignorance and error, Ephesus, refused to follow either St Cyril or and discover to lost man the path of happi- John of Antioch ; 2. of certain heretics in ness and heaven. But, as we do not mean the fifth century, who, at first, followed Peto enlarge much upon these and some other ter Mongus, but afterwards abandoned him, sects, which belong rather to philosophy upon his subscribing to the council of Chalthan theology, we shall refer the reader to cedon, they themselves adhering to the EuBuddeu's Iriroduction to the History of tychian heresy; and, S. of the followers of Philosophy ; Stanley's Lives ; Brucker 8 | Severus of Autioch, and of all, in general, History of Philosophy; or (which is more who held out against the council of Chalce modern) Enfield's Abridgment.

don. ACCLAMATIONS, ecclesiastical, were

ACOEMET Æ, or Acoemeti, an order shouts of joy which the people expressed by of monks at Constantinople in the fifth cenway of approbation of their preachers. It tury, whom the writers of that and the folhardly seems credible to us that practices of lowing ages called Axolecti; that is, this kind should ever have found their way Watchers, because they performed divine into the church, where all ought to be reve-service day and night without intermission. rence and solemnity. Yet so it was in the They divided themselves into three classes, fourth century. The people were not only who alternately succeeded one another, so permitted, but sometimes even exhorted, by that they kept up a perpetual course of the preacher himself, to approve his talents worship. This practice they founded upon by clapping of hands, and loud acclamations that passage-" pray without ceasing," } of praise. The unusual words they made | Thess. v. 17. use of were, “Orthodox,” “Third apostle," ACOLYTHI, or ACOLUTHI, young peo&e. These acclamations being carried to ple who, in the primitive times, aspired to excess, and often misplaced, were frequently the ministry, and for that purpose continuprohibited by the ancient doctors, and at ally attended the bishop. In the Romish length abrogated. Even as late, however, church, Acolythi were of longer continuance; as the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, but their functions were different from those we find practices that were not very deco of their first institution. Their business was rous ; such as loud humming, frequent groan-| to light the tapers, carry the candlesticks ing, strange gestures of the body, &c. See and the incense pot, and prepare the wine articles DANCERS, SHAKERS.

and water. At Rome there were three kinds; ACCOMMODATION of SCRIPTURE| 1. those who waited on the pope ; 2. those is the application of it, not to its literal who served in the churches; 3. and others, meaning, but to something analagous to it. who, together with the deacons, officiated Thus a prophecy is said to be fulfilled pro- in other parts of the city, perly when a thing foretold comes to pass ; ACT OF FAITH (Auto da Fe.) in the and, by way of accommodation, when an Romish church, is a solemn day held by the event happens to any place or people similar Inquisition for the punishment of heretics, to what fell out some time before to another. and the absolution of the innocent accused. Thus the words of Isaiah, spoken to those They usually contrive the Auto to fall on of his own time, are said to be fulfilled in

some great festival, that the execution may those who lived in our Saviour's" Ye hy. || pass with the more awe; and it is always pocrites, well did Esias prophesy, &c: which on a Sunday. The Auto da Fe may be same words St. Paul afterwards accommo-called the last act of the Inquisitorial tragedates to the Jews of his time. Is xxix. 14. dy: it is a kind of goal-delivery, appointed Matt. xv 8. Acts xiii. 41. Great care, how- as often as a competent number of prisoners ever, should be taken by preachers who are in the Inquisition are convicted of heresy, fond of accommodating texts, that they first | either by their own voluntary or extorted clearly state the literal sense of the passage. confession, or on the evidence of certain wit

ACCURSED, something that lies under || nesses. The process is this :- In the morna curse or sentence of excommunication. In ing they are brought into a great hall; where the Jewish idiom, accursed and crucified they have certain habits put on, which they were synonymous: among them, every one are to wear in the procession, and by which was accounted accursed who died on a tree they know their doom. The procession is This serves to explain the difficult passage || led up by Dominican friars, after which came in Rom. ix. 3. where the apostle wishes the penitents, being all in black coats withhimself accursed after the manner of Christ ; || out sleeves, and barefooted, with a wax can. i. e. crucified, if happily he might by such dle in their hands. These are followed by a death save his country men. The prepo- the penitents who have narrowly escaped sition to here made use of is used in the being burnt, who over their black coats have

flames painted, with their points turned there cannot be a more lamentable spectadownwards. Next come the negative and cle: the sufferers continually cry out while relapsed, who are to be burnt, having flames they are able, " Pity, for the love of God!" on their habits pointing upwards. After Yet it is beheld by all sexes and ages with these come such as profess doctrines con- transports of joy and satisfaction.O mercitrary to the faith of Rome, who, besides ful God! is this the benign, humane religion flames pointing upwards, have their picture thou hast given to men ? Surely not. If such painted on their breasts, with dogs, serpents, were the genius of Christianity, then it and devils, all open-mou hed, about it. Each would be no honour to be a Christian. Let prisoner is attended with a familiar of the us, however, rejoice that the time is coming Inguisition ; and those to be burnt have also when the demon of Persecution shall be bana Jesuit on each hand, who are continually ished out of this our world, and the true preaching to them to abjure. After the spirit of benevolence and candour pervade prisoners, comes a troop of familiars on the universe ; when none shall hurt or de. horseback; and after them the Inquisitors, stroy, but the earth be filled with the knowand other officers of the court, on mules : ledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the last of all, the inquisitor-general on a white sea ! See INQUISITION. horse, led by two men with black hats and ACTION FOR THE PULPIT.-See green-hatbands. A scaffold is erected big DECLAMA ION. enough for two or three thousand people ; ACTS OF THE ASPOSTLES, one of at one end of which are the prisoners, at the the sacred books of the New Testament, conother the Inquisitors. After a sermon made taining the history of the infant church duup of encomiums of the Inquisition, and in- ring the space of twenty-nine or thirty years vectives against heretics, a priest ascends a from the ascension of our Lord to the year desk near the scaffold, and having taken of Christ 63. It was written by Luke, and the abjuration of the penitents, recites the addressed to Theophilus, the person to whom final sentence of those who are to be put to the evangelist had before dedicated his gosdeath, and delivers them to the secular arm, pel. The style of this work, which was oriearnestly beseeching at the same the secu- ginally composed in Greek, is much purer lar power not lo touch their blood, or pur than that of the other canonical writers. For their lives in danger !!! The prisoners, the contents of this book we refer the readbeing thus in the hands of the civil magis- er to the book itself. trate, are presently loaded with chains, and There have been several acts of the aposcarried first to the secular gaol, and from tles, such as the acts of Abdias, of Peter, of thence, in an hour or two, brought before Paul, St. John the Evangelist, St. Andrew, the civil judge ; who, after asking in what St. Thomas, St. Philip, and St. Matthias ; religion they intend to die, pronounces sen- but they have been all proved to be spurious. tence on such as declare they die in the ACTS OF PILATE, a relation sent by communion of the Church of Rome, that they Pilate to the emperor Tiberius, concerning shall be first strangled, and then burnt to Jesus Christ, his death, resurrection, asceir ashes; or such as die in any other faith, that sion, and the crimes of which he was conthey be burnt alive. Both are immediately victed before him. It was a custom among carried to the Ribera, the place of execu- the Romans, that the pro-consuls and govertion, where there are as many stakes set up nors of provinces should draw up acts or as there are prisoners to be burnt, with a memoirs of what happened in the course of quantity of dry furze about them. The their government, and send them to the emstakes of the professed, that is, such as per- peror and senate. The genuine act of Pisist in the heresy, are about four yards high, late were sent by him to Tiberius, who rebaving a small board towards the top for poried them to the senate; but they were the prisoner to be seated on. The negative rejected by that assembly, because not imand relapsed being first strangled and burnt, mediately addressed to them; as is testified the professed mount their stakes by a lad- by Tertullian, in his Apol. cap. 5 & 20, 21. der, and the Jesuits, after several repeated The heretics forged acts in imitation of exhortations to be reconciled to the church, them; but both the genuine and the spurious part with them; telling them that they are now lost. leave them to the devil, who is standing at ADAMITES, a sect that sprung up in their elbow, to receive their souls, and carry the second century. Epiphanius tells us, that them with him to the flames of hell. On they were called Adamites from their prethis a great shout is raised; and the cry is, tending to be re-established in the state of " Let the dogs' beards be made !" which is innocence, such as Adam was at the moment done by thrusting flaming furzes fastened to of his creation, whence they ought to imitate long poles against their faces, till their faces, him in going naked. They detested marare burnt to a coal, which is accompanied riage; maintaining that the conjugal union with the loudest acclamations of joy. At last, would never have taken place upon earth, fire is set to the furze at the bottom of the had sin been unknown. This obscure and stake, over which the professed are chained ridiculous sect did not last long. It was, so high, that the top of the flame seldom however, revived with additional absurdities reaches higher than the seat they sit on; in the twelfth century. About the beginning so that they rather seem roasted than burnt of the fifteenth century, these errors spread


in Germany and Bohemia: it found also | name Jehovah, to warn the readers, that insome partisans in Poland, Holland, and Eng- stead of the word Jehovah, which the Jews land. They assembled in the night ; and, it were forbid to pronounce, and the true prois said, one of the fundamental naxims of | nunciation of which had been long unknown their society was contained in the following to them, they are always to read Adonai. verse:

They are opposed to Jehovists, of whom the Jura, perjurn, secretum prodere noli.

principal are Drusius, Capellus, Buxtorf, Swear, forswear, and reveal not the secret.

Alting, and Reland. ADESSENARIANS, a branch of the Sa- ADOPTIONISTS, the fellowers of Felix cramentarians; so called from the Latin of Urgil and Edipand of Toledo, who, towAdesse, to be present, because they believed | ards the end of the eighth century, advanthe presence of Christ's body in the eucha-ced the notion that Jesus Christ in his hurist, though in a manner different from the man nature is the Son of God, not by nature, Romanists.

but by adoption ADIAPHORISTS, a name given in the ADOPTION, an act whereby any person sixteenth century to the moderate Lutherans | receives another into his family, owns him who adhered to the sentiments of Melanc- for his son, and appoints him his heir. 2. thon; and afterwards to those who subscri- || Spiritual adoption is an act of God's free bed the interiin of Charles V. (See IN : Erin) | grace, wherely we are received into the The word is of Greek origin (cedix@opa), number, and have a right to all the privileges and signifies indifference or lukewarmness of the sons of God. 3. Glorious, is that in

ADMIRATION is that passion of the which the saints, being raised from the dead, mind which is excited by the discovery of are at the last day solemnly owned to be the any great excellence in an object. It has by children of God, and enter into the full possoine writers been used as synonymous with session of that inheritance provided for them, surprise and wonder ; but it is evident they Rom. viii. 19. 23. Adoption is a word taken are not the same. Surprise refers to some- from the civil law, and was much in use thing unexpected; wouder, to something among the Romans in the apostles' time; great or strange ; but admiration includes when it was a custom for persons who had the idea of high esteem or respect. Thus, no children of their own, and were possessed we say we admire a man's excellencies; but of an estate, to prevent its being divided, or we do not say that we are surprised at them. || descending to strangers, to make choice of We wonder at an extraordinary object or such who were agreeable to them, and beevent, but we do not always admire it. loved by them, whom they took into this

ADMONITION denotes a hint or advice political relation of children; obliging them given to another, whereby we reprove him to take their name upon them, and to pay for his fault, or remind him of his duty. Ad- respect to them as though they were their monition was a part of the discipline much natural parents, and engaging to deal with used in the ancient church : it was the first them as though they had been so; and acact or step towards the punishment or ex-cordingly to give them a right to their espulsion of delinquents. In case of private tates, as an inheritance. This new relation, offerices, it was performed according to the founded in a mutual consent, is a bond of afevangelical rule, privately ; in case of public | fection; and the privilege arising from offence, openly before the church. If either thence is, that he who is in this sense a faof those sufficed for the recovery of the ther, takes care of and provides for the perfallen person, all farther proceedings, in a son whom he adopts, as though he were his way of censure, cosed; if they did not, re- son by nature; and therefore civilians call it course was had to excommunication.—Tit. an act of legitimation, imitating nature, or iii. 10. 1 Thess. v. 14. Eph. vi. 4.

supplying the place of it. ADONAI, one of the names of the Su- It is easy, then, to conceive the propriety preme Being in the Scriptures. The pro- || of the term as used by the apostles in refeper meaning of the word is “my Lords,” || rence to this act, though it inust be confessin the plural number; as Adoni is my Lord, led there is some difference between civil and in the singular. The Jews, who either out spiritual adoption. Civil adoption was allowof respect or superstition do not pronounce ed of and provided for the l'elief and comthe name of Jehovah, road Adonai in the fort of those who had no children ;“but in room of it, as often as they meet with Jeho- spiritual adoption this reason does not appear. vah in the Hebrew text. But the ancient | The Almighty was under no obligation to Jews were not so scrupulous ; nor is there so this; for he hailinnumerable spirits whom any law which forbids them to pronounce he had created, besides his own Son, who the name of God.

had all the perfections of the divine nature, ADONISTS, a party among divines and who was the object of his delight, and who critics, who maintain that the Hebrew points is styled the heir of all things, Heb. i. 3. ordinarily annexed to the consonants of the When men adopt, it is on account of some word Jehovah are not the natural points be- excellency in the persons who are adopted : longing to that word, nor express the true thus Pharaoh's daughter adopted Moses bepronunciation of it; but are the vawal points cause he was exceeding fair, Acts vii. 20, belonging to the words Alonai and Elohim, 21; and Mordecai adopted Esther because applied to the consonants of the ineffable she was his uncle's daughter, and exceeding fair, Esth. ü. 7: but man has nothing in him Jesus Christ is engaged to protect and de that merits this divine aet, Ezek. xvi. 5. In fend his people. “ 'They shall dwell in a civil adoption, though the name of a son be peaceable habitation, and in sure dwellings, given, the nature of a son may not : this re- and quiet resting place's,” Is. xxxii. 18. Heb. lation may not necessarily be attended withi. 14.-4. Unspeakable felicity. They enjoy any change of disposition or temper. But in the most intimate communion with the faspiritual adoption we are made partakers ther, and with his Son Jesus Christ. They of the divine nature, and a temper or disposi- have access to his throne at all times, and tion given us bt coming the relationship we under all circumstances They see divine bear, Jer. iii. 19.

wisdom regulating every affair and renderMuch has been said as to the time of adop- ing every thing subservient to their god. tion. Some place it before regeneration be-Heb. xii. 6-11. The laws, the liberty, the cause it is supposed that we must be in the privileges, the relations, the provisions, and family before we can be partakers of the the security of this family, are all sources of blessings of it. But it is difficult to conceive happiness ; but especially the presence, the of one before the other; for although adop- | approbation, and the goodness of God, as the tion may seem to precede regeneration in or-governor thereof, afford joy unspeakable and der of nature, yet not of time; they may be full of glory, 1 Pet. i. 8. Prov. iii 17. Heb. distinguished, but cannot be separated. “Asliv. 17 -5 Eternal glory. In some cases, many as received him, to them gave he civil adoption might be made pull and void, power to become the sons of God, even to as among the Romans, when against the them that believe on his name," John i. 12 right of the pontifex, and without the deThere is no adoption, says the great Char- cree of the college ; but spiritual adoption, nock, without regeneration. "Adoption," || as it is divine as to its origin, so it is perpesays the same author, “ is not a mere rela- | tual as to its duration. "The Son abideth tion ; the privilege and the image of the in the house forever.” John viji. 35. “The sons of God go together. A state of adop- inheritance of the saints is incorruptible, untion is never without a separation from de- || defiled, and never fadeth away,” i Pet. i 4. filement, Cor. ii. 17, 18. The new name in “ Now are we the sons of God, and it doth adoption is never given till the new crea- not yet appear what we shall be : but we ture be formed. * As many as are led by the know that when he shall appear, we shall be Spirit of God, they are the sons of God,'||like him, for we shall see him as he is," 1 Rom. viii. 14. Yet these are to be distin-John iii 2. In the present state we are as guished. Regeneration as a physical act, children at school : but in heaven we shall gives a likeness to God in our nature ; || be as children at home, where we shall aladoption, as a legal act, gives us a right to ways behold the face of our heavenly Father, an inheritance. Regeneration makes us for- for ever celebrating his praises, admiring mally his sons, by conveying a principle, Pel. his perfections, and enjoying his presence. i. 23 ; adoption make us relatively his sons, “ So shall we be ever with the Lord,” 1 by conveying a power, John i. 12. By the Thess. iv. 17. one we are instated in the divine affection ; The evidences of adoption are, 1 Renunby the other we are partakers of the divineciation of all former dipendencies. When nature.”

a child is adopter, he relinquishes the obThe privileges of adoption are every way ject of his past confidence, and submits himgreat and extensive. 1. It implies great self to the will and pleasure of the adopter ; honour. They have God's name put upon so they who are brought into the family of them, and are described as “his people, call- God, will evidence it, by giving up every ed by his name,” 2 Chron. vii. 24. Eph. iii. other object so far as it interferes with the 15. They are no longer slaves to sin and the will and glory of their heavenly Father. world; but emancipated from its dreadful “ Ephraim shall say, what have I to do any bondage, are raised to dignity and honour more with idols ?" Hos. xiv. 8. "Other Gal. iv. 7. 1 John, iii. 1, 2.--2. Inexhau8- | Lords have had drminion over us, but by tible provision and riches. They inherit all thee only will we make mention of thy things, Rev. xxi. 7. All the blessings of a name." Is. xxvi 13 Matt. xii. 45, 46. Phil. temporal kind that are for their good shall | i. 8 — 2. Affection This may not always be given them, Psalm Ixxxiv. 11. All the apply to civil adoption, but it always does blessings of grace are treasured up in Jesus to spiritual. The children of God feel a Christ for them, Eph. i. 3. All the bles- regard for him abire every other object. sings of glory shall be enjoyed by them, Col. His own excellency, his unspeakable gnodi. 27. "All things are yours," says the less to them, his premises of future blessapostle," whether Paul, or Apollns, or Ce-lings, are all grounds of the strongest love, phas, or the world, or life, or deatlı, or things " Whom have I in heaven but thee? and present, or things to come, all are yours there is nie pon earth that I desire be1 Cor. iji. 22.-3. Divine protection. “Insides thee,” Palm lxxiii. 25. " Thou art the fear of the Lord is strong confidence, my portion, saith my soul, therefore will I and his children shall have a place of re- hope in thee," Lan:.jij. 94 Luke vi. 47. Ps. fuge,” Prov. xiv. 26. As the master of a xviii. 1-3 Access 10 God with a hely family is engaged to defend and secure all || boldness. They who are children by adopunder his roof and committed to his care, so tion are supp sed to have the same liberi

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