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quity, {he found an additional and neverfailing spring of overflowing treasure. I have already, in the preceding Dissertation, given a very ample account of their abundant produce in the times of the Phœnicians trading thither; but, when they ceased to be so abundantly productive of ore, it is impossible to ascertain. I need only add to that account, that, in the time of Strabo, the Romans kept forty thousand men constantly employed in those mines; and that they produced to them twenty-five thousand drachmas a day.* Full credit, therefore, may be given to the testimonies which the records of all nations bear to the profusion of gold and gems worn by the inhabitants, and displayed in the temples and palaces, of Tyre. Of her astonishing wealth, and the rich species of manufactures in which lhe dealt, no more impressive evidence from profane authors need be adduced than the splendid donation sent by her to the temple of the Tyrian Hercules at Gades, and mentioned in the preceding pages; the golden, belt of Teucer, and the golden olive of Pygmalion, exquisitely wrought, bearing Smarag

* Strabo, lib, vi. p. 379.

dine fruit; that is, berries of emerald, representing olives in the utmost perfection. This testimony of Apollonius, in Philostratus, who visited the temple of Gades, in tlie first century of the Christian æra, added to that of Herodotus, previously cited, concerning the dazzling ornaments of her own principal temple, seen by that historian many centuries before, the two lofty pillars of gold and emerald, which illuminated the whole dome by their reflected splendor, are fully confirmed by the decided voice of Scripture itself not only in respect to their elegant work in gold and ivory in the palaces of Solomon and the temple of Jerusalem, but more particularly and minutely in the following animated apostrophe, which is too intimately connected with many of the subjects discussed in this volume, and exhibits too interesting a detail of the splendor of an ancient commercial metropolis to be omitted; for, in truth, it was the gold of Ophir and the silver of Spain that formed the basis of all her magnificence.

"O Tyre," exclaims the prophet, "thou hast said in thyself, I am a city of perfect beauty. Thy neighbours, who built thee, have forgot nothing to embellish thee. 'They have

Vol. VI. G g made madff the hull and the diverse stories of thy ships of the fir-trees of Senir. They have taken a cedar from Lebanon, to make thee a mast. They have polished the oaks of Bashan, to make thine oars. They have employed the ivory of the Indies, to make benches for thy rowers; and that which comes from Italy, to make thy chambers. Fine linen, with broidered work from Egypt, was that which thou spreadest forth to be thy sail. Hyacinth and purple, from the isles of Elishah, have made thy flag. The inhabitants of Sidon and Arvad were thy rowers; and thy wise men, O Tyre, became thy pilots. All the ships of the sea, and all their mariners, occupied thy commerce and thy merchandise. The Carthaginians trafficked with thee, and silled thy fairs with silver, with Tin, and Lead. Javan, Tubal, and Meshech, were also thy merchants, and brought to thy people slaves and vessels of brass. They of Togormah traded in thy fairs with horses and mules. The children of Dedan trafficked with thee. Thy commerce extended to many islands, and they gave thee, in exchange for thy merchandises, magnificent carpets, ivory, and ebony. The Syrians were thy merchants, because of the multitude of

thy thy works: they exposed to sale in thy fairs pearls, and purple, embroidered works of byfsus, silk, and all forts of precious merchandise. The people of Judah and of Israel were also thy merchants, they traded in thy markets pure wheat and balm, honey, oil, and rosin. Damascus, in exchange for thy wares, so varied and so different, brought thee great riches, excellent wine, and wool of a lively and shining colour. Dan, Greece, and Mosel, traded in thy markets, iron works, and myrrh, and calamus. Arabia, and the princes of Kedar, were also thy merchants; they brought thee their lambs, and rams, and goats. Shebah and Ramah came also to traffic with thee; they traded in thy markets the most exquisite perfumes, precious stones, and gold. Thine were the most remarkable of all the ships of the sea. Thy rowers conducted thee upon the great waters. Thou hast been loaded with riches and glory: never any city was like thee. Thy commerce enriched the nations, and the kings of the earth.'**

It should here be observed, that the prophet Ezekiel, to whom we are indebted for this

* Ezekigl, chap, xxvii. and xxviii.

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Valuable picture of the grandeur of the Phoe^nician metropolis, flourished nearly 600 years before Christ, when Tyre was in the zenith of that glory, which shortly after bowed its head before the monarch of Assyria. To Assyria, therefore, and principally to Babylon, the mighty capital of the greatest empire the fun ever beheld, it is now necessary that I should direct the attention of the reader during our farther investigation of the curious subject before us, the treasures of gold and silver bullion amassed in the ancient world.

Assyria had no gold or silver mines of her own; but, being the central region of that part of Asia in which commerce ever most vigoroufly flourished, she absorbed, as in a vast vortex, the wealth in this article, in which she so super-eminently abounded. We are astonished, in the infancy of mankind, and in the dawn of science, to find works executed at once so costly and so stupendous. Those, fabricated in the precious metals alluded to, alone form the object of our present inquiry; tmd here, in the great temple of Belus, built by Semiramis, we find three prodigious statues, not of cast, for they are expressly said to have been of beatent gold, representing Jupiter,

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