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Of Education; to Master Samuel Hartlib.
Accedence commenced Grammar: supplied with suficient Rules for
the Use of such as, younger or elder, are desir
pecially with little Teaching, and their own Indu
The History of Britain, that part especially now
from the first traditional Beginning. continued to
quest. Collected out of the ancientest and be
Published from a Copy corrected by the Author
of true Religion, Heresy, Schism, Toieration, and
may be used against the Growth of Popery. Po
A brief History of Moscovia, and of other less kno
Eastward of Russia, as far as Cathay, gathered
of several Eye-witnesses . ...
A Declaration, or Letters Patents for the Election
King of Poland, elected on the 22nd of May, Ang
taining the Reasons of this Election, the great 17
the said serene Elect, his eminent Services in
his last great Victory against the Turks and Tarts
Particulars are here related, not published beror
Letters of State to most of the Sovereign Prince
Europe, during the Administration of the Cound
Protectors Oliver and Richard Cromwell..
Letters written in the Name of the Parliament
Letters written in the Name of Oliver the Protecto
Letters written in the Name of Richard the Protect
A Manifesto of the Lord Protector, against the Spa
Johannis Miltoni Opera omnia Latina. ...
Defensio pro Populo Anglicano, contra Claudii A
masii Defensionem regiam .
Defensio Secunda pro Populo Anglicano contra
anonymum cui titulus, “ Regii Sanguinis Clamos
sus Parricidas Anglicanos
Authoris pro se Defensio contra Alexandrum N
Libelli famosi, cui titulus, “ Regií Sanguinis Cla
versus Parricidas Anglicanos," Authorem recte
Authoris ad Alexandri Mori Supplementum Respo
Joannis Philippi Angli Responsio ad Apologiam
Tenebrionis pro Rege & Populo Anglicano infan
Literæ Senatus Anglicani nomine ac jussu conser
Literæ Oliverii Protectoris nomine scripta
Literæ Richardi Protectoris nomine scriptse.
Literæ Parlamenti Restituti nomine scriptæ .
Scriptum Dom. Protectoris Reipublicæ Anglia. S
ex consensu atque sententia Concilii sui Editur
publicæ Causa contra Hispanos justa esse demo
Autoris Epistolarum Familiarum Liber unus :
ejusdem jam olim in Collegio Adolescentis !
Prolusiones quædam Oratoriæ
Artis Logicæ plenior Institutio ad Petri Rami Me
adjecta est Praxis Analytica & Petri Rami Vita
Praxis Logica analytica ex Dounamo
Petri Rami Vita
The Second Defence of the People of England, 3
Libel, entitled, " The royal Blood crying to
on the English Parricides"
PROSE WORKS OF JOHN MILTON.
REFORMATION IN ENGLAND,
THE CAUSES THAT HITHERTO HAVE HINDERED IT.
IN TWO BOOKS.
WRITTEN TO A FRIEND.
(FIRST PUBLISHED 1641.]
Sta. Aklist those deep and retired thoughts, which, with another way into the new-vomited paganism of senevery sun ebristianly instructed, ought to be most fre- sual idolatry, attributing purity or impurity to things quent of God, and of his miraculous ways and works indifferent, that they might bring the inward acts of amorst men, and of our religion and works, to be the spirit to the outward and customary eye-service performed to him ; after the story of our Saviour Christ, of the body, as if they could make God earthly and exfering to the lowest bent of weakness in the flesh, Aeshly, because they could not make themselves heaand presently triumphing to the highest pitch of glory venly and spiritual; they began to draw down all the the spirit
, which drew up his body also ; till we in divine intercourse betwixt God and the soul, yea, the bulb be united to him in the revelation of his kingdom, very shape of God himself, into an exterior and bodily I do not know of any thing more worthy to take up form, urgently pretending a necessity and obligement the whole passion of pity on the one side, and joy on of joining the body in a formal reverence, and worship the other
, than to consider first the foul and sudden circumscribed ; they hallowed it, they fumed it, they remoption
, and then, after many a tedious age, the sprinkled it, they bedecked it, not in robes of pure inbag deferred, but much more wonderful and happy nocency, but of pure linen, with other deformed and meruation of the church in these latter days. Sad it fantastic dresses, in palls and mitres, gold, and gew3 to think how that doctrine of the gospel, planted by gaws fetched from Aaron's old wardrobe, or the flamins teachers divinely inspired, and by them windowed and vestry: then was the priest set to con bis motions and sied from the chaff of overdated ceremonies, and re- his postures, his liturgies and his lurries, till the soul Árned to such a spiritual height and temper of purity, by this means of overbodying herself, given up justly and knowledge of the Creator, that the body, with all to fleshly delights, bated her wing apace downward :
circumstances of time and place, were purified by and finding the ease she had from her visible and senthe afections of the regenerate soul, and nothing left suous colleague the body, in performance of religious
nepere but sin; faith needing not the weak and fal- duties, her pinions now broken, and flagging, shifted Ehle office of the senses, to be either the ushers or in-off from herself the labour of high soaring any more, berpreters of heavenly mysteries, save where our Lord forgot her heavenly flight, and left the dull and droilkimself in his sacraments ordained; that such a doc-ing carcase to plod on in the old road, and drudging tuwe skoold, through the grossness and blindness of trade of outward conformity. And here out of question bet professors , and the fraud of deceivable traditions, from her perverse conceiting of God and holy things,
as to backslide into the Jewish she had fallen to believe no God at all, had not custom brytury of old cast rudiments, and stumble forward and the worm of conscience nipped her incredulity:
drag is downwards,
hence to all the duties of evangelical grace, instead of and the sweet odour of the returning gospel imbathe the adoptive and cheerful boldness which our new al- his soul with the fragrancy of heaven. Then was the liance with God requires, came servile and thrallike sacred Bible sought out of the dusty corners where fear: for in very deed, the superstitious man by his profane falsehood and neglect had thrown it, the schools good will is an atheist; but being scared from thence opened, divine and human learning raked out of the by the pangs and gripes of a boiling conscience, all in embers of forgotten tongues, the princes and cities a pudder shuffles up to himself such a God and such a trooping apace to the new-erected banner of salvation; worship as is most agreeable to remedy his fear; which the martyrs, with the unresistible might of weakness, fear of his, as also is his hope, fixed only upon the shaking the powers of darkness, and scorning the fiery flesh, renders likewise the whole faculty of his appre- rage of the old red dragon. hension carnal; and all the inward acts of worship, The pleasing pursuit of these thoughts hath ofttimes issuing from the native strength of the soul, run outled me into a serious question and debatement with me lavishly to the upper skin, and there harden into a myself, how it should come to pass that England (harcrust of formality. Hence men came to scan the Scrip-ing had this grace and honour from God, to be the first tures by the letter, and in the covenant of our redemp- that should set up a standard for the recovery of lost tion, magnified the external signs more than the quick- truth, and blow the first evangelic trumpet to the ening power of the Spirit; and yet looking on them nations, holding up, as from a hill, the new lamp of through their own guiltiness with a servile fear, and saving light to all christendom) should now be last, finding as little comfort, or rather terrour from them and most unsettled in the enjoyment of that peace, again, they knew not how to hide their slavish approach whereof she taught the way to others; although indeed to God's bebests, by them not understood, nor worthily our Wickliffe's preaching, at which all the succeeding received, but by cloaking their servile crouching to all reformers more effectually lighted their tapers, was to religious presentments, sometimes lawful, sometimes his countrymen but a short blaze, soon damped and idolatrous, under the name of humility, and terming the stifled by the pope and prelates for six or seven kings' piebald frippery and ostentation of ceremonies, decency. reigns; yet methinks the preredency which God gave
Then was baptism, changed into a kind of exorcism this island, to be first restorer of buried truth, should and water, sanctified by Christ's institute, thought lit- have been followed with more happy success, and tle enough to wash off the original spot, without the sooner attained perfection; in which as yet we are scratch or cross impression of a priest's forefinger: and amongst the last : for, albeit in purity of doctrine we that feast of free grace and adoption to which Christ agree with our brethren ; yet in discipline, which is invited bis disciples to sit as brethren, and cobeirs of the execution and applying of doctrine bome, and laythe happy covenant, which at that table was to be ing the salve to the very orifice of the wound, yea, sealed to them, even that feast of love and heavenly- tenting and searching to the core, without which pulpit admitted fellowship, the seal of filial grace, became the preaching is but shooting at rovers; in this we are no subject of horror, and glouting adoration, pageanted better than a schism from all the reformation, and a about like a dreadful idol; which sometimes deceives sore scandal to them : for while we hold ordination to well-meaning men, and beguiles them of their reward, belong only to bishops, as our prelates do, we must of by their voluntary humility; wbich indeed is fleshly necessity hold also their ministers to be no ministers, pride, preferring a foolish sacrifice, and the rudiments and shortly after their church to be no church. Not to of the world, as Saint Paul to the Colossians explain-speak of those senseless ceremonies which we only reeth, before a savoury obedience to Christ's example. tain, as a dangerous earnest of sliding back to Rome, Such was Peter's unseasonable humility, as then his and serving merely, either as a mist to cover nakedness knowledge was small
, when Christ came to wash his where true grace is extinguished, or as an interlude to feet; who at an impertinent time would needs strain set out the pomp of prelatism. Certainly it would be courtesy with his master, and falling troublesomely worth the while therefore, and the pains, to inquire upon the lowly, all-wise, and unexaminable intention
more particularly, what, and how many the chief causes of Christ, in what he went with resolution to do, so have been, that have still hindered our uniform consent provoked by his interruption the meek Lord, that be to the rest of the churches abroad, at this time especially threatened to exclude him from his heavenly portion, when the kingdom is in a good propensity thereto, and unless he could be content to be less arrogant and stiff- all men in prayers, in hopes, or in disputes, either for necked in his humility.
or against it. But to dwell no longer in characterizing the depra Yet I will not insist on that which may seem to be vities of the church, and how they sprung, and how the cause on God's part; as his judgment on our sins, they took increase ; when I recall to mind at last, after the trial of his own, the unmasking of h, pocrites : nor so many dark ages, wberein the huge overshadowing shall I stay to speak of the continual eagerness and train of error had almost swept all the stars out of the extreme diligence of the pope and papists to stop the firmament of the church ; how the bright and blissful furtherance of reformation, which know they have no reformation (by divine power) struck through the black hold or hope of England their lost darling, longer tban and settled night of ignorance and antichristian ty- the government of bishops bolsters them out; and ranny, methinks a sovereign and reviving joy must therefore plot all they can to uphold them, as may be needs rush into the bosom of him that reads or hears; seen by the book of Santa Clara, the popish priest, iu
defence of bishops, which came out piping hot much be followers of this world; for when the protector's about the time that one of our own prelates, out of an brother, Lord Sudley, the admiral, through private ominous fear, had writ on the same argument; as if malice and malengine was to lose his life, no man they had joined their forces, like good confederates, to could be found fitter than bishop Latimer (like another support one falling Babel.
Dr. Shaw) to divulge in his sermon the forged accusaBut I shall chiefly endeavour to declare those causes tions laid to his charge, thereby to defame him with that hinder the forwarding of true discipline, which the people, who else it was thought would take ill the are among ourselves. Orderly proceeding will divide innocent man's death, unless the reverend bishop could our inquiry into our forefathers' days, and into our warrant them there was no foul play. What could be times. Henry VIII was the first that rent this king- more impious than to debar the children of the king dom from the pope's subjection totally; but bis quarrel from their right to the crown ? To comply with the being more about supremacy, than other faultiness in ambitious usurpation of a traitor, and to make void the religion that he regarded, it is no marvel if he stuck last will of Henry VIII, to which the breakers had where he did. The next default was in the bishops, sworn observance? Yet bishop Cranmer, one of the who though they had renounced the pope, they still executors, and the other bishops, none refusing, (lest hugged the popedom, and shared the authority among they should resist the duke of Northumberland,) could themselres, by their six bloody articles, persecuting the find in their consciences to set their hands to the disprotestants no slacker than the pope would have done. enabling and defeating not only of Princess Mary the And doubtless
, whenever the pope shall fall, if his ruin papist, but of Elizabeth the protestant, and (by the be not like the sudden downcome of a tower, the bishops, bishops' judgment) the lawful issue of King Henry, when they see him tottering, will leave him, and fall Who then can think (though these prelates bad to scrambling, catch who may, he a patriarchdom, and sought a further reformation) that the least wry face of another what comes next band; as the French cardinal a politician would not have hushed them? But it will of late and the see of Canterbury hath plainly affected. be said, these men were martyrs : what then ? though
In Edward the Sixth's days, why a complete reform- every true Christian will be a martyr when he is called ation was not effected, to any considerate man may to it, not presently does it follow, that every one sufappear. First
, be no sooner entered into his kingdom, fering for religion is, without exception. Saint Paul but into a war with Scotland; from whence the pro writes, that“ a man may give his body to be burnt, tector returning with victory, bad but newly put his (meaning for religion,) and yet not have charity:" he hand to repeal the six articles, and throw the images is not therefore above all possibility of erring, because out of churches, but rebellions on all sides, stirred up be burns for some points of truth. by obdurate papists, and other tumults, with a plain Witness the* Arians and Pelagians, which were slain ve in Norfolk, holding tack against two of the king's by the heathen for Christ's sake, yet we take both these generals, made them of force content themselves with for no true friends of Christ. If the martyrs (saith what they had already done. Hereupon followed Cyprian in his 30th epistle) decree one thing, and the ambitious contentions among the peers, which ceased gospel another, either the martyrs must lose their crown sex bat with the protector's death, who was the most by not observing the gospel for which they are marrealous in this point: and then Northumberland was tyrs, or the majesty of the gospel must be broken and be that could do most in England, who little minding lie flat, if it can be overtopped by the novelty of any religion
, (as his apostasy well showed at his death,) bent other decree. ad bis wit how to bring the right of the crown into his And here withal I invoke the Immortal Deity, reop line. And for the bishops, they were so far from vealer and judge of secrets, that wherever I have in any such worthy attempts, as that they suffered them- this book plainly and roundly (though worthily and selves to be the common stales, to countenance with truly) laid open the faults and blemishes of fathers, their prostituted gravities every politic fetch that was martyrs, or christian emperors, or have otherwise inthen on foot
, as oft as the potent statists pleased to veighed against errour and superstition with vehement employ them. Never do we read that they made use expressions; I bave done it neither out of malice, nor of their autbority and high place of access, to bring list to speak evil, nor any vain glory, but of mere nethe jaming nobility to christian peace, or to withstand cessity to vindicate the spotless truth from an ignother disloyal projects : but if a toleration for mass minious bondage, whose native worth is now become were to be begged of the king for his sister Mary, lest of such a low esteem, that she is like to find small Charles the Fifth should be angry; who but the grave
credit with us for what she can say, unless she can predates
, Cranmer and Ridley, must be sent to extort bring a ticket from Cranmer, Latimer, and Ridley; or it from the young king? But out of the mouth of that prove herself a retainer to Constantine, and wear his podly and royal child, Christ himself returned such an badge. More tolerable it were for the church of God, asfal repulse to those halting and timeserving prelates, that all these names were utterly abolished like the that after much bold importunity, they went their way brazen serpent, than that men's fond opinion should Dit without shame and tears.
thus idolize them, and the beavenly truth be thus capNor was this the first time that they discovered to tivated. * At appears from this and other passages, that the author in his younger ments; as is plain from his tract on “ True Religion, lleresy, Schism, yarn was tu thodos, a 11 is called: but he afterwards altered his senti. and Toleratiou," which was the last work he published,
Now to proceed, whatsoever the bishops were, it | same Sulpitius write that he was nothing tainted or seems they themselves were unsatisfied in matters of altered in his habit, diet, or persoval demeanour from religion as they then stood, by that commission granted that simple plainness to which he first betook himself. to eight bishops, eight other divines, eight civilians, It was not therefore that thing alone which God took eight common lawyers, to frame ecclesiastical constitu- displeasure at in the bishops of those times, but rather tions ; which no wonder if it came to nothing, for (as an universal rottenness and gangrene in the whole Hayward relates) both their professions and their ends function. were different. Lastly, we all know by example, that From hence then I pass to Queen Elizabeth, the next exact reformation is not perfected at the first push, and protestant prince, in whose days why religion attained those unwieldy times of Edward VI may hold some not a perfect reducement in the beginning of her reign, plea by this excuse. Now let any reasonable man I suppose the bindering 'causes will be found to be judge whether that king's reign be a fit time from common with some formerly alleged for King Edward whence to pattern out the constitution of a church dis- VI; the greenness of the times, the weak estate which cipline, much less that it should yield occasion from Queen Mary left the realm in, the great places and whence to foster and establish the continuance of im- offices executed by papists, the judges, the lawyers, perfection, with the commendatory subscriptions of the justices of peace for the most part popish, the confessors and martyrs, to entitle and engage a glorious bishops firm to Rome; from whence was to be expected name to a gross corruption. It was not episcopacy the furious flashing of excommunications, and absolvthat wrought in them the heavenly fortitude of martyr- ing. the people from their obedience. Next, her private dom, as little is it that martyrdom can make good counsellors, whoever they were, persuaded her (as episcopacy; but it was episcopacy that led the good Camden writes) that the altering of ecclesiastical policy and holy men, through the temptation of the enemy, would move sedition. Then was the liturgy given to and the snare of this present world, to many blame- a number of moderate divines, and Sir Thomas Smith worthy and opprobrious actions. And it is still epis- a statesman, to be purged and physicked : and surely copacy that before all our eyes worsens and slugs the they were moderate divines indeed, neither hot nor most learned and seeming religious of our ministers, cold; and Grindal the best of them, afterwards archwho no sooner advanced to it, but like a seething pot bishop of Canterbury, lost favour in the court, and I set to cool, sensibly exhale and reak out the greatest think was discharged the government of bis see,
for part of that zeal, and those gifts which were formerly favouring the ministers, though Camden seem willing in them, settling in a skinny congealment of ease and to find another cause: therefore about her second year, sloth at the top: and if they keep their learning by in a parliament, of men and minds some scarce well some potent sway of nature, it is a rare chance; but grounded, others belching the sour crudities of yestertheir devotion most commonly comes to that queazy day's popery, those constitutions of Edward VI, which temper of lukewarmness, that gives a vomit to God
as you heard before no way satisfied the men that made bimself.
them, are now established for best, and not to be mendBut what do we suffer misshapen and enormous pre-ed. From that time followed nothing but imprisonlatism, as we do, tbus to blanch and varnish ber de- ments, troubles, disgraces on all those that found fault formities with the fair colours, as before of martyrdom, with the decrees of the convocation, and straight were so now of episcopacy? They are not bishops, God and they branded with the name of puritans. As for the all good men know they are not, that have filled this q.een herself, she was made believe that by putting land with late confusion and violence; but a tyrannical down bishops her prerogative would be infringed, of crew and corporation of impostors, that have blinded which shall be spoken anon as the course of method and abused the world so long under that name. He brings it in: and why the prelates laboured it should that, enabled with gifts from God, and the lawful and be so thought, ask not them, but ask their bellies. primitive choice of the church assembled in convenient They had found a good tabernacle, they sate under a number, faithfully from that time forward feeds bis spreading vine, their lot was fallen in a fair inheritparochial flock, has his coequal and compresbyterial ance. And these perhaps were the chief impeachments power to ordain ministers and deacons by public prayer, of a more sound rectifying the church in the queen's and vote of Christ's congregation in like sort as he time. himself was ordained, and is a true apostolic bishop. From this period I count to begin our times, which But when he steps up into the chair of pontifical pride, because they concern us more nearly, and our own and changes a moderate and exemplary house for a eyes and ears can give us the ampler scope to judge, misgoverned and haughty palace, spiritual dignity for will require a more exact search; and to effect this the carnal precedence, and secular bigh office and employ- speedier, I shall distinguish such as I esteem to be the ment for the high negotiations of his heavenly embas- hinderers of reformation into three sorts, Antiquitarians sage: then he degrades, then he unbishops himself; (for so I had rather call them than antiquaries, whose he that makes him bishop, makes him no bishop. No labours are useful and laudable). 2. Libertines. 3. Pomarvel therefore if St. Martin complained to Sulpitius liticians. Severus, that since he was bishop he felt inwardly a To the votarists of antiquity I shall think to have sensible decay of those virtues and graces that God fully answered, if I shall be able to prove out of antihad given him m great measure before; although the quity, First, that if they will conform our bishops to