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And he had two horns like a lamb. Here we may observe, that the Bourbons, formerly kings of Navarre only, tors agree, it must also sometimes have a special signification, as in the very next verse. All the seven angels are commanded (ver. 1) to go and pour out the vials of the wrath of God, in general, upon the earth, that . is, upon the Roman empire; but when the first angel is said (ver. 2) to pour out his vial upon the earth, it is evident that the earth here must have a special signification; and it appears to me that some particular part of that empire must be intended. And thus as to the vials on the sea, the rivers, &c. The most natural and easy way of interpreting these terins, seems to be by considering the prophecy as geographical. Thus the earth, or land, signifies those countries, or people, situated in the continental parts; the sea signifies the maritime parts, and the people engaged in inaritime attairs; and the rivers mean some portion of that empire remarkably distinguished for the number and magnitude of its streams. We are to remember this empire was shewn to John in vision; and if we suppose him to have had all its parts present at once to his view, and to have seen each angel (as he doubtless did) pour out his vial of wrath upon their several objects, nothing could be more natural than for him to describe these objects by that which peculiarly characterized the several regions. If it were on the continental parts of the prefecture of Gaul, that he saw the judgment fall, it was the earth; if on Britain, or on navies, it was the sea; if on Lombardy, it was on the rivers and fountains of waters. Let us acquaint ourselves well with the geography of the Roman empire, and, in imagination, look down at once on all its parts. See yonder vast mass of land to the westward of the wilderness, into which the woman fled from the face of the serpent, bextending froin the Batavian isles to the utmost promontory of Spain : it is the earth. See there the British, and yonder the Mediterranean isles; the low marshes of Holland, and the rocky shores of Italy; behold their floating navies; these for commerce, and those for destruction : it is the sea. Look towards the Alps, from the Danube to the Ligurian sea, three hundred rivers, swelled by the tribute of a thousand lesser streams, fed by innumerable fountains issuing from the base of those lofty hiils, distinguish this region from every other through the whole extent of the Roman empire; it is the land of rivers and fountains of water.-All bistory, from the first irruption of the Goths into the Roman empire to the present time, confirms this geographical explanation of the prophecies. And as Sir Isaac Newton and others understand the prophecies relative to the four great beasts as geographical, why may not the scene of the last plagues be so interpreted?
Another objection of Mr. Faber's against admitting the second beast to be a symbol of France is, because, “ According to the analogy of figurative language, “ Frunce cannot be symbolized by a beast. A beast “ is a universal empire, either temporal or spiritual, and, when it de“ notes a temporal universal empire, its horns are kingdoms. France, “ however, is only one of the ten horns of the greut Roman beast'; and
therefore most assuredly can never be represented by the symbol of «8 new and distinct beast. Were this the case, St. John would be at “ open variance with Daniel. The Hebrew prophet expressly main“ tains, that there shall arise no fifth temporal beast, but that the fourth " or Roman beast shall be the last. Now, if France be the two-horneri “ beast of the Apocalypse, we must conclude that it will become a fifth
on the extinction of the family of l'alois, in 1589, which reigned over France, were become possessed of both king“ universal empire, altogether distinct from the ancient Roman empire, “ otherwise it will not be a beast, but a horn; and if it do become a “ beast, or universal empire, then it will be the fifth; the existence of “ which Daniel plainly denies, asserting that the ten-horned beast " or divided Roman empire under its last head, will be immediate“ ly succeeded by the triumphant reign of Christ.” Mr. Faber here assumes the foundation of this objection is, A beust is an universal empire. It is true that a beast in the prophecies is generally made the symbol of what is called an universal empire; but neither analogy, nor any positive law of symbolic writing, appears to forbid any single independent kingdom which is tyrannical to be symbolized by a beast, whether that kingdom co-exist with other kingdoins which persecute the church and join with them in it, or not. To say nothing of the kingdoins of Lydia or Macedon, or of the powers of India, which were some of the beasts that could not stand before the Persian rum, we may instance Egypt, the great dragon which lay in the midst of his rivers, and which was doubiless one of the beasts that fell before him. But the Egyptian monarchy co-existed both with the Babylonian empire, and with that of the Kledo-Persian, till conquered by Cambyses, and often joined in persecuting the Jewish church. Mr. Faber has, indeed, anticipated this objection to his rule of interpretation, and endeavoured (vol. i. p. 83) to weaken its furce by considering it as a single one, and as a kingdom which had once been subdued, and, during three years, made a province of the Babylonian monarcy by Esar-hadden.
But this is very far from satisfactory. Mr. Faber also objects to ine. terpreting the second beust as signifying France, because it is one of the horns of the first beast; but, as this is a mere individual opinion, we may oppose to it another quite as authoritative. Mr. Lowman, stating the various opinions which have been entertained about this beast, says, (p. 136) “ it must, in all likelibood, signify some distinct persecuting
power, of like nature and kind with the first, supporting and advance
ing the authority of the first.”. For reasons which he gives, he supposes the Germanic empire may be meant; but all his reasons, except a part of the first, which is of iro importance in the question, apply as well
, or better, to France rhan Germany. And there are parts of the description of the second beast, which, though they will not, I think, apply at all to Germany, agree exactly witb l'rance, and with no other kingdom which has ever supported the first bcast. It is allowed, that France is one of the horns of the first beast, but I can perceive no reason why a kingdom represented as a horn in one symbol, may not, on account of something very remarkable in its character and history, be represented in another by a beast, especially if that kingdom, though it may be united with others in some general system of tyranny, be yet a perfectly independent one like France : which, though it has been conpected with the papacy in its enormities, and is a part of the Papal Roman empire, yet has always maintained its independence. I am sure Mr. Faber can adduce no authority greater than his own opinion, to forbid our interpreting the sccond beast as a symbol of the French tyranny, which, whilst it assumed supremacy, within its own jurisdiction, in things both civil and religious, did also advance the authority of the popes, and force obedience to it. And, for myself, I acknowledge I have no doubt but France-not the Capets only, but Françemon account of its supe
doms; and Henry IV. grandfather of Louis XIV. in whom the kingdoms were united, took the titles of King of France and Navarre. These might be his two horns like a lamb. Or, seeing that he usurped the exercise of a spiritual power peculiar in its kind, this and his temporal power united, may, possibly be signified by these two horns,
And he spake as a dragon. His profession of that religion which teaches to be meek and harmless, presents an appearance of innocence, but when he opens his mouth, the accents are those of a dragon, which bespeak him formed for mischief, and not for the benefit of mankind. All this agrees exactly with the French tyranny, and particularly with Louis XIV. who was at once a superstitious devotee and a cruel despot; who, though styled the Most Christian King, practised the enormities of the dragon, who made war with them who kept the commandments of God, and had the testimony of Jesus. Witness the perse-cutions with which he harassed the Protestants, and his attempts to extirpate the Reformed by the revocation of the Edict of Nants ; a persecution more cruel than any since the days of persecution commenced. See Claude's Complaints of the Protestants. The Edict of Nants, issued in 1598, granted to the Protestants the free exercise of their religion ; many churches in every part of France, and judges of their own persuasion ; a free access to all places of honour and dignity, an hundred places as pledges of their future security, and funds to maintain both their ministers and garrisons. But no sooner was Louis XIV. arrived to years than he formed the resolution of destroying the Protestants. Did we not know him to have been a.beast, we could hardly give credit to the report of the motive which pushed this resolution into practice. “ Soon after he came to the crown," says Mr. Claude, p. 43. " there arose in the kingdom a civil war, which provedso sharp and desperate, as brought the state within a hair's rior power, and its more conspicuous activity in the cause of the papacy and persecution, not only may be, but is, the tyranny here represented; and that it is this power which is denominated the false prophet, and thus denominated, because it has been the chief spokesman of the pope and papacy from first to last, from Pepin to Louis XVI, and even to Napoleon, And thus, if the symbol of a beast does not necessarily sig nify a universal monarchy, as it certainly does not, France may be sym. bolized by this monster wbich John saw coming out of the earth (that is, the prefecture of Gaul, the earth of the western empire) and yet no fifih universal temporal empire need be apprehended.
breadth of utter ruin. Those of the reformed religion still kept their loyalty so inviolable, and accompanied it with such a zeal, and with a fervour so extraordinary, and so successful, that the king found himself obliged to give public marks of it by a declaration made at St. Germains in the year 1652. Then, as well at court as in the armies, each strove to proclaim loudest the merits of the Reformed.” But, can you believe there is so much depravity in human nature? Their enemies said, “ If on this occasion this party could preserve the state, this shews likewise that they could have overthrown it; this party must therefore by all means be crushed.” Louis, and the abettors of his tyranny, instantly set about it. thousand dreadful blows,” says Mr. Saurin,“ struck at our afficted churches, before that which destroyed them; for our enemies, if I may use such an expression, not content with seeing our ruin, endeavoured to taste it.” As soon as the kingdom was settled in peace, they fell upon them, and persecuted them in every imaginable way. They were excluded from the king's household,—from all employments of honour and profit,-all the courts of justice, erected by virtue of the Edict of Nanis, were abolished, so that in all trials their enemies only were their judges, and in all the courts of justice the cry, was “ 1 plead against a heretic;* I have to do with a man of a religion odious to the stute, and which the king is resolved to extirpate."
Orders were printed at Paris, and sent from thence to all the cities and parishes of the kingdom, which empowered the parochial priests, church-wardens, and others, to make an exact inquiry into whatever any of the reformed might have done or said for twenty years past, as well on the subject of religion as otherwise, to make information of this before the justices of the peace, and punish them to the utmost extremity. Thus, the prisons and dungeons were every where filled with these pretended criminals; orders were issued, which deprived them in general of all sorts of offices and employments, from the greatest to the smallest, in the farms and revenues; they were declared incapable of exercising any employ in the custom-houses, guards, treasury, or post-office, or even to be messengers, stage-coachmen, or waggoners. Now a college was suppressed, and then a church shut up, and at length they were
* Claude's Comp. &c. p. 51.
forbid to worship God in public at all, by the revocation of the Edict of Nants in 1685. “Now," says Saurin, “we were banished, then were forbidden to quit the kingdom,, on pain of death. Here we saw the glorious rewards of those who betrayed their religion; and there we beheld those who had the courage to confess it haled to a dungeon, a scaffold, or a galley. Here, we saw our persecutors drawing on a sledge the dead bodies of those who had expired on the rack; there we beheld a false friar tormenting a dying man, who was terrified on the one hand with the fear of hell if he apostatized ; and on the other, with the fear of leaving his children without bread, if he should continue in the faith.” When the arguments of priests, and every other mean failed, cruel soldiers were quartered in their houses to exert their skill in torments, to compel them to become Catholics. They cast some,” says Mr. Claude, “ into large fires, and took them out when they were half roasted; they hanged others with ropes under their armpits, and plunged them several times into wells, till they promised to renounce their religion; they tied them like criminals on the rack, and poured wine with a funnel into their mouths, till being intoxicated, they promised to turn Catholics. Some they slashed and cut with pen-knives; some they took by the nose, with red-hot tongs, and led them up and down the rooms till they promised to turn Catholics. These cruel proceedings made eight' hundred thousand persons quit the kingdom.” The story, which lies before me, related by Mr. Bion, chaplain on board the Superbe Galley in 1703, and who was converted from Popery, by means of the scene of suffering and patience, which was exhibted on board that vessel, when eighteen Protestants were bastinadoed for refusing to bow the knee, in honour of the mysteries of the mass, is too excruciating to tell. As also the sufferings of poor M. Marolles, a gentleman of virtue, sensibility, and eminent piety, condemned to suffer in the gallies, among the vilest of felons, and this for no crime but what state policy made such. This little story leaves a deeper stain of basenesss upon the character of Louis, and his court, than, perhaps, all their other enormities. It was adding that sort of wanton cruelty to state oppression, which is peculiarly abhorrent in the estimation of a generous mind. And let us remember this same system of despotism and persecution remained with a trifling abatement in civil matters, till overthrown