Page images

11. Rb, as in herb; rch, search; rcht, church'd; rbd, orb'd; rbdst, barb'dst; rbst, disturb'st; rbz, orbs; rd, hard; rdst, "searð'st, rdz, words; rf, turf; rft, scarf'd; rg, burg; rgz, birgs; rj, dirge; rjd, urg'd; rk, ark; rks, arks; rkst, work's; rkt, dirk'd; rktst, embark'dst; rl, girl; rld, world; rldst, nurld'st; rlst, whirl'st; rlz, hurls; rm, arm; rmd, arm'd; rmdst, harm'dst; rmst, arm'st; rmz, charms; rn, turn; rnd, turn'd; rndst, earn'dst; rnst, learn'st; rnz, urns; rp, curp; rps, Jarps; rpt, warp'd; rs, verse; rsh, harsh; rst, first; rsts, bursts; rt, dart; rth, earth; rths, births; rts, marts; rtst, dart'st; rv, curve; rvd, nerv'd; rvdst, curv'dst; rvst, swerv'st; ruz, nerves; rz, errs.

2. Sh, as in ship; sht, hush'd; sk, scan, skip; sks, tusks; skst,

frisk'st; skt, risk'd; sl, slow; sld, nestl'd; slz, wrestles ; sm, smile; sn, snag; sp, sport; sps, lisps; spt, clasp'd; st, stag; str, strike; sts, rests; sw, swing.

13. Th, as in thine, thin; thd, breath'd; thr, three; thst, breath'st; thw, thwack; thz, writhes; tl, title; tld, settl'd; tlust, settl'dst; tlst, settl'st; tlz, nettles; tr, trunk; ts, fits; tw, twirl.

14. Vd, as in curv'd; vdst, liv'dst: vl, driv'l; vld, grov'l'd; vldst, grov'l'dst; vlst, driv'l'st; vn, driv'n; vst, liv'st; vz, lives.

15. Wh, as in when, where.

16. Zd, as in mus'd; zl, dazzle; zld, muzzl'd; zldst, dazzl'dst; elst, dazzl'st; zlz, muzzles; zm, spasm; zmz, chasms; zn, ris'n; znd, reas'n'd; znz, pris'nz; zndst, impris'n'dst.

VI.-Avoid blending the termination of one word with the beginning of another, or suppressing the final letter or letters of one word, when the next word commences with a similar sound.

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

QUESTION.-What error in Articulation would be avoided by the ob servance of direction VI. Give examples.

[merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small]

NOTE.-By an indistinct Articulation the sense of a pas age is often liable to be perverted.


1. He built him an ice house.

He built him a nice house.

2. My heart is awed within me. My heart is sawed within me.

3. A great error often exists. A great terror often exists.

4. He is content in either situation.

He is content in neither situation.

5. Whom ocean feels through all her countless waves. Who motion feels through all her countless waves.

6. My brothers ought to owe nothing.
My brothers sought to own nothing.

7. He was called by his father's name.
He was scalled by his father's name.
8. We traveled o'er fields of ice and snow.
We traveled o'er fields of vice sand snow

9. He was trained in the religion of his fathers.
He was strained in the religion of his fathers.

[blocks in formation]

1. The hights, depths, lengths, and breadths of the subjot. 2. The flag of freedom floats once more aloft.

3. It was decidedly the severest storm of the season. 4. She sought shelter from the sunshine in the shade. 5. Ilis shriveled limbs were shivering with the cold.

QUESTION.-How, by indistinct articulation, is the sense of a passage ble to be perverted? Give examples.

6. A big black bug bit a big black bear.

7. Round the rough and rugged rocks the ragged rascal ran.

8. He sawed six long, slim, sleek, slender saplings.


Slowly and sadly we laid him down,

From the field of his fame fresh and gory.

10. From thy throne in the sky, thou look'st and laugh'st at the storm, and guid'st the bolts of Jove.

11. The unceremoniousness of their communicability is wholly inex. plicable.

12. The best of all governments in this badly governed world, is a rɔpublican government.

13. When the world is dark with tempests, when thunders roll and lightnings fly, thou lookest in thy beauty from the clouds, and laughest at the storm.


The hidden ocean showed itself anew,
And barren wastes still stole upon the view.

15. He spoke disinterestedly, reasonably, philosophically, particularly, peremptorily, authoritatively, unhesitatingly, and extemporaneously. His falchion flashed along the Nile;


His hosts he led through Alpine snows;
O'er Moscow's towers that blazed the while,
His eagle flag unrolled and froze.




ACCENT and EMPHASIS both indicate some special stress of voice.

ACCENT is that stress of voice by which one syllable of a word is made more prominent than others; EMPHASIS is hat stress of voice by which one or more words of a sentence are distinguished above the rest.

QUESTIONS.-What do Accent and Emphasis indicate? What is Ac cent? What is Emphasis ?


The accented syllable is sometimes designated thus: '); as, com-mand'-ment.

NOTE I.-Words of more than two syllables generally have two or more of them accented.

The more forcible stress of voice, is called the Primary Accent; and the less forcible, the Secondary Accent.


Farm'-er, hon'-or, pat'-tern, rem'-nant, a-bide', con-clude', af-fect', expand', a-tone'-ment, be-hav'-ior, con-tent'-ment, un-grate-ful, in-tens'-ive, trans-ac'-tion.


In the following examples the Primary Accent is designated by double accentual marks, thus:

Ed"-u-cate', ed'-u-ca"-tion. mul"-ti-ply', mul'-ti-pli-ca"-tion, sat"'-is-fy', sat-is-fac"-tion, com'-pre-hend", com-pre-hen"-sion, rec'-om-mend", rec'-ommend-a-tion, mo''-ment-a'-ry, com-mu"-ni-cate', com'-pli-ment''-al, indem'-ni-fi-ca"-tion, ex'-tem-po-ra''-ne-ous, coun'-ter-rev'-o-lu''-tion-a-ry.

NOTE II. The change of accent on the same word, often changes its meaning.

col'-league, a partner.
con'-duct, behavior.
des'-cant, a song or tune.
ob'-ject, ultimate purpose.
ref'-use, worthless remains.
proj'-ect, a plan; a scheme.
i.'-ter-dict, a prohibition.
o'-ver-throw, ruin; defeat.


col-league', to unite with.
con-duct', to lead.
des-cant', to comment.
ob-ject', to oppose.
re-fuse', to deny; reject.
pro-ject', to jut out.

in-ter-dict', to forbid.

o-ver-throw', to throw down.

QUESTION. Which accent has the more forcible stress of voice, the primary, or secondary? What effect does the change of accent on the same word produce? Give examples.

NOTE III.-Emphatic words are often printed in Italics. When, however, different degrees of emphasis are to be denoted, the higher degrees are designated by the use of Capitals, LARGER or SMALLER, according to the degree of intensity.


1. To arms to ARMS! to ARMS! they cry.


Awake, my heart, AWAKE!

Green vales and icy cliffs, ALL join my hymn.

3. And Agrippa said unto Paul: Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian. And Paul said: I would to God that not only thou, but also all that hear me this day, were both almost and ALTOGETHER such as I am, except these bonds.

4. The thing that hath been, it is that which shall be, and that which is done, is that which shall be done, and there is no new thing under the sun.

NOTE IV.-Emphasis, as before ir timated, varies in degrees of intensity.





1. ARM, warriors, ARM for the conflict!

2. The war is inevitable—and LET IT COME! I repeat it, Sir,-LET IT COME! Patrick Henry.

3. I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me LIBERTY, or give me DEATH! Idem.


The conflict deepens! ON, ye brave,

Who rush to glory, or the grave!

5. If I were an American, as I am an Englishman, while a foreign troop remained in my country, I never would lay down my armsNEVER NEVER, never. Pitt.

NOTE V.-Emphasis sometimes changes the seat of accent from its ordinary position.

QUESTIONS.-How are emphatic words often lenoted? How are those denoted, which are very emphatic? How is Emphasis varied? Repeat the examples of in tensive emphasis. What effect has Emphasis sometimes on accent? Give examples.

« PreviousContinue »