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not only more forcibly, but it may also be more justly expressed, by a particular arrangement of the words used by the translator, than by any other distribution. In reading the classic authors, especially the poets, how frequently are we delighted with the inimitable beauty, the curiosa felicitas of their expressions, and feel as if the form of words before us was the only one in which the sentiment of the writer could be appropriately presented. And when, in a translation, we find the spirit and gracefulness of such passages exhibited, we receive new pleasure from the manner in which we see the words of one language correspond in power and order to those of another. In the English Public Version of the Scriptures, compared with the original, many examples of this correspondence may be observed. The Editor of the Book of Job in this separate publication, remarks, that if, in the poetical books of the Old Testament, our Translators had more scrupulously arranged the collocation of the words in
onformity with the Hebrew, as far at least as the English idiom would have permitted, and had also more rigidly adhered to the principal pauses of the Masorets, the English reader would have been enabled to form a more correct idea of that peculiarity which characterizes the diction of the original, as well as to develop with greater accuracy and facility, the true meaning of the inspired writers. His design is, to present an arrangement of this kind, for the purpose of correcting and amending the Common Version; the words of which he retains, except in such instances as required a slight change in the construction to adapt them to his purpose.
Where the words in the original are thrown out of the usual prose, into a poetical arrangement, the Translators have occasionally followed the order of the Hebrew; it is the object of the Editor to render the version generally conformable to this order.
In the twentieth verse of the fifth chapter of Job, the prose arrangement of the words would stand thus: “ He shall redeem thee from death in famine, and from the power of the sword in war.” But there is a poetical transposition in the Hebrew, which our translators have strictly preserved. Their version is : “In famine he shall redeem thee from death, and in war from the power of the sword.” next verse, however, a similar transposition occurs, which they altogether disregard. For where the Hebrew has," From the scourge of the tongue shalt thou be hid ;” they adopt a different arrangement of the words, and place them thus: “ Thou shalt be hid from the scourge of the tongue." But, in the first part of the twenty-second verse, they again precisely follow the order of the original, and say, "At destruction and famine thou shalt laugh ;” disregarding it nevertheless in the latter part of the same verse, in which they put, « Neither shalt thou be afraid of the beasts of the earth ", instead of, “ Neither of the beasts of the earth shalt thou be afraid."
In the very
• In like manner, numerous passages may be quoted, where the transposition of the words in the original is correctly preserved, either in the whole, or in a part of a verse; but our translators seem not to have proceeded upon a uniform principle in this respect. Sometimes, indeed, they adopt a transposition where there is none in the Hebrew; as in c. xv. v. 30, where the Authorised Version has, “ And by the breath of his mouth shall he go away;" although, according to the Hebrew arrangement, it should have been, “ And he shall go away by the breath of his mouth." So also in c. xxxvii, v. 5, the clause “Great things doeth he”, exhibits a transposition not found in the Original, which simply has, “ He doeth great things.”
In the structure of the Original, the usage is for the nominative case to follow the verb, where both come together without intervening words, ' And saw God the light-and was the even‘ing, and was the morning. This collocation is not observed by the Editor, but the English position of the nominative case before the verb is retained. The Translators are inconstant in this respect.
Another particular in the text before us, is the adoption of the Masoretical system of pauses. Job. xii. 5, in the Common Version, is without any distinction of stops, except the final one. “He that is ready to slip with his feet is as a lamp despised in the thought of him that is at ease.” This is amended by the Editor, whose correction and remarks are as follows.
« This, when literally translated, and the words properly placed, stands thus : “ As a lamp despised in the thought of him that is at ease; as one ready to slip with his foot.” Job in the preceding verse had complained, that he was “ as one mocked of his neighbour”, to whom he was not inferior in understanding; and here adds, that he was “ as a lamp despised in the thought of him that was at ease; as one ready to slip with his feet;" meaning that his wisdom was despised by his friend, and that he was considered as a man of a stumbling intellect. A little more attention to the collocation of the words, and to the accent in the middle of the verse, would have prevented this incorrect translation.' p. xix. Introd.
In conformity with the system adopted, the comma is wholly rejected, and the end of each line is marked by a semicolon, as the full stop is placed at the conclusion of every verse. A halfpause is besides introduced in every line, without reference to its length. This distinction serves to point out precisely the parallelism; as in the example adduced, (p. xxii.) of Ps. cxiv.
“1. When Israel went out of Egypt; the house of Jacob • from a people of strange language; « 2. Judah was · his sanctuary ; Israel • his dominion. “ 3. The sea saw it. and fled; Jordan · was driven back.
“ 4. The mountains · skipped like rams; the little hills • like “ lambs."
The instances are but very few, in which this new arrangement of the Book of Job presents any variation in the sense : occasionally we find a passage in which the meaning is altered, and more of perspicuity introduced into a verse; but the merit of the publication before us consists in its being a substitute for the Original in respect to the peculiar features of composition which distinguish it, for the use of the English reader. It will also be useful to the Hebrew scholar in his labours as a translator, in inducing him to render his version, in the respects pointed out, as close a representative of the Original, as may consist with the language into which he is rendering it. We shall extract a specimen of the Masoretical system as used by the present Editor: it is from the xxiid. Chapter.
• 22. Receive I pray thee from his mouth • the law; and lay up his words in thine heart.
23. If thou return to the Almighty : thou shalt be built up; for thou shalt put away iniquity • from thy tabernacles.
24. Then shalt thou lay up as dust - gold; and as the stones of the brooks • the gold of Ophir.
25. Yea the Almighty shall be thy defence; and plenty of silver shalt thou have.
26. For then • in the Almighty shalt thou have thy delight; and shalt lift up unto God • thy face.
27. Thou shalt make thy prayer unto him and he shall hear thee; and thy vows • shalt thou pay.
28. Thou shalt also decree a thing • and it shall be established unto thee; and upon thy ways • shall the light shine.
29. When men are cast down then shalt thou say: there is lifting up; and the humble person · he shall save.
30. He shall deliver · the island of the innocent; and it is delivered by the pureness of thine hands.'
Art. VI. A Tour in Italy and Sicily. By L. Simond. 8vo. pp.
629. Price 16s. London. 1829. WE are glad to meet M. Simond again, and on classic ground,
He is a shrewd and active observer, a clear and unaffected writer; and it adds to our satisfaction, that he is neither a virtuoso nor a savant. We are sick of empiricism in all its shapes. We have had more than enough of the airs and high pretensions, the superficiality and ostentation, the prejudice and bad temper, the want of learning and discrimination, which pervade so large a portion of the published works of modern travellers ; and we feel quite refreshed by a few hours' reading of this interesting and unpretending Tour. The Author of Italy as it is ', would at once and peremptorily exclude M. Simond from the privileged class of accredited travellers; and we admit that he is
a very different sort of writer from the Author of Italy as it is.' We are, possibly, perverse and capricious in our preference; but we really do, and that very decidedly, prefer a plain and sensible description of characteristic scenes and circumstances, to a collection of trumpery details about lodgings and their expense, custom-houses and their exactions, vetturini and their extortions, children and their jokes, with a whole 'balaam-box' of memoranda equally worthless. This, however, is a matter hardly worth the slight reference we have made. It may be of more interest to our readers, that we can recommend the
present volume as a reasonable corrective of the exaggerations of Eustace. That distinguished Traveller still supplies to many a reader the materials of the estimate which he may form of Italy, and of the anticipations which prompt him to visit that fine but faded country. His glowing descriptions of the 'pomp, pride,
, * and circumstance' of papal worship, if they do not create a partiality for the thing itself, tend, at least, to kindle a strong inclination to witness the splendid spectacle,--that glittering combination of pantomime, puppet-show, and legerdemain, that transfer of the Grande Opera to the halls of the Vatican and the vaults of St. Peter. We shall shew, before we close this article, how differently the same exhibitions may appear under a varying management of lights and shades; and how opposite will be the judgement formed, respecting similar circumstances, by interested and by impartial spectators.
There is no existing state of society, or aspect of country, that affords such ample opportunity for mistake or perversion, as may be found in Italy; and, accordingly, few countries have been the subject of such systematic misrepresentation. The lofty and romantic associations which connect themselves with these regions, are, whether recent or remote, of infinite variety; and their history may be read, on contemporary monuments, from ages earlier than the Roman name, down to the galling signatures of the Austrian yoke. The massive masonry of what is commonly distinguished as Cyclopean' structure, belongs to a period antecedent to specific record : the splendid remains of Rome itself illustrate all the successive periods of Roman story. The decline and fall' of that mighty state; the fierce struggles with barbarian invaders; the vicissitudes of the Italian Republics ; the annals of the hierarchy ;-all these, with innumerable circumstances of local or general interest, may be read, without reference to print or manuscript, in the monumental and natural scenery of present Italy. Yet, the reading will bear a varying interpretation, as the prepossessions of the investigator may incline him to admiring or unfavourable conclusions; to say nothing of the different processes of inquiry, or of the sometimes opposite results derivable from profound or from superfi
cial examination. Let, for instance, a Protestant and a Papist set forth on a journey through these regions, and, with every disposition on their parts to give the truth simple and entire, it cannot be that their verdict should agree: their medium of sight and criticism, their criterion of taste and feeling, must be so strongly affected by their respective partialities, as to exhibit the very same objects of contemplation under relative, not to say positive variations of outline, shade, and colour.
We touch on this point, although without submitting it to formal discussion, because the Romanists are taking it upon themselves to maintain, that none but those of their own sect are qualified for a correct appreciation of Italian superiority. To make this childish boast the ground of formal disputation, would be to accept a challenge to a combat of hobby-horses, a duello of squirts and popguns. It is quite in character for the children of infallibility to ape the airs of their mighty mother'; and it is but after their common, fashion, to rail at their opponents because the assumption is rejected. But we should hold it a very indefensible waste of time, to argue against a bold and blustering assertion; and till it assume a more questionable shape, we shall take permission to pass it by. We never had much relish for fencing with wooden Soldans, nor for tilting at the Quintaine; and as we grow older, our dislike grows more and more definite.
It is not in the nature of things, that a partizan and a foe should contemplate the gorgeous ritual of the Vatican with the same feelings, or even with the same eye. To the one, it will be all fuss and feathers, smoke, spangle, and gesticulation : to the other, it will be decent solemnity, appropriate magnificence, impressive ceremony. And this difference, not only of opinion, but of sentiment, will not be confined to these particular circumstances; it will influence the eye and the judgement in their excursions over the whole field of observation. Take
Eu. stace, and he will be found to contemplate the entire scene with the gaze
of an enthusiast. With him, whatever is, is best ; and every thing that meets his glance, bears testimony to the excellence of the system which he has accustomed himself to idolize. His pictures, with no intention to misrepresent, have all the effect of misrepresentation. Whoever may adopt his theories, will look on the hierarchy as the guardian genius of Italy, ever watchful for its good, warding off evil to the utmost of its power, kindling and cherishing the flame of genius, and extending over all the arm of beneficence. His very criticisms are under the influence of this feeling, and he struggles through difficulties of every kind to maintain the glory of the popedom, not only in essentials, but in all its circumstances and accidents.
Turn from Eustace to Simond--the whole scene assumes a