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plants, denote their offspring. Isa. xi. 1. Gen. xlix. 22. Ezek. xvii. 4, 23. and as trees are the symbols of princes and great men, so grass, by the rule of analogy, must signify the coinmon people. 2 Kings, xix. 26. Isa. xxxv. 7. Rev. viii. 7. The tree of life is the symbol of immortality, Gen. iii 22. Rev. ii. 7. .xxii. 2, 14. This is not a single tree, but a species, planted on each side of the river of water of life.
TRUMPET. By the sound of the trumpet proclamations were made, assemblies called together, alarms sounded in times of war, signals given for commencing battles, &c. hence the trumpet became the symbol of war, and signifies, in the prophets, a denunciation of judgments, and a warning of the imminent approach of them, Isa. xviii. 3. Jer. iv. 19, 20. vi. 1. li. 27. Joel, ii. 1. Zeph. i. 16. Rev. viii. 2, 6, 7, 8, &c. But being used to proclaim the festivals of the new moons, the sabbaths, passover, jubilee, &c. they are also the symbols of glad tidings and liberty. Isa. xxvii. 13.
VINE. This is a frequent symbol by which the prophets represent the nation of Israel, Psal. Ixxx. 8. Jer. ii, 21. The vine of the earth is a corrupt church and people, the clusters of which (the cities, colleges, monasteries, &c.) are ripe in sin and hypocrisy, and for destruction, Rev. xiv. 18-20.
WALL. The symbol of defence and safety, Isa, xxvi. 1. Zech. ii. 5. Rev. xxi. 12.
WATER being so necessary to the comfort of life, and to life itself; and the want of it being attended with such dreadful pain, and so miserable a death, it is hence made to signify all blessings which can render man's existence happy; whilst the absence of it denotes all sorts of miseries, Psal. xlii. ). Ixiii. 1. Isa, xli. 17. xliv. 3. Jer. xvii. 13. John, vii. 37, 38. Rev. xxii, 1.
Rivers, and streams, &c. are the symbols of several things, as tradė, riches, prosperity, fertility, spiritual blessings, &c. Psal. xxxvi. 8. xlvi. 4. Isa. xix. 5, 6. Ixvi. 12. But if a river overflow its banks it is the symbol of invading armies, Isa. viii. 7, 8.
A river or a sea being dried up, is the symbol of ill to the land adjoining. It signifies that those who invade it will easily make a conquest of it, when they meet with no water to stop them ; when its strongest barrier is taken away. Perhaps the prophets used this syinbol in allusion
to the drying up of Jordan to make a passage for Israel to go over and possess Canaan. See Isa. xi. 15, 16. xix. 15, 16. xliv. 27. Ezek. xxx. 12. Zech. x. 11. Kev. xvi. 12.
WILDERNESS, is a symbol which denotes temptation, misery, persecution, and all that is opposite to a state of settlement, plenty, prosperity, and peace, Isa. xiv. 17. xx. 10. xxxv. 1. Hos. ii. 3. Rev. xii. 14. This latter passage--say our commentators--intimates, that though the wilderness, into wbich persecution drove the woman, was a state of affliction, yet its solitude secured her from utter destruction; but, when it may be considered as standing in opposition to a city, or the great apocalyptic cily, which is the symbol of an empire, then a wilderness, or the wilderness, inay signify, I think, some place or region without, or beyond, its boundary ; and here, I suppose, we are to understand by the wilderness those coun. tries beyond the Danube and the Rhine, where the more faithful, for a time, found shelter from the persecutions of the Roman dragon; but who, by the extension of the great city into the depths of the Hyrcinian forest, weré pursued by the dragon, (which was now become RomanoGermanic and still persecuted.
Winds are the symbols of war and great commotion, Isa. xi. 15. xxvii. 8. Jer. xlix. 36, 37. Dan. vii. 2, 3. Rev, vii. 1.
WINE-Press. Treading a wine-press is the symbol of destruction by war, Isa. Ixiii. 3. Lam. i. 15. Rev. xiv. 19, 20. and the Lord is said to tread the wine-press, when, by his providential judgments, he permits one nation to destroy another.
WINGs are the symbols of protection and assistance, as well as of rapidity and exaltation, Exod. xix. 4. Ruth, ii. 12. Psal. xvii. 5. Isa. xl. 31. Dan. vii. 4, 6. Rev. xii. 14.
Woman, in the symbolic language, is often the symbol of a city, or body politic, of a nation or kingdom. In the prophecies this symbol is very often used for the church or nation of the Jews. Thus, in Ezek. xvi. that people are represented, first, as a female child growing up, under the fostering care of the Almighty, to woman's estate; and then, as being married to God, by entering into covenant with him. Hence, when the Israelites broke that covenant, by apostatizing into idolatry, they are repre
sented by the symbol of an adultress, Isa. i. 21. Jer. ii. 20. Ezek. xvi. 32, 38.
The symbol of a woman we find used in the New Testament, to represent both the true church of Christ, and that of Antichrist, Gal. iv. 31. Rev. xii, 1. xvii. xviii. This latter is considered as a filthy, drunken, and bloody, harlot; but it is remarkable that she is never spoken of as an adultress that hath broken her covenant, but only as a whore that committeth fornication. Nor can we suppose this to have happened without design. The Antichristian church is not, as has lately become the fashion to teach, a church which has only fallen into some errors and mistakes, but which continues a true church of Christ still; that differs from us only in circumstantials, but remains united with us in the belief of the great articles of Christianity, and in support of our common religion. It may be thus with the Christianity of some Protestants, whose creed is made up of superstition, worldly policy, pride, and intolerance. A Christianity which needs the sword to support it.-But, let Christians, who take their religion from the Bible, whilst they practise all the duties of Christian charity, and are ready to do good to all men, not be inattentive to that command, Come out of her, my people! nor unwilling to join in that triumphant song of the church of God, Alleluia ! Salvation, and glory, and honour, and power, unto the Lord our God; for true and righteous are his judgments; for he hath judged the great whore, which did corrupt the earth with her fornication, and hath uvenged the blood of his servants at her hund !-Amen!
IN D E X.
ADDRESS to the people of Great Britain, page 162-179.
of John, 18, 21-25, 192—195.
his wound, 89.
kills the witnesses in France, 47–53.
its illiberality and inconsistency in matters of religion, 312—314.
the street or platea of, 47, 197.
divided into three parts, 264.
three and a half, 53–63, 284.
84–95, 99-105, 107–113.
bound, 80, 83.
126, 201, 212.
in Matth, xxiv, 34, 257.