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(cord Hames)

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as observed as bove *, serve two different purposes: When addressed to the un

derstanding, their purpose is to instruct; when to the heart, their purpose is to give pleasure. With respect to the latter, a comparison may be employd to produce various pleasures by different means. First, by suggesting some unusual

Chap 8.

A 2


resemblance or contrast: second, by fetting an object in the strongest light: third, by associating an object with others that are agreeable : fourth, by elevating an object : and, fifth, by depressing it. And that comparisons may produce various pleasures by these different means, appears from what is said in the chapter above cited; and will be made still more evident by examples, which hall be given after premising some general observations..

An object of one senfe cannot be compared to an object of another; for such objects are totally separated from each other, and have no circumstance in common to admit either resemblance or contrast. Objects of hearing may be compared; as also of taste, and of touch. But the chief fund of comparison are objects of sight; because, in writing or speaking, things can only be compared in idea, and the ideas of visible objects are by far more lively than those of any

other fense. It has no good effect to compare things by way of simile that are of the same kind, nor to contrast things of different kinds.


The reason is given in the chapter cited above; and the reason shall be illustrated by examples. The first is a refemblance instituted betwixt two objects fo nearly related as to make little or no impression.

This just rebuke inflam’d the Lycian crew,

They join, they thicken, and th’assault renew; Unmov'd th’embody'd Greeks their fury dare, And fix'd support the weight of all the war; Nor could the Greeks repel the Lycian pow'rs, Nor the bold Lycians force the Grecian tow'rs. As on the confines of adjoining grounds, Two stubborn swains with blows dispute their

bounds; They tugg, they sweat ; but neither gain, nor

yield, One foot, one inch, of che contended field: Thus obstinate to death, they fight, they fall; Nor these can keep, nor those can win the wall.

Iliad, xii. 505

Another from Milton labours under the same defect. Speaking of the fallen angels searching for mines of gold:

A numerous brigade haftend: as when bands
Of pioneers with spade and pick-ax arm’d


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