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"the apostle says, that evangelical good works were not his, but he ascribes them to the grace of Christ, that dwelt in him." And a little after, "The sum of all good things is subjection to God-and this is to be referred to him that lives in us; for if there is any thing excellent, it is his, kaι et T аvaðоν пар aνтоv, and if there is any good thing, it is from him; as says one of the prophets; if therefore subjection is excellent and good, it appears to be his, since his is every good thing, from whom the nature of all good comes.' To which agrees what he says in another place*, "Whatsoever is good, Swpewv μepis Eσt, is a part of the gifts of the Holy Spirit." Particularly he observes †, that "to be dead unto sin, and to be quickened by the Spirit, is dwpov Ocov, the gift of God." Regeneration is by him ascribed to the Spirit and grace of God. "This benefit," says he ‡, speaking of regeneration, "the water does not give, for it would be above or higher than the whole creation, but the order of God, και η του Πνευματος επιφοίτησις, and the coming of the Spirit upon us. And in another place he says §, "They that are born of the Spirit are the children of God, for so expressly does he bear witness, TW Ayiw Πνευματι των του Θεού τεκνων την γενεσιν, that the birth of the children of God is owing to the Holy Spirit, according to John iii. 6." The change in regeneration he expresses thus ||; "We were once the trees of Lebanon-but he hath made us a chariot for himself, μeraσToLXELWσας του ξύλου την φυσιν δια της παλιγγενεσίας εις το αργύριον, transforming the nature of the wood by regeneration into silver and gold, &c." This therefore must require an almightly power; and to this does Gregory ascribe it, when he says ¶, that "Christ is made king over them, who are born and made kings, in whom is the rod of iron, that is, n atρentos dνvaus, 'the immutable power,' which breaking in pieces that which is earthly and frail, εις την ακηρατον φύσιν μετεστοιχειωσεν, transforms into a nature incorrupt." And elsewhere speaking of the power and energy of God in regeneration, he says**, "it is axaTAλNTTOS KAι ATEXVOλoуntos, 'incomprehensible and inexpressible by art,' easily producing whatsoever it will."



HILARY the Deacon, or the author of the Commentaries on Paul's Epistles, which are among the works of Ambrose, ascribes regeneration to the grace and power of God. " Man," he says tt," is the work of God by creation; and he is again the work of God dum reformatur per regenerationem, whilst he is re-made by regeneration.” And in another place he says ++, "That good thing which seems to flourish in Christians, arises from the root of divine grace; for God of his mercy

*Greg. Nyss. contr. Eunom. 1. 1, p. 67, vol. ii. Ib. in Baptism. Christ. p. 801, vol. ii. Ib. in Cantic. homil. 7, p. 537, vol. i. ** Ib. in Baptism. Christ. p. 803, vol. ii.

Ib. in Eccl. hom. 6, p. 433, vol. i.
§ Ib. contr. Eunom. 1. 1, p. 60.
Ib. in Psalm, c. 8, p. 308.
In Tit. p. 606.

In Epist. Rom, p. 326.

saves us by Christ, by whose grace being regenerated, we receive the Holy Ghost abundantly; that we may endeavour after good works, he helping us in all, that through these we may attain to the inheritance of the kingdom of heaven; wherefore with all devotion we ought to obey him, and comply with his commands; quia quicquid in nobis pulchrum est, because whatsoever is beautiful in us,' he paints with spiritual lineaments." Again, he observes *, that "it is manifest, that grace is the gift of God; not a reward due to works, but is granted in a free way, mercy intervening." In particular, he says t, "Faith is the gift of God's mercy, that those who are made guilty by the law may obtain pardon, wherefore faith works joy." And in another place ‡, "The grace of faith is given that believers may be saved. True it is, because all thanksgiving for our salvation is to be referred to God, who gives his mercy to us, that he might call back wanderers to life, and those who do not seek the true way; wherefore we must not glory in ourselves, but in God, who hath regenerated us in the heavenly birth, through the faith of Christ." And upon those words, no man speaking by the Spirit of God calls Jesus accursed, he makes this observation §, "Whatsoever truth is said by any one, a Spiritu Sancto dicitur, is said by the Holy Ghost."



AMBROSE of Milain frequently suggests, that every thing that is good is from God, as good thoughts, virtues, faith, and obedience. "There is none," says he ||," who has not some sort of image, that is, either of holiness or sin; we walk in the image of God, quando cogitationes bonæ quæ nobis a Deo insitæ sunt, when good thoughts, which are put into us by God,' remain in us, and lead us on to good works." In another place citing John iii. 21, he makes this observation, "Lo here we read, that the works of men are wrought in God, and yet we cannot refer them to the divine substance; but we know, either that they are made by him, according to Col. i. 16, 17, or as the reading of the present testimony teaches, we ought to reckon that those virtues through which the fruit of eternal life is obtained, are made in or by God, as charity, piety, religion, faith, and others of the like kind, which are wrought in or by the will of God; therefore as in or by the will and power of God the Father, so likewise of Christ they are made, according to Ephesians ii. 10." And elsewhere speaking of the faith of the centurion, he says**, "this is not of man, sed potestate Dei, but by the power of God." Again, discoursing of Eve's subjection to her husband, he makes this remark ++, "in which I evidently perceive," says he, "the mystery of Christ and the church; for the future conversion of the church to Christ, and that religious servitude subject to the word of God, which is much better than the liberty of * In Rom. p. 309. In Eph. p. 496. In Symbol. Apost. c. 16, p. 99. ¶ De Fide, 1. 3, c. 3. p. 150. tt De Paradiso, c. 14, p. 130.

+ In Rom. p. 263.

§ In 1 Cor. p. 387. ** In Luc. 1. 5, p. 91.

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this world, are designed. Moreover it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve; hæc igitur servitus Dei donum est, wherefore this servitude is the gift of God." Regeneration, from whence spiritual obedience springs, of which faith and other graces are parts, is often referred by this pious father, to the Spirit, grace, and power of God. That we are according to grace, born again of the Spirit, he observes*, "the Lord himself witnesses, John iii. 6-8, wherefore it is clear, that the Holy Spirit is the author also of spiritual regeneration, because we are created after God that we may be the sons of God; therefore when he shall take us to his own kingdom by the adoption of holy regeneration, do we deny him what is his own? he hath made us heirs of regeneration which is from above, we claim the inheritance, do we disprove the author? But the benefit cannot remain when the author is excluded; neither is the author without the gift, nor the gift without the author; if you claim the grace, believe the power; if you disprove the power, do not seek after the grace.' And a little after, "The more excellent regeneration, Sancti Spiritus opus est, 'is the work of the Holy Spirit;' and the Spirit is the author of the new man, which is created after the image of God." And in another place he says, "There is no carnal man in Christ; but if any man is in Christ, he is a new creature: non naturæ novitate formatus, sed gratiæ, not formed by newness of nature, but of grace." And this grace, to which he frequently ascribes the new creation and formation of man, is all from the Spirit of God; for, as he observes ‡, "How can there be grace sine Spiritu, without the Spirit,' since all divine grace is in the Spirit?" Wherefore in the same work he says §, "We cannot call to the Father or the Son without the Spirit, for no man calls Jesus Lord, but in the Holy Ghost: upon which account he elsewhere says ||, To pray to God is spiritual grace." And again ¶, "This common life does not keep the heavenly command, but that which is supported by the eternal gift, through the operation of spiritual grace." Moreover, he observes**, " that to whomsoever the Spirit of grace is present, nothing is wanting; and in whom the Holy Ghost is infused, there is a fulness of great virtues ;" all which he represents as the effect of almighty power, and as flowing from the sovereign will and pleasure of God. "What," says hett, "is impossible by human desires, that can be possible per divinam gratiam solam, by divine grace alone;" for, as he expresses himself elsewhere ‡‡, "Who can change nature, but he who hath created nature? to put off the bridles of lusts from minds infected with vices," says he§§," and amend, is not only of perfect virtue, but also of heavenly grace; for to amend things to come, is of human attention; but to damn things past, is of divine power;" which power is put forth by the Lord as he pleases ||||, for "God, whom he thinks fit,



*De Spiritu Sancto, 1. 3, c. 9, p. 242.

p. 217.

§ Ib. c. 10.

+ Epist. 8, ep. 61, p. 327; vide etiam Enarr. in Psalm exix. Jod, p. 959; et in Luc. 1. 10.
De Spiritu Sancto, 1. 1, c. 11, p. 227.
Expos. Isa. apud Aug. contr. duas Epist. Pelag. 1. 4, c. 11.
Enarr. in Ps. cxix. Mem, p. 974.
Epist. 1. 5, ep. 37, p. 284.

++ In Ps. cxix. Heth, p. 935. §§ In Psalm cxix. Tau, p. 1080.

**In Luc. 1. 1, p. 13.

In Luc. 1. 7, p. 125.

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he calls, et quem vult religiosum facit, and whom he pleases he makes religious; and could, if he would, of persons not devoted to him, make them devoted; and so he does when it seems good in his sight." Thus Ambrose, speaking of the Spirit of God, says, "who, when he pleases, into whom he pleases, and as many as he pleases, and as much as he pleases, he inspires by his own proper will; therefore he fills with his grace whom he pleases, and as much as he pleases; he himself is not filled; he gives, he does not receive perfection; he sanctifies, but he himself is not sanctified." And in another place he says †, "The grace of the Lord is given, not as from merit of reward, sed quasi ex voluntate, but as of will,' according to 1 Cor. xii. 11, as he will, he says, not as is due ;" wherefore there is no room nor reason for boasting in the creature." Let no man," says Ambrose‡, "boast that he has a pure heart; but he that glories, let him glory in the Lord, qui sanctis suis cor mundum creare dignatus est, who vouchsafes to create a clean heart in his saints." And, as is elsewhere observed by him §, "Whether thou art numbered among the angels, thou oughtest always to speak in justification of God; and the glory which thou hast obtained, thou shouldest not arrogate to thine own merits, sed divinæ misericordiæ semper ascribas, but always ascribe it to divine mercy ;' lest it should be said to thee, as in 1 Cor. iv. 7, for every creature, whatsoever good things it hath, it receives from Christ, who is the author of the whole creation,"



MARK the Eremite ascribes every good thing to God as the author of it; he denies that he can be prevented by any good works of men, or that his grace is given in proportion to them; but affirms, that salvation is entirely of grace. "First of all," says he ||, "we certainly know, that God is the author, both beginning, middle, and end, of all good. Moreover, it is impossible that we should do any good thing, or believe, but by Christ Jesus and the Holy Spirit." Again ¶, "The author and beginning of all virtue is God, as the sun is of daily light; as often as ye do any virtuous action, remember him who said, without me ye can do nothing." In another place he affirms **, that "a man's own work does not save him, but he who gives the power of working, therefore never think, that prævenisse Dominum in virtute, thou hast prevented the Lord by thy virtue," according to his judgment who says, it is God which worketh in you both to will and to do of his good pleasure." And elsewhere he observes t†, that "what is given by grace we ought not now to measure according to the manner and merit of preceding weakness, since then grace would not be grace; but believing in God Almighty, let us come to him with a heart single, and

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† De Exhort. ad Virgin. p. 437. § Ib. Samech, 1012, 1013.

** Ib. p. 50. †† Ib. p. 49.

void of care, who through faith bestows the communication of the Spirit, non ex proportione operum naturæ, not in proportion to the works of nature;' for, he says, ye have not received the Spirit by the works of the law, but by the hearing of faith." And it is a conclusion of this writer's, that "the salvation of them that are saved arises from grace, not from nature;" wherefore he advises †, "not to seek the perfection of the law in human virtues, for no man is found perfect in them, seeing the perfection of the law is hid in the cross of Christ."

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CHRYSOSTOM, in many places, freely owns, that our calling, faith, will, and power to do good, are to be ascribed to the grace and power of God, and the energy of the Spirit; "Not you labouring," says he ‡, “ have found God, but living in error, αυτός δε υμας επεπιασατο, he himself hath drawn you out;" that is, of a state of sin and misery. Again, says he §, "To be called and to be cleansed are of grace; and he that is called and clothed with a pure garment should continue to keep so. Diligence belongs to them that are called; for since to be called, ouK απο της αξίας γεγονεν, αλλα απο της χαριτος, is not of merit, but of grace, therefore something ought to be returned for that grace. Again, "Thou hast nothing of thine own but what thou hast received from God:-not thine are those good deeds, aλda τηs TOV OεOV XαρITOs, but are owing to the grace of God." Shouldest thou name faith, this is from "calling: shouldest thou mention remission of sins, or gifts, or the teaching word, thou hast received all from thence." "Hence," says he elsewhere ¶, "we should reckon nothing ours, όπουγε και αυτη η πίστις ουκ ημετερον, seeing faith itself is not ours, but rather God's." Hear Paul saying, and this not of ourselves, it is the gift of God. And in another place he observes**, that "the apostle does not say, vessels of well doing, nor vessels of liberty, but vessels of mercy; showing οτι το παν εστε του Θεου, that the whole is of God." Upon Phil. ii. 13 he has this note t†, кαι проνμav avtos ημιν διδωσι και εργασίαν, and he himself gives the readiness of mind; that is, to do good, and the doing of it itself." He asserts ‡‡, that “ a man brings nothing to the aforesaid things," meaning ordinances, "and the administration of them, αλλα το παν της του Θεου δυναμεως έργον εστι, but all is the work of God's power." Yea, he affirms §§, that "it is impossible that a man should be able to have conversation with God,” he means in prayer, 66 or to pray unto him, ανευ της ενέργειας του Πνευ ματος, without the energy of the Spirit."


*Marc. Eremit. capitula de Temperantia, p. 104.
Comment. in Gal. iv. 9, tom. iii. p. 744.
In 1 Cor. iv. 7, homil. 12, tom. iii. p. 313, 314.
**In Rom. ix. 23, homil. 19, tom. iii. p. 144.

In 1 Cor. iii. 1, 2, homil. 8, tom. iii. p. 291.

+ Ib. de Leg. Spirit. p. 52.




§ In Matt. xxii. hom. 69, tom. ii. 438. ¶ In Act. homil. 30, tom. iv. p. 783. tt Homil. 8, tom. iv. p. 46.

§§ De Precatione, hom. ii. tom. vi. p.


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