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digious and almost incalculable sum. This conquest gave the Persians, who were before an indigent people, without any gold or silver currency, and pent up within the contracted limits of the province properly called Persia, not only the possession of a vast treasure, but of a wide and rich territory, and laid the foundation of their future grandeur. The coined moneys of Crœsus, from the effigies of that monarch being impressed upon them, were called Crœsci; but, as it seemed improper that they should continue current with that impression, after the Conquest of Crœsus and the subjugation of his kingdom, Darius, that is, Darius the son of Cyaxares, and the first of that name, under whom Cyrus then acted only as general-in-chief of the Persiansand Medes, though afterwards their sovereign * that Darius, I fay, it is conjectured, recoined the Crœfei with his own effigies, though he did not think it prudent to alter either the weight or value of a coin, then so generally diffused through Asia as the medium of comjnercial transactions. Thus recoined, and. stamped with his own head, they thenceforth took the name of their new master, and from kUm were called Ao^tuta*, Dari.cs, and are
mentioned mentioned in Scripture, in periods posterior to the Babylonish captivity, by the name of Adarkonim. None of the Crcefei, that we know of, have reached posterity, unless that very ancient gold coin, mentioned by Mr. Pinkerton, in his concise, but elegant and judicious, Essay on Medals, a coin presenting to view "a man, kneeling, with a filh held out in his left hand, and a sword, depending, in his right,"* should prove to be one. It is to be seen, with several other old Persian coins, in the late Dr. Hunter's capital collection; and the writer urges the possibility of its being one of the staters of Crœsus, not only from its having the rude globosity of early antiquity, and the indented marks of the first: coinages, which were made by ponderous strokes of the hammer, upon one side; but' because it bears the evident symbol of a maritime country, such as Lydia was, on the other. It is of very pale gold; and is about the usual weight of those staters, which was sous drachmas.
bylon, and found there that immense quantity of bullion? which has been before described, he caused the greatest part of it to be melted down and coined into Darics. On these coins, the impression, on one side, was an archer, clothed in a long Persian tunic, and crowned with a spiked crown, with a bow grasped by his left hand, and an arrow in his right: on the other side, the effigies of the monarch himself. The pleasantry of Agesilaus, at a succeeding period, on the subject of these Darics, is well known; who, when compelled to retire from an invasion of Persia, by the force of Persian gold, that had bribed Sparta over to its interest, declared he had been defeated by thirty thousand archers. Very few of these coins have descended to our times; because the very same reasons which operated on the mind of Darius, to convert the Lydian into Persian coins, afterwards incited Alexander to melt down the Darics for the coinage that distinguished the commencement of his new and still greater empire. Of the magnitude, however, of this famous coinage by Darius, we may form some idea, from . vthe great nun.her already stated to have been in the possession of one man, I mean Pythias,
so so often alluded to, who offered his sovereign, towards carrying on the Grecian war, no less a sum than four millions of these Darics; and what vast additional sums still remained in the royal coffers will shortly be evident to the reader, when I return to the account of the plunder of the Persian palaces and temples by the Macedonian invader. All the real Darics are of extremely pale gold, of the purest kind known in those days, when the art of refining metals was not advanced to any high degree of perfection; I fay all the real Darics, for she silver coins that generally pass under that name, as bearing similar impressions, though Persian, are of a far later coinage. The Darics, according to Dr. Bernard, weighed two grains more than one of our guineas; but, containing far less alloy, may be considered as worth twenty-five shillings English.*
The next celebrated coin in antiquity is the Philippi of gold, stamped with the effigies of the father of Alexander the Great, when, as was before related, he conquered Crenides, on the confines of Thrace, and conferred his
* Pr. Bernard de Ponderibus, p. 171.
H h 4 na^e name on the gold coin, or x?w°Si °f the Greeks; it was a didrachm, of the value of twenty silver drachmae, and, allowing for the difference in the value of gold in those times and the present, may be intrinsically worth one pound of our money. Alexander, content with the full tide of glory which he was convinced would attend his name and actions in future ages, seems to have declined the celebrity which arises from multiplying the regal effigies upon coins; and, soon after his exaltation to the throne of Macedon, forbad the impression of his own portrait to be used at the mint. This was so strictly observed, that we have only one small silver coin, a hemidrachm, struck during his whole reign, (which indeed was but fliort,) bearing his effigies, and that is an unique in Dr. Hunter's collection. It exhibits a very juvenile aspect; and the reverse is a man on horseback, the usual ornament of Macedonian coins. His gold coins exhibit, on one side, a head of Minerva; and, on the other, a Victory, standing: his silver, a head of young Hercules, and the reverse, Jupiter sitting : — a collection of symbols that doubt-: less flattered the pride of the victorious son of Jove, fer more than the diffusion of the im