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The Penultimate Pause, or the last but one, of a passage, is usually preceded by the rising inflection.


1. The changing seasons declare the knowledge, pòwer, wisdom, and goodness of God.

2. When the savage provides himself with a hut or a wigwam for shelter, or that he may store up his provisions, he does no more than is done by the rabbit, the beaver, the beé, and birds of every species.

REMARK.-The rising inflection is employed at the penultimate pause in order to promote variety, since the voice generally falls at the end of a sentence.


Expressions of strong emotion, as of anger or surprise, and also the language of authority and reproach, are expressed with the falling inflection.



Strike for your homes and liberty,

And the Heavens you worship o'er you!

2. O Fools! and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have written concerning me! Bible.


Hush! breathe it not aloud,

The wild winds must not hear it! Yet, again,

I tell thee-we die FREE!

4. Arise! shine! for thy light is come, and the glòry of the Lord is risen upon thee. Bible.


An emphatic succession of particulars, and emphatic repetition, require the falling inflection.

Rule VII., and examples. Rule VIII., and examples, Repeat Pale IX.




Hail, holy light! òffspring of Heaven first.born,
Or of the eternal, co-eternal beam.

The tear,

The groan, the knell, the pall, the bièr,
And all we know, or dream, or fear
Of agony, are thine.

REMARK.-The stress of voice on each successive particular, or repetition, should gradually be increased as the subject advances.

The CIRCUMFLEX is a union of the two inflections on the same word, beginning either with the falling and ending with the rising, or with the rising and ending

with the falling; as, If he goes to home I shall go to Pa


The circumflex is mainly employed in the language of irony, and in expressing ideas implying some condition, either expressed or understood.


1. Nero was a virtuous prince!

2. O, excellent interpreter of the laws!

3. Am I a dog, that thou comest to me with staves?

4. If you do that, we will do this.

5. They said, too, as you say: "It is our destiny."

6. That power is used, not to benefit mankind, but to orush them. 7. It has been said that this law is a measure of peace! Yes; such peace as the wolf gives to the lamb-the kite to the dove!

8. They follow an adventurer, whom they fear, and obey a power which they hate; we serve a monarch whom we love,--a God whom we adore.

QUESTIONS.—What is the Circumflex? When is the circumflex mainly employed? Give examples.

REMARK. The rising inflection and circumflex are so nearly allied, that, in many instances, it may be difficult to determine which should receive the preference in the reading of a pas sage. This is particularly the case where intense inflection is not required. But he difference between the circumflex and the falling inflection is so obvious, that no one would be liable to mistake which should be employed.



MODULATION implies those variations of the voice, heard in reading or speaking, which are prompted by the feelings and emotions that the subject inspires.




Once more unto the breach, dear friends, once more,
TONE. Or close the wall up with our English dead!
MIDDLE In peace, there's nothing so becomes a man,
As modest stillness and humility;



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But when the blast of war blows in our ears,
Then imitate the action of the tiger;


Stiffen the sinews, summon up the blood,








Disguise fair nature with hard-favored rage.
On, ON, you noblest English,

Whose blood is fetched from fathers of war-proof!
Fathers, that, like so many Alexanders,

Have, in these parts, from morn till even fought,
And sheathed their swords for lack of argument.
́I see you stand like greyhounds in the slips,
Straining upon the start. The game's afoot;
Follow your spirits, and, upon this charge,


QUESTIONS.-What is Modulation? Give an example.

REMARK.-To read the foregoing example in one dull, monotonous tone of voice, without regard to the sentiment expressed, would render the passage extremely insipid and life. less. But by a proper modulation of the voice, it infuses into the mind of the reader or hearer the most animating and exciting emotions.

A correct modulation of the voice is one of the most important requisites in the speaker. For if the voice is kept for a considerable length of time on one continuous key or pitch, he will not only fail to present that variety and force which the subject contains, but he will weary both himself and his hearers.

The voice is modulated in three different ways. First, it is varied in PITCH; that is, from high to low tones, and the reSecondly, it is varied in QUANTITY, or in loudness or volume of sound. Thirdly, it is varied in QUALITY, or in the kind of sound expressed.



PITCH OF VOICE has reference to its degree of elevation.

Every person, in reading or speaking, assumes a certain pitch, which may be either high or low, according to circumstances, and which has a governing influence on the variations of the voice, above and below it. This degree of elevation is usually called the KEY NOTE.

As an exercise in varying the voice in pitch, the practice of uttering a sentence on the several degrees of elevation, as represented in the following scale, will be found beneficial. First, utter the musical syllables, then the vowel sound, and lastly, the proposed sentence,―ascending and descending.

QUESTIONS.-In how many ways is the voice modulated? What is meant by pitch of voice? What practice is recommended for varying the pitch of voice?


5. sol

3. mi

-2.-re1. do

-in-me.-Virtue alone survives.-
sii in die. Virtue alone survives.
-o-in-do.-Virtue alone survives.-

o in no. Virtue alone survives.
-a-in-at.-Virtue alone survives.-
a in ate. Virtue alone survives.
-a-in-far-Virtue alone survives.-

a in all. Virtue alone survives.

Although the voice is capable of as many variations in speaking, as are marked on the musical scale, yet for all the purposes of ordinary elocution, it will be sufficiently exact if we make but three degrees of variation, viz., the Low, the Middle, and the High.

1. THE LOW PITCH is that which falls below the usual speaking key, and is employed in expressing emotions of sublimity, awe, and reverence.



It thunders! Sons of dust in reverence bow!
Ancient of Days! thou speakest from above;
Almighty! Trembling like a timid child!
I hear thy awful voice! Alarmed—afraid—
I see the flashes of thy lightning wild,

And in the very grave would hide my head!

2. THE MIDDLE PITCH is that usually employed in common conversation, and in expressing unimpassioned thought and moderate emotion.


1. When the sun rises or sets in the heavens, when spring paints the earth, when summer shines in its glory, when autumn pours forth its fruits, or winter returns in its awful forms, we view the Creator manifesting himself in his works.

2. The verdant lawn, the shady grove, the variegated landscape, the boundless ocean, and the starry heavens, are contemplated with pleasure by every beholder.

QUESTIONS.-What is the Low Pitch, and when is it employed? Give examples. For what is the Middle Pitch employed? Examples.

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