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Let us first consider the visions in the twelfth and thirteenth chapters, and especially the vision of the second beast, chap. xiii. 1 1,–18. for if these be understood, we shall have a key to unlock, not only the mysteries of the eleventh chapter, but of many others which follow. Chap. xii. 3. And there appeared another wonder in heaven, and behold a great red dragon, having seven heads and ten horns, and seven crowns upon his heads. And his tail drew the , third part of the stars of heaven, and did cast them to the earth, &c. Most of the authors whom I have consulted, though they allow this chapter to contain a representation of the persecutions of Pagan Rome, yet have strangely spiritualized this dragon, so that whilst we are cautioned of our danger from invisible spirits, the true object is forgotten, and we beat the air. There can be no doubt, but the devil is a principal agent in all tyrannies, ecclesiastical and civil; but what is here represented by the most terrific imagery, appears to be no other than the cruel tyranny of the Roman Empire, or Emperors, Pagan and Christian, whether in Italy' or Germany, which has, with unrelenting cruelty, never ceased to persecute the conscientious disciples of Jesus Christ. Whilst pagan, it was the great red dragon with seven heads and ten horns, but when it assumed the name of Christian, and got into the Christian church, and became there a tempter, corrupter and persecutor, it obtained the agnomen of that old serpent, called the devil and satan, which deceiveth the whole world. This dragon, we shall find, gave to the beast his power and his seat, and great authority; but he still continued, and although wounded, remains to this day, nor has he ever ceased to practise destruction. All the world have worshipped him that gave power unto the beast. Chapter the thirteenth, verse the first. I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea, hav

exemplary vengeance which is to overtake these two monsters, are so exactly similar that nothing is wanting, in this respect, to induce us to suppose that the same tyranny (essentially) may be intended, though represented by two different symbols. Thus it appears to me; but, as even a little inaccuracy on this subject would not essentially affect our main design in the following pages, and as entering deeply into controversy on this, and similar subjects, would require more time than I have, at present, to spare, and not tend much, perhaps, to edification, I shall make no more experiments on the reader's patience than I can help. 6th Edition.

Thus, as preparatory to the consideration of the following subjects, I have endeavoured, in as brief a way as possible, to shew the origin of hieroglyphic or symbolical representations, and the aptness and propriety of such as we have in the writings of the prophets. We will now enter upon our inquiries.

author, and both my concessions and defences in that work, as far as may be thought necessary, will be found in the notes which I add to this edition.

Allowing that the beast of Daniel is, as Mr. Faber says, manifestly precisely the same with that of John, it must certainly follow that I ain altogether mistaken, but this I cannot allow. It appears to me that both Mr. Faber and myself are partly right and partly wrong in our explanation of this matter. He is right, I think, in his ideas of Daniel's fourth beast as the symbol of the Roman temporal empire, and in his notion of the little horn of this beast as signifying the spiritual empire of the bishop of Rome, or the papacy; but in making the first beast of John altogether secular, and in maintaining that the little horn hath na relation to it, but is to be referred to the second beast of John, I think him wrong. As to my own explanation, in the place referred to, I acknowledge it to have been imperfect, and long since made some little correction. To say that the beast of John is the popedom, or the spiritual tyranny of the Roman empire, is not saying enough. It appears to me to be a perfectly new symbol, and in its nature mixed; that is, it represents the united tyranny of church and state; or, in other words, it is with its horns, on the papal bead, a symbol of the politicoecclesuistical kingdoms of the beast's empire, or of the states and governments of Europe as papal; or as yielding their power for the support of the corruptions, usurpations, and persecutions of the church of Rome; and though the little horn of Daniel's fourth beast, and the first beast of John are the same, yet not precisely so; for this, is not only what the little horn was designed to represent, but inore. It is that horn supported by the superstition and power of the ten kings, or kingdoms.

That this syinbol in the Apocalypse coinprehends all that was signified by the little horn, I conclude froni comparing what is said of each. In this horn were eyes like the eyes of a mun, and a mouth speaking great things; his look was more stout than his fellows. He made war with the saints and overcume them. He shall speak great words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High, and think to change times and laws: und they shall be given into his hand until a time, and times, and the dividing of time that is, for 1260 years~ But the judgment shall sit, and they shall take away his dominion, &c. Of the beast in John it is said, And they worshipped the beast, suying, Who is able to make wur with him? And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things, and blasphemies, and power was given unto him to continue forty and two months, that is, 1260 years. And he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme his name, and his tabernacle, and them that dwell in heaven. And it was given unto him to make war with the saints, and to overcome them: and power uus given him over all kindreds, and tongues and nations.--He that leudeth into captivity, shall go into captivity: he that killeih with the sword, must be killed with the sword. Thus we see the character, deeds, time of continuance, and the

Let us first consider the visions in the twelfth and thir. teenth chapters, and especially the vision of the second beast, chap. xii. 11,-18. for if these be understood, we shall have a key to unlock, not only the mysteries of the eleventh chapter, but of many others which follow. Chap. xii. 3. And there appeared another wonder in heaven, and behold a great red dragon, having seven heads and ten horns, and seven crowns upon his heads. And his tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven, and did cast them to the earth, &c. Most of the authors whom I have consulted, though they allow this chapter to contain a representation of the persecutions of Pagan Rome, yet have strangely spiritualized this dragon, so that whilst we are cautioned of our danger from invisible spirits, the true object is forgotten, and we beat the air.

There can be no doubt, but the devil is a principal agent in all tyrannies, ecclesiastical and civil; but what is here represented by the most terrific imagery, appears to be no other than the cruel tyranny of the Roman Empire, or Emperors, Pagan and Christian, whether in Italy' or Germany, which has, with unrelenting cruelty, never ceased to persecute the conscientious disciples of Jesus Christ. Whilst pagan, it was the great red dragon with seven heads and ten horns, but when it assumed the name of Christian, and got into the Christian church, and became there a tempter, corrupter and persecutor, it obtained the agnomen of that old serpent, called the devil and satan, which deceiveth the whole world. This dragon, we shall find, gave to the beast his power and his seat, and great authority ; but he still continued, and although wounded, remains to this day, nor has he ever ceased to practise destruction. All the world have worshipped him that gave power unto the beast.

Chapter the thirteenth, verse the first. I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea, hav

exemplary vengeance which is to overtake these two monsters, are so exactly similar that nothing is wanting, in this respect, to induce us to suppose that the same tyranny (essentially) may be intended, though represented by two different symbols.

Thus it appears to me; but, as even a little inaccuracy on this subject would not essentially affect our inain design in the following pages, and as entering decply into controversy on this, and similar subjects, would require more time than I have, at present, to spare, and not tend much, perbaps, to edification, I shall make no more experiments on the reader's patience than I can help. 6th Edition.

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ing seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy. And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as the feet of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion; and the dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority. Having said so much concerning the fourth beast, and the little horn, in the vision of Daniel : and seeing that most Protestants are pretty well agreed that, by i. beast, the Papal power, as exercised by the Bishop of Rome, supported by his clergy, and by those princes who have acknowledged his jurisdiction, is intended, the less need be said in explaining these verses. Its rising out of the sea has been supposed to refer to those commotions of nations which very much favoured the rising of the Papal tyranny; it may be so; but as we may consider the sea here as in epposition to the earth, out of which we shall, by and by, see the second beast rise, and which I suppose to signify the praefecture of the Gauls, the earth of the Roman world, when only a part of it is referred to, as in Rev. xvi. 2. hence we may suppose this prophecy to be geographical. A bird's-eye view of the §. empire, and of the peninsula of Italy in particular, will help the reader to enter into this idea. But more of this hereafter". Most interpreters explain the seven heads to be not only the emblems of the seven hills on which Rome was built (chap. xvii. 9. 10.) but also of the seven forms of government to which Rome had been, and was to be, subject. Five were already fallen, when John saw the vision, viz. those by kings, consuls, dictators, decemvirs, and military tribunes with consular authority. The imperial then prevailed, and the papal was to follow. Daubuz, and others, suppose them to signify seven capital cities and their dominions, within the Roman empire. But as inquiries of this nature are of subordinate consideration, and their determination not essential to our design, we shall not enter much into them. There is, however, one mode of interpreting this number which ought not to be passed by without notice. As the number ten applied to the horns of this beast may stand for an uncertain or indefinite number, and mean merely many; so this number seven may be put for several; or it may be

* The reader may remember, that, at the time of the rising of this beast, Rome had ceased to be the seat of government where the ruling powers of the political heaven unoved. 4.

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used as the mystical number of perfection or completion. Isaiah says, iv. 1. Seven women shall lay hold of one man, to ask him to marry them, i.e. several women. Hannah says, 1 Sam. ii. 5, the barren hath born seven, i.e. several or many. ...This number is used in the same sense, Lev. xxvi. 24. Ps. xii. 6. lxxix. 12. Prov. xxvi. 16. Eccl. xi. 2. It is, asso, especially to be remembered that this number is, as it were, consecrated in the sacred books, and in the religion of the Jews, by a great number of events and mysterious circumstances. The seventh day was consecrated as a day of rest for man. The seventh year as a year of rest for the earth, and the seven times seventh year as the year of jubilee. The number of seven days is observed in divers cleansings and consecrations, as well as in the great solemnities of the passover, of the feast of tabernacles, the dedication of the tabernacle and the temple. The Jews had their seven branched candlesticks, seven trumpets, and seven priests to sound them; and, on several occasions, the number of seven sacrifices. The seven eyes which Zechariah saw (ch. ii. 9... iii. 10.) were the symbols of God's omniscient and careful providence. And in this book of the Revelation, there are the seven churches, seven spirits, seven stars, seven candlesticks, seven lamps, seven seals, seven trumpets, seven thunders, seven angels, seven vials, seven plagues, &c. From all this we may conclude that this number is particularly consecrated to a mystical use; and its exact meaning here does not seem easy to determine. And though, we should consider ch. xvii. 10. as determining it to be defihite, still, what is meant by heads is doubtful. All that can be said with certainty is, that a monster with seven heads and ten horns is the undoubted symbol of the Roman empire; whatever these heads and horns may particularly signify. The horns, indeed, doubtless signify the kingdoms and states, crowned with sovereign authority, which give their power for the support of papal abominations, whether their number be exactly ten or not.—To this beast the dragon gave his power and hi3 seat, and great authority; that is, it was by the assistance of the emperors, by virtue of laws and grants issuing from them, that the bishops of Rome, and the clergy arrived at their great power. T And, by the seat of the imperial government being removed from Rome, first by Constantine to Byzantium (Constantinople,) and afterwards into France

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