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otherwise call them, Bodyand Spirit; at least, we have no Ideas of any other Substance but these*.
Among Substances, some are called Simple, some are Compound, whether the Words be taken in a. philosophical or a vulgar Sense.
Simple Substances in a philosophical Sense, are either Spirits which have no manner of Composition in them, and in this Sense God is called a simple Being; or they are the first Principles of Bodies, which are usually called Elements, of which all other Bodies are compounded: Elements are such Substances stances as cannot be resolved, or reduced, into two or more Substances of different Kinds.
* Because Men have different Ideas and Notions of Substance, I thought it notproperentirely coomicall Accounts of them, and therefore have thrown them into the Margin.
Some Philosophers suppose that our Acquaintance with Matter or Mind reaches no farther than the mere Properties of them, and that there is a fort of unknown Being, which is the Substance or the SnbjeCl by which these Properties ofsolid Extension and of Cogitation are supported, and in which these Properties inhere or exist. But perhapsthis Notion arises only from our turning the mere abstracted or logical Notion of Substance or St If snbsist-ing into the Notion of a distinct physical or natural Being, without any Necessity. Solid Extension seems to me to be the very Substance of Matter, or of all Bodies; and a Power of thinking, which it always in ad, seems to be the very Substance of all Spirits; for God himself is an intelligent, almighty Power; nor'is there any Need to seek for any other secret and unknown Being, or abstracted Substance entirely distinct from these, in order to support the several Modes or Properties of Matter or Mind, for these two Ideas ara sufficient for that Purpose j therefore I rather think these are Substances.
It must be confest, when we fay, Spirit isa thinking Substance, and Matter is an extended solid Substance, we are sometimes ready to imagine thac Extension aud Solidity are but mere Modes and Properties of a certain unknown Substance or Subject which supports them, and which we call Body; and that a Power of thinking, is but a mere Mode and Property of some unknown Substance or Subject which supports it, and which we call Spirit: But I rather take this to be a mere Mistake, which we are led into by the grammatical Form and Use of Words; and perhaps our logical Way of thinking by Substances and Modes, as well as our grammatical Way of talking by Substantives and AdjeGivrs, help to delude us into this Supposition.
However, that I may not be wanting to any of my Readers, I would let themknow Mr. Locke's Opinion, which has obtained much in the present Age, and itis this: " That our Idea of any particular Substance is only "fitch a Combination of simple Ideas as represents that Thing as subsisting by itself, in which the supposed or confused Idea of Substance (such as it is) is always ready to offer itself. It is a Conjunction of Ideas co-existing in such a Cause of their Union, and makes the whole Subject subsist by itself, though the Cause of their Union be unknown; and outgeneral Idea of Substance arises from the Self-subsistence of this Collection of Ideas."
Now if this Notion of Substance rest here, and be considered merelyasan unknown Cause of the Union of Properties, it is much more easy to be ad
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The various Sects of Philosophers have attributed the Honour of this Name to various Things. The Peripatetics, or Followers of Aristotle, made Fire, Air, Earth and Water, to be the four Elements, of which all earthly Things were compounded; and they supposed the Heavens to be a Quintessence, or fifth fort of Body distinct from all these: But since Experimental Philosophy and Mathematicks have been better understood, this Doctrine has been abundantly refuted. The Chemists makeSpirit, Salt, Sulphur, Water and Earth to be their five Elements, because they can reduce all terrestrial Things to these five: This seems to come nearer the Truth; though they are not all agreed in this Enumeration of Elements. In short, our modern Philosophers generally suppose Matter or Body to be one simple Principle, or solid Extension, which being diversified by its various Shapes, Quantities, Motions and Situations, makes all the Varieties that are found in the Universe; and therefore they make little Use of the Word Element.
Compound Substances are made up of two or
mitted: But is we proceed to suppose a sort of real, substantial, distinct Being, different ftomfilid Quantity or Extension in Bodies, and different from a Power »s thinking in Spirits, in my Opinion it is the Introduction of a needless seholastical Notion into the real Nature of Things, and then fancying it to have a real Existence.
Mr. Locke in his Essay os Hum. Vnd. Book //. Ch. iz. § 2. seems to ridicule this common Idea of Substance, which Men have generally supposed to be a sort of Substratum distinct from all Properties whatsoever, and to be the Support of all Properties. Yet in Book IV. Ch. 3. §. 6. he seems to suppose there may be some such unknown Substratum, which may be capable of receiving the Properties both of Matter and of Mind, (viz.) Extension, Solidity, and Cogitation; for he supposes it possible for God to add Cogitation to that Substance which is corporeal, and thus to cause Matter to think. If this be true, then Spirits (for ought we know) may be corporeal Beingt or thinking Bodies, which is a Doctrine too favourable to the Mortality of the Soul. But I leave these Debates to the Philosophers of the Age, and will not be too positive in my Opinion of this abstruse Subject.
See more of this Argument in Philosophical Effayi before cited. Ess sd.
more simple Substances: So every Thing in this whole material Creation, that can be reduced by the Art of Man into two or more different Principles or Substances, is a compound Body in the philosophical Sense.
But if we take the Words Simple and Compound in a vulgar Sense, then all those are simple Substances which are generally esteemed uniform in their Natures. So every Herb is called a Simple; and every Metal and Mineral; though the Chemist perhaps may find all his several Elements in each of them. So a Needle is a simple Body, being made only of Steel; but a Sword or a Knife is a Compound, because its Haft or Handle is made of Materials different from the Blade. So the Bark of Peru, or the Juice of Sorrel is a simple Medicine: But when the Apothecaries Art has mingled several Simples together, it becomes a Compound, as Diascordium or Mithridate.
The Terms of pure and mixt, when applied to Bodies, are much akin 'to simple and compound. So a Guinea is pure Gold, if it has nothing but Gold in it, without any Alloy or baser Metal: But if any other Mineral or Metal be mingled with it, it is called a mixt Substance or Body..
Substances are also divided into animate and inanimate. Animated Substances are either animal or vegetable *.
Some of the animated Substances have various organical or instrumental Parts, fitted for a Variety of Motions from Place to Place, and a Spring of Life within themselves, as Beasts, Birds, Fishes, and Insects; these are called Animals. Other animated Substances are called Vegetables, which have within themselves the Principles of another
• Note, Vegetables as well as Animals have gotten the Name of animan i Substances, because seme oftbe Antients supposed Herbs and Plants, Btajts aoji fSireii, &c. to have a sort of Souls distinct from Matter or JScdy.
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sort of Life and Growth, and of various Productions of Leaves, Flowers and Fruit, such as we fee in Plants, Herbs and Trees.
And there are other Substances, which are call'd inanimate, because they have no sort of Life in them, as Earth, Stone, Air, Water, &c.
There is also one sort of Substance, or Being, which is compounded of Body and Mind, or a rational Spirit united to an Animal; such is Mankind, Angels, or any other Beings of the spiritual and invisible World., who have assum'd visible Shapes for a Season, can hardly be reckoned among this order of compounded Beings; because they drop their Bodies, and divest themselves of those visible Shapes, when their particular Message is performed, and thereby shew that these Bodies do not belong to their Natures.
Of Modes and their various Kinds, and first of essential and accidental Modes.
THE next sort of Objects which are represented in our Ideas, are called Modes, or Manners of Being f.
A Mode is that which cannot subsist in and of itself, but is always esteem'd as belonging to, and subsisting by, the Help of some Substance, which for that Reason, is called its Subjett. A Mode must depend on that Substance for its very Existence and Being; and that not as a Being depends on its Cause, (for so Substances themselves depend
T Note, The Term Mode is by some Authors applied chiefly to the Relationsor relative Manners of Being. But in logical Treatises it is often used in a larger Sense, and extends to all Attributes whatsoever, and includes the most essential and inward Properties, as well as outward Respects and Relations, and rdachistQ jfclit.u themselves aswtli as Mamcrs of Action.
on God their Creator; (but the very Being of a Mode depends on some Substance for its Subject, in which it is, or to which it belongs; so Motion, Shape, Quantity, Weight, are Modes of Body; Knowledge, Wit, Folly, Love, Doubting, Judging, are Modes of the Mind; for the one cannot subsist without Body, and the other cannot subsist without Mind.
Modes have their several Divisions, as well as Substances.
I. Modes are either essential, or accidental.
An ejfential Mode or Attribute, is that which belongs to the very Nature or Essence of the Subject wherein it is; and the Subject can never have the fame Nature without it; such is Roundness in a Bowl, Hardness in a Stone, Softness in Water, vital Motion in an Animal, Solidity in Matter, Thinking in a Spirit; for tho' that piece of Wood which is now a Bowl may be made square, yet if Roundness be taken away, it is no longer a Bowl: So that very Flesh and Bones, which is now an Animal, may be without Life or inward Motion; but if all Motion be entirely gone, it is no longer an Animal, but a Carcass: So if a Body or Matter be divested of Solidity, it is a mere void Space or Nothing; and if Spirit be entirely without Thinking, I have no Idea of any Thing that is left in it; therefore so far as I am able to judge, Consciousness must be its essential Attribute*: Thus all the Perfections of God are called his Attributes, for he cannot be without them.
* Nate, When I call fi/id Extension an essential Modeor Attribute of Mattir, and a Power of Thinking an essential Mode or Attribute of a Spirit, I do it in Compliance with common Forms of Speech: But perhaps in reality these are the very Essences or Substances themselves, and the most substantial Ideas that we can frame of Body and Spirit, and have no need of any (we know not what) Substratum or unintelligible Substance to support them in their Existence or Being.
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