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before its shearer and layer, in order to be an hieroglyphic of that unspeakable patience, which was illustrious in Christ. Sthly, That the firstlings were most acceptable to God; which therefore Abel offered, and God afterwards required under the Jaw, Exod. xii. 12. By this emblem we may discern that preeminence of Christ, whereby he is the first-born among many brethren, both as to inheritance and diggity. For, none comes to the inheritance but by Christ, nor to any other inheritance, but what was his before.
X. These following particulars belong to the rițe of offering; ist, The priest laid upon the propitiatory facrifices the fins of these, for whom they were to be offered, which is plain from the names, fin and guilt, by which the facrifices themselves are usually called, and the thing itself thews it. For, as in reality none but the guilty are punished; so in the type also, that, which is appointed to die for fin, is typically under the guilt of fin. 'And thụs far the priests represented 'God, as laying fin upon Christ; and the facrifices were a figure of Christ, as suffering for fin. 2dly, The blood of the sacrifices was shed, when they were sain, to be a symbol of Christ shedding his blood, when he was put to death. zdly, The slain facrifices were burnt on the altar. This represented that Christ was to be consumed by the flames of his love for his Father and his elect, and, at the same time by the flames of the divine wrath against fin, which he had undertaken to bear. 4thlŷ, Together with the flames and smoke, there was a sweet-smelling favour, that ascended up to heaven; on which account, sacrifices are faid to be acceptable to God; nay, also the food of God. This shadowed forth that most grateful fragrancy of Christ's facrifice, by the efficacy of which all the severity of the divine vengeance is changed into the most tender love for the elect.
XI. The accension, or 'miraculous consuming the sacrifices by fire, seems to be cotemporary with facrifices themselves : and the opinion of some excellent divines is very probable, that God had such a regard to Abel's gift, as in this manner to set it on fire, while Cain's was neglected. For, at the time, when sacrifices were in "use, God generally testificd, by fire from heaven, that they were acceptable to him, when offered in faith.
A burning lamp passed between the pieces," Gen. i. 5, 17. See also Lev. ix. 24. Judges vi. 21. 2 Chron. vii. 1. And this burning of the facrifices by fire" from heaven, being the most certain token of the divine acceptance, was prayed for, Pfal
. XX. 3. remember all thy offerings, and accept (reduce to afhes) thy burnt-facrifice. This fire from heaven signified the Holy Spirit, by whose flames whatever is not set on fire, cannot be an ac
ceptable facrifice to God; and by which Christ also offered himself to God without spot; by which, in fine, he baptizes his people, that both they, and their actions may be pleasing to God. We may see what John the Baptist says; “ he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire, Mat. iii. 11. For, this burning of the sacrifices, we are now speaking of, was, in all respects, a typical baptism of fire, that came suddenly from heaven, after the other typical baptism of water, wherein the hands and feet of those, who approached the altar, were washed, Exod. xl. 30---32. as Cloppenburg has ingeniously ob. ferved, Schol. Sacrific. p. 65.
XII. When the facrifice was duly performed, the expiation followed; which consisted in this, that God was satisfied with the sacrifice, which he graciously accepted, and that, when the guilt of the fin, laid on the facrifice, was, together with the facrifice, typically abolished, the wrath of God was appeased, the raging plague stayed, and God gave tokens of his favour to the finner. For this reason, the atonement for the soul is af-, cribed to the sacrifices, Lev. xvii. 11. namely, a typical and facramental. See what we advanced, feet. 8. Sacramental, I say, because that 'typical expiation was a facrament or sign of the true expiation, which all believers obtain in Christ. And those types prefigured, that God, from the very first notification of the gospel, acquiesced in Christ's undertaking to make satisfaction for fins, in the fulness of time, by which they might be truly expiated. And in this fenfé, Paul declares, that the blood of Christ purges the conscience from dead works; as the blood of bulls and of goats fanctified formerly to the purifying of the flesh, Heb. ix. 12, 13. For this lalt prefigured and fealed the former on supposition of the faith of the offerers.
XIII. There was, last of all, a facred feast kept before Jeho. vah, upon the offered gifts and facrifices, which were not entirely consumed by fire: this under the Mosaic law, was the case especially with those facrifices, which were called slu, peace-offerings, Lev. vii. 15. Which word the Grecks have rendered ługnvixsè, the Latins, pacifiea : others prefer Evxagesina. But confefion or thanksgiving, is one of the kinds of this sort of facrifices, Lev. vii. 12. and these were also propitiatory; as appears from the imposition of hands, which denotes the imposition of sins, Lev. ili. 2, 8, 13. And therefore, it has not been improperly observed by a learned person, that the reason and notation of the name seems to be ; that, in this sacrifice, there was in some measure a perfection, a confimination. For, burntofferings were entirely consumed, and no body eat of them: of the others the priest ate; of the last, even any private person, whose sacrifice it was, Deut. xii. 6, 7. To which the apostle, has an eye, 1 Cor. x. 18. “ are not they, which eat of the la ¢rifices, partakers of the altar ?" This was a sacrament of comniunion, which they who approach to God, have with the altar and the true Priest: and a symbol of that communion, which all believers have among themselves in Chrift; whereby Christ and all his benefits, and all the gifts of every believer in particular, are the gifts of all, as belonging to the fame body. Paul intimates, that to this feast, the holy supper answers, as an antitype, 1 Cor. X. 16-18. In this manner the grace of God and the benefits of Christ were signified and sealed to be lievers in the facrifices.
XIV. But there was in them no less a reminding of the duty, which believers owe to God, and to which they bound themselves by the use of the sacrifices. First, There was in facrifices a confession of sin and guilt. For, there were no facrifices before the fall. And the animals, which the offerers substituted for themselves, as oxen, sheep, goats, &c. fignified some fault. For, the, ox is an emblem of ignorance, Ifa. i. 3. the sheep, of wandering, Ifa. liii. 6. the goat of petulence and mischievourness, Mat. xxv. 33. And the saying and burning the sacrifices extorted from man a confeffion, that he deserved eternal death, and to be fcorched in the flames of divine justice.
XV. Secondly, There was likewise in sacrifices an excitement to the practice of holiness and real goodness. ist, It was not lawful to offer any thing to God, but from among clean animals, which were given to man for food. Thus, “ pure religion and undefiled before God and the Father is this, to keep himself unspotted from the world,” James i. 27. 2dly, Nothing was to be offered, but what was found, without blemish, or defect in any part, not the blind, the deaf, the maimed, thé lame, the languid and the fick, Mal. i. 13. Thus, which will also be a thing acceptable to God, we ought to serve him with all our faculties, with all attention and intention, with a right judga ment, a found heart, a cheerful will, and to confecrate all our members to him: because God requires perfection, Mat. v. 48. 3dly, The animals, appointed for facrifice, had something peculiarly adapted to represent those virtues, which ought to be in those, that approach to God. Oxen are both patient in labour, and obstinately resist what is hurtful to them: sheep and goats know their shepherd, and hear his voice, without listening to that of a stranger, John X. 4, 6. Polybius, lib. 12. not far from the beginning, relates a remarkable story concerning goats, with respect to this particular. And then they are led to the llaughter, without a murmur or noise, Isa. liii.
, 7. All these
things should in a spiritual sense be in those, who are devoted to Godi
XVI. Thirdly, by the offering of the sacrifice is fignified, ift, That our old man with all his lufts should be flain to the honour of God. 2dly, That it is equal and just, that the whole mån, who endeavours to please God, Thould present himself before him in the exercise bf faith and love, and with his heart inflamed, or a defire to have it inflamed with zeal, as “ a living sacrifice; holy and acceptable unto God, Rom. xii. 1. 3dly, As sacrifices consumed with strange fire, were displeasing to God: so is every act of worship, that has not the Splrit of God for its author, or does not proceed from heavenly love. They who “ kindle a fire, and compass themselves about with sparks, Thall go into the fire, and the sparks they have kindled,” Ifa. I.
“ Though one should give his body to be burned, and has not charity, it profiteth nothing," 1 Cor. xiii. 3. Athly, That we ought to consecrate to God not only ourselves; but also our all: for, as we hinted above, riches formerly consisted chiefly in herds and flocks, and Paul tells us, that the “ doing good and communicating arë sacrifices, with which God is well pleased,' Heb. xii. 10. 5thly, That our very lives ought not to be dear to us : but when God calls us to it, we are willingly. to lay them down for his glory, Phil. ii: 17. “ yea, and if I be offered upon the sacrifice and service of your faith, I joy and rejoice with
XVII. We are next to speak of the RAINBOW, which was given for a sign of the covenant made with Noah, Gen: ix. 12
-16. And here we are, first to consider, what covenant it was : and then, how the rainbow was a sign of the covenant.
XVIII. Concerning the covenant, we observe the following things. ist, That it was not formally and precisely the cover nant of grace. For here, there is no mention of a spiritual and saving benefit; and then the promises of this covenant are not only made to Noah and his elect feed, but to all men, to every living creature without exception, fowl, cattle and every beast of the earth; an univerfality this, not to be found in the covenant of grace. God indeed says, when he speaks of the cove.. nant of grace made with the church, Isa. liv. 9. for this is as the waters of Noah unto me, &c. nevertheless by these words, God does not declare, that the covenant made with the church was, in every respect, of the same nature with that universal cove.. nant, which secured the world from being destroyed by a deluge. He only runs the parallel between both, with respect to permanency and stability: just in the fame manner, that he compares his covenant made with Israel, with the covenant concerning day and night, Jer. xxxiii. 25.
XIX. 2dly, However, it would not be confiftent with the divine perfections, to make such a covenant with every living creature, but on supposition of a covenant of grace, and with a respect to it. For all the patience of God; in the preservation of the world, which was stained with fo many crimes, and of men, who more than deserved an avenging deluge, was ordained for the elect, whose falvation God intended, and for whose fake all other things are preserved, to be subservient to the promoting their salvation, 2 Pet. iii. 9. “It is a question,” says Pareus,
whether it is a different covenant from the former, in Gen. vi. 18. and from the covenant of grace ? Answer, Certainly it is another with respect to the earthly promise which is common to men, beasts, and the earth, and as to its peculiar fign. Yet the same as to origin and grace; for God would not have adopted the sons of Noah into that covenant, unless he had first received them into the covenant of grace. It is therefore an appendage of the covenant of grace with regard to an earthly promise.
XX. 3dly, Nay, in this covenant there is a confirmation and a typical representation of the covenant of grace. I shall here use the words of Peter Martyr, “ This we are carefully to remark; though in this covenant, God promised to deliver men, as to their bodily life, that they should not perish in the waters; yet in this there was a shadow or type of the deliverance from eternal death; namely, they should not be overwhelmed with eternal damnation. And besides, as this is held forth by a fhadow, believers may also form an argument to this purpose: if God thưs provides for those that trust in him, as to give them assurance, without doubting of their deliverance from the waters-; how much more will he deliver their fouls, their better part, not from a momentary, but from an eternal death. If he is so careful in these things of less moment, how much more, about what concerns the sum of our happiness?" See Owen’s Theologumena; lib. 3. c. 1. And since we should observe, that previous to this, there was a symbol of the covenant of grace, whose antitype was baptism, i Pet. iii. 21. in the deluge and the ark of Noah, which contained as it were, the universal feeds of the whole world: why should we not take notice of a c011firmation of the covenant of grace in the promise, that no deluge should any more come upon
the earth? XXI. Concerning the rainbow, we remark these following things : ift, As that covenant, of which the rainbow was given to be a sign, was not precisely and formally the covenant of grace, so the rainbow should not be accounted a sacrament, Itrictly and properly so called; and it is also very impertinent,