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5. Aspirates are mere emissions of breath, articulated by the lips, tongue, teeth, and palate. They are sometimes called Atonics.

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1, Consonants may be divided into six classes, viz.:

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Labials, or lip-sounds, which are made by the lips;
Linguals, or tongue-sounds, made by the tongue;

Linguo-dentals, or tongue-teeth-sounds, made by the tongue and teeth;

Linguo-nasals, or tongue-nose-sounds, articulated by the tongue, the sound passing through the nose;

Palato-nasals, or palate-nose-sounds, made by the palate, the sound passing through the nose;

Palatals, or palate-sounds, made by the palate.

2. The Subvocals are arranged on the left of the page, and the corresponding Aspirates on the right.

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Labials.

b, as in bib,

save,
way,
am,

p, as in lip,
f, life,
wh, when.

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Rem.—The sounds represented by l, m, n, and r, are sometimes called liquids, because they easily unite with other consonant sounds.

6. Letters.

1. There are twenty-six letters in the English alphabet. As there are more elementary sounds than letters, it becomes necessary that some letters represent more than one sound. Letters also combine to represent sounds for which there are no single representatives. Letters and combinations of letters are often used as substitutes for other letters.

7. Diphthongs, Digraphs, and Trigraphs.

1. A Diphthong consists of two vowels sounded together in the same syllable.

Rem.—There are two diphthongal sounds, represented by four diphthongs, viz. : ou, ow, oi, oy, as in foul, now, boil, cloy.

2. A Digraph consists of two vowel letters written together in the same syllable, one only being pronounced, or both representing a single elementary sound.

Rem.—There are twenty-four digraphs, viz., aa, Canaan; ai, gain; ao, gaol; au, maul; aw, maw; ay, may; ea, meat; ee, need; ei, ceiling; eo, people; eu, feud; ew, new; ey, they; ie, lief; oa, coat; oe, foe; oi, avoirdupois; oo, moon; ou, tour; ow, flow; ua, guard; ue, sue; ui, guise; uy, buy.

3. A Trigraph consists of three vowel letters written together in the same syllable, one only being pronounced, or the three together representing a single vowel sound, or diphthong

Rem. 1.—There are seven trigraphs, viz.; aye, aye; awe, awe; eau, beau, beauty; eou, gorgeous; eye, eye; ieu, lieu; iew, view.

Rem. 2.-In such words as Christian, alien, union, i does not form a digraph with the following vowel, but is a substitute for y. In the unaccented terminations cean, cial, sion, tion, the combinations ce, ci, si, ti, are substitutes for sh.

Rem. 3.—In such words as herbaceous, gracious, precious, e and i do not form trigraphs with the following vowels, but the combinations ce, ci are substitutes for sh.

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8. Double Consonants.

Double Consonants consist of two consonant letters written together in the same syllable, representing a single elementary sound.

Rem.—They are ch, chord; gh, laugh; ph, physic; sh, hush; th, thin, this; wh, when; ng, sing.

9. Substitutes.

A Substitute represents a sound usually represented by another letter or combination of letters.

A long has four substitutes : &, tête; ei, feint; ey, they ; ao, gaol.
A middle has two substitutes : e, there; ei, heir.
A broad has two substitutes : 0, cord; ou, sought.
E long has three substitutes : i, marine; ie, fiend; ay, quay.
E short has four substitutes: ay, says; u, bury; i, irksome; ie, friend.
I long has three substitutes: y, thyme; ei, Steinway; oi, choir.

I short has six substitutes: y, hymn; e, England; u, busy; 0, women; ee, been; ai, captain.

O long has three substitutes : eau, beau; ew, sew; ou, goal.
O short has two substitutes: a, what; ow, knowledge.

U long has five substitutes : eau, beauty; ieu, lieu; iew, view; ew, new; ui, suit.

U short has three substitutes: e, her; i, sir; o, son.
F has two substitutes: gh, laugh; ph, philosophy.
J has two substitutes: g, rage; di, soldier.
S has two substitutes: c before e, i, and y; 2, quartz.
T has one substitute: ed final, after any aspirate except t.
V has two substitutes: f, of; ph, Stephen.
W has one substitute: u, quick. It is understood before o in one,

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X is used as a substitute for ks, as in wax; gz, as in exact ; ksh, as in noxious.

Y has one substitute: i, alien. It is frequently understood before u, as in verdure.

Z has three substitutes: c, sacrifice; s, his; x, Xenia.
CH has one substitute: ti, question.

SH has six substitutes : ce, ocean; ci, facial; si, losion; ti, motion; ch, chaise ; 8, sugar.

ZH has four substitutes : si, fusion; zi, brazier; 2, azure; 8, rasure.

NG has one substitute: n, generally before palatal sounds; as in ink, uncle, conquer.

10. Forms of the Letters.

1. Letters are of different styles; as, Roman, Italic, Szript, Old English. 2. Types for printing are of various sizes: Great Primer,

Small Pica, Minion,
Long Primer,

Nonpareil, English,

Bourgeois, Pica,

Brevier,

Agate,
Pearl,
Diamond.

3. Letters are used either as capital letters or as lowercase, or small letters.

11. Capital Letters.

I. The first word of every sentence, or the first word after a full pause, should begin with a capital letter.

-Winds blow. Snow falls. The heavens are aflame.

Ex.

II. The first word after an introductory word or clause may begin with a capital letter.

Ex.-"Resolved, That the sum of $3000 be appropriated,” &c.

"Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Ohio, That section fourteen,” &c.

III. Each new line or paragraph of an enumeration of particulars, arranged in lines or paragraphs, should begin with a capital letter.

Ex.—"These expenditures are in proportion to the whole expenditures of government,

In Austria, as thirty-three per cent.:
In France, as thirty-eight per cent.:
In Great Britain, as seventy-four per cent."

IV. The first word of a direct quotation, or of an impor

a

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