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1. He must in'crease, but I must de'crease.

2. Joseph attends school reg'ularly; but William, irʼregularly. 3. Did he perform his part grace'fully, or un'gracefully?

4. There is a difference between pos'sibility and probability.

5. We are not to inquire into the just'ice or in'justice. the honor or dis honor of the deed; nor whether it was law'ful or un'lawful, wise or un'wise.

NOTE VI.—There are two kinds of Emphasis:-Absolute and Antithetic. ABSOLUTE EMPHASIS is used to designate the important words of a sentence, without any direct reference to other words.

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3. I shall know but one country. The ends I aim at, shall be "MY COUNTRY'S, my GOD's, and TRUTH'S.” Webster.

4. I was born an American; I live an American; I shall die an American. Id.

5. SPEAK OUT, my friends; would you exchange it for the DEMON'S DRINK, ALCOHOL? A shout, like the roar of a tempest, answered "NO!'

6. You, noble Americans, we bless in the name of the God of liberty. Kossuth.

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7. He paused a moment, and with an enchanting smile, whispered softly the name, 'England!" Louder he cried, "ENGLAND !" He waved his handkerchief and shouted, "ENGLAND!"



O SACRED FORMS! how proud you look!

How high you lift your heads into the sky;

How huge you are! how mighty and how free! Knowies 'HOLD!" Tyranny cries; but their resolute breath

Sends back the reply, "INDEPENDENCE or DEATH!"

QUESTIONS.-How many kinds of Emphasis are there? What is Ab solute Emphasis? Give examples.


NOTE VII.-ANTITHETIC EMPHASIS is that which is founded on the contrast of one word or clause with another.



1. If we have no regard for our own character, we ought, at least, to regard the characters of others.

2. The wicked flee when no man pursueth; but the righteous are bold as a lion.


3. Living I shall assert it, dying, I shall assert it.


4. You were paid to fight Alexander, not to rail at him.

5. He is the propitiation for our sins; and not for ours only, but for the sins of the whole world. Bible.

6. Ye worship ye know not what: we know what we worship.

NOTE VIII.-The following examples contain two or more sets of Antitheses.

1. I will make the stars of the west the suns of the east. Kossuth. 2. We must hold them as we hold the rest of mankind-enemies in war, in peace, friends. Jefferson.

3. The wise man is happy when he gains his own approbation, the fool, when he gains that of others.

4. Without were fightings, within were fears. Bible.

5. When the righteous are in authority, the people rejoice; but when the wicked beareth rule, the people mourn. Ibid.

6. Faithful are the wounds of a friend; but the kisses of an enemy are deceitful. Ibid.


Set honor in one eye, and death in the other.

And I will look on both indifferently.

8. A man's first care should be to avoid the reproaches of his own heart; his next, to escape the censure of the world.

9. Religion raises men above themselves; irreligion sinks them beneath the brutes.

10. It is my living sentiment, and, by the blessing of God, it shall be my dying sentiment; independence Now, and independence FOREVER! Webster.

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NOTE IX. The sense of a passage is varied by changing the place of the emphasis.

QUESTIONS.-What is Antithetic Emphasis? Give examples. What effect has a change of Emphasis on the sense of a passage? Examples.

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5. Has James seen his brother to-day? No; but he saw him yes terday.

REMARK.-To determine the emphatic words of a sentence, as well as the degree and kind of emphasis to be employed, the reader must be governed wholly by the sentiment to be expressed. The idea is sometimes entertained, that emphasis consists merely in loudness of tone. But it should be borne

in mind, that the most intense emphasis may often be effectively expressed, even by a whisper.



INFLECTIONS are turns or slides of the voice, made in reading or speaking; as, Will you go to

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All the various sounds of the human voice may be comprehended under the general appellation of tones. The principal modifications of these tones are the MONOTONE, the RISING INFLECTION, the FALLING INFLECTION, and the CIRCUM


QUESTION.-How are the emphatic words of a sentence determined? What are inflections? What are the principal modifications of the hu man voice?

The Horizontal Line (-) denotes the Monotone,

The Rising Slide

() denotes the Rising Inflection.

The Falling Slide
The Curve

() denotes the Falling Inflection. -) denotes the Circumflex.

The MONOTONE is that sameness of sound, which arises from repeating the several words or syllables of a passage in one and the same general tone.

REMARK.-The Monotone is employed with admirable effec in the delivery of a passage that is solemn or sublime.


1. Man that is bōrn ōf ā wōmān, is of few days and füll ōf trōuble. He cometh fōrth like ā flōwēr, ānd is cût dōwn; hē flēēth ālsō as a shadow, and continuēth nōt.

2. Man dieth, and wāstēth āwāy: yēā, mān gīvēth up thẻ ghōst, and where is he? As the waters fail from thẽ sẽã, and the flōōd decayēth and driēth ūp, sō man liēth down, and rīsēth nōt; till the hēāvēns bẽ nō mōrē, they shall not āwāke, nōr bē raised ōūt of their sleep.

3. For thus saith the high and lofty ōne that inhābītēth ētērnity, whose name is Hōly, I dwell in the high and hōly place.

4. Lōrd, thōu hast been ōur dwelling-place in all gēnērātīōns. Before the mountains were brought fōrth, ōr ēver thōu hādst formed the earth and the world, ēvēn frōm ēvērlāsting tō ēvērlasting, Thou art Gōd. Bible.

5. O thōu that rōllēst ābōve, rōūnd as thē shield of my fathers' whence are thy beams, O sun! thy everlasting light? Ossian. 6. High on a thrōne of rōyāl state, which für

Outshōne the wealth of Ormūs ōr of Ind,

Or where the gōrgēōūs east, with richest hand,
Shōwers on her kings bārbārīc peal and gold,

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REMARK.-But the inappropriate use of the monotone,-fault into which young people naturally fall, is a very grave

What is the Mono

QUESTION.-How are they sometimes denoted ? tone? What passages should be read with the monotone? examples?



and obstinate error. It is always tedious, and often even ridiculous. It should be studiously avoided.

The RISING INFLECTION is an upward turn, or slide of the voice, used in reading or speaking; as, Are you

prepared to recite your 1éssons?

The FALLING INFLECTION is a downward turn, or slide of the voice, used in reading or speaking; as,

What are you


In the falling inflection, the voice should not sink below the general pitch; but in the rising inflection, it is raised above it. The two inflections may be illustrated by the following diagrams:

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QUESTION.-What is the Rising Inflection? What is the Falling Inflection? In the falling inflection should the voice sink below the general pitch? Is it raised above the general pitch in the rising inflection?

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