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out of the slime of the virgin earth, through his own transgression, promissam perdidit vitam, lost the promised life." Now it was this promised grace, life, glory, and happiness, Adam lost, which, he says, Christ found; but he nowhere says that Christ found this for all the individuals of mankind.



Ir must be owned that Athanasius, who, as has been observed in the preceding chapter, bore so famous a testimony to the doctrine of eternal election in Christ, has said many things which upon first sight seem to favour the doctrine of universal redemption. M. Daille has cited * a considerable number of testimonies from him to that end, and he might have cited more. But I have the following things to say in vindication of him; first, that when, in the passages referred to, he says that Christ died for all, and offered himself a sacrifice for all, and died for the ransom of all, and that his death is the ransom of all, he says no more than the Scriptures do, which are used in this controversy, and so may be understood in the same sense, of all the elect, or some of all sorts. Secondly, some of the citations only prove that Athanasius believed that Christ, being God as well as man, was δυνατος και ικανός, "able and sufficient to suffer for all, and give full satisfaction by his death for all." That Christ was able to redeem all mankind, and that his sufferings and death were sufficient for the redemption of all men, had it been the will of God to have appointed them for that purpose, none will deny. Thirdly, I observe, that in many places he says that Christ assumed a body, bore one subject to sufferings, and did endure death επι τη σωτηρία των παντων, “ for the salvation of all;" yea, that by his death, n owrnpia faoi yeyove, "salvation is procured for all." Now if by salvation be meant spiritual and eternal salvation, these instances would prove more than they are brought for, namely, universal salvation. But it is easy to observe that Athanasius, in most of these places, is speaking of the resurrection from the dead, which he makes the grand end of Christ's incarnation, sufferings, and death; and if this is what he means by salvation, and by Christ's dying for all, and giving himself for all, this is no more than what some, who are far from giving into the universal scheme, allow of; who suppose that the resurrection from the dead is a benefit which belongs to all men by virtue of the death of Christ. Fourthly, it is very probable that one reason why Athanasius uses those general terms so frequently, is with respect to the Gentile world, among whom a very large number have a special interest in the death of Christ, and redemption by his blood. In one place † he has these words: "What is the fruit of the Lord's death? what the profit of the Jew's conspiracy?" the death of the Saviour hath made the world free, that the Gentiles might glorify God; the wrath of the Jews hath destroyed In Passion. et Crucem Domini, vol. i. p. 1025, 1026.

*Page 777-782.

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the city with them, and hath blinded them, with respect to the knowledge of God. The death of the Lord hath quickened the dead, but the conspiracy of the Jews hath deprived them of life; for now they are without the Lord, and the cross of the Saviour hath made rηv ekkλŋolav twv evov," the church of the Gentiles, which was a wilderness, habitable;" in which he calls the Gentiles the world, in opposition to the Jews; and this world the church of the Gentiles, who enjoy the fruit of Christ's death. This citation is indeed made from a treatise which some learned men have thought is not the genuine work of Athanasius; but inasmuch as M. Daille has made use of it before me, I take the same liberty. But, not to insist on this, there are some things in the genuine works of Athanasius, which manifestly limit redemption by Christ, and the benefits of it to some, as when he says †, "When was he (Jesus) sent, but when he clothed himself with our flesh? When did he become the high priest of our profession? but when he offered himself for us, raising the body from the dead, and now he brings and offers to the Father τους προσερχομένους αυτώ τη TOTEL, those that come unto him by faith, redeeming all, and expiating those things that belong to God for all," that is, for all that come unto him by faith. And in another place, he thus expresses himself, "God hath commanded the true Wisdom to take flesh, and become man, and to endure the death of the cross, ινα δια της εν τούτω πιστεως, παντες λοιπου οι πιστεύοντες σωζεσθαι δυνωνται, that through faith in him, all henceforth that believe might be saved." The sense of which is, that the design and intention of God in the incarnation and death of Christ is not to save all men, but such that believe in him. And elsewhere he says §, that Christ" took to himself a body of the virgin Mary; that offering it a sacrifice for all, he might reconcile to the Father TavTas nμas, οσοι φόβω θανατου, δια παντος του ζην, ενοχοι ημεν δουλείας, all us, as many as through fear of death were all our lifetime subject to bondage.' And a little after, in the same page, he has these words; "The Word was made flesh, that he might offer it for all, και ημας εκ του πνεύματος αυτου μεταλάβοντες θεοποιηθεναι δυνησθωμεν, that we partaking of his Spirit might be made like unto God." Again, he observes ||, that "as Christ being man is God, so being God became man, kaι owČEL TOVS πιστεύοντας εν ανθρωπου μορφη, that he may save those that believe in the form of man." Moreover, and what is full against the universal scheme, having cited the text in Mal. iv. 2, To you that fear him shall the Sun of righteousness arise; he makes this remark on it ¶, yap аVTWV (ημερα) αυτή, αλλα των αποθανοντων τη αμαρτια, ζώντων δε τω Κυρίω, "for this day does not belong to all, but to them who die to sin, and live unto the Lord." By which he means not the day of the week he calls the Lord's day a little before, but the day of grace, which the Sun of righteousness makes when he arises and appears to any in a spiritual saving way, and which is special and peculiar to some persons only.

* Vide Rivet. Critici Sacra, 1. 3, c. 5, p. 2, 4, 6. Ibid. P. 452.

De Salutar. Advent. Christ. p. 639.

+ Contr. Arian. Orat. 3, p. 377, vol. i. § Synod. Nic. contr. Arian. Decret. p. 262. De Sabbat. et Circumcis. p. 968.




MACARIUS was an Egyptian monk, a disciple of St. Anthony. There are fifty homilies of his remaining, out of which M. Daille* has a single passage for general redemption; in which Macarius asserts +, that Christ would have all men partake of the new birth, because he died for all, and calls all to life;" but this he could not mean of every individual man, because every one is not called to that life. Besides, there are several things said by him which show, that he thought that Christ came into the world, and suffered, and died, for believers only; for when he observés 1, that "it pleased the Lord at his coming to suffer for all, and to purchase them with his own blood," he adds, "and to put the heavenly leaven of goodness ταις πισταις ψυχιαις, into believing souls, humbled under sin." And again §; "For this cause the Lord came, that he might vouchsafe those spiritual things Tous aλnows TiσTevovtas els avrov, to those that truly believe on him." And in another place, "we ought," says he, "to labour and strive very much, for it is not just that the Bridegroom should come to suffer and be crucified for thee, and the bride, dv o vvμdios пaрayeveтo, for whose sake the Bridegroom came, should rejoice and dance." Having elsewhere ¶ mentioned the words of the Baptist, Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world, he observes, that "he alone shows this mercy to men, Tois miσtevovσw avrw, that believe in him,' because he redeems from iniquity; and to them that always wait and hope, and seek without ceasing, he bestows this unspeakable salvation." And in another place he has this note on the same words **, “ Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world, της ψυχης δηλονότι, πισTevσaσns avτw, namely, of the soul that believes in him, and loves him with all the heart."

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HILARY of Poictiers abounds in general expressions of God's good will to man, of the universal offer and invitation to all in the external ministry of the word, and of Christ's assuming human nature, and coming into the world for the redemption and salvation of all, many of which are cited by M. Daille +t. But it is easy to observe, that he sometimes means by these phrases, not the spiritual and eternal redemption and salvation of men, but their resurrection from the dead. There is a remarkable passage of his to this purpose, in which he distinguishes the salvation of some from others, by virtue of Christ's redemption; "All flesh," he says, "is redeemed by Christ, that it may † Homil. 30, p. 175. ¶ Ib. 2, p. 11.

Apolog. p. 782, 783.

Ib. 27, p. 156. tt Apolog. p. 783.


+ Ib. 24, P. 137. § Ib. 5, p. 33. **Ib. 44, p. 216. Hilar. Enarrat. in Psalm lv. 386. P.

rise again, and that every one might stand before his judgment-seat;" yet all have not equal honour and glory of rising again; to whom therefore only resurrection, and not change is given, they are saved to nothing; in anger shall those people be led, to whom the salvation of the resurrection is appointed for the sense of punishment, from which wrath the apostle promises we shall be delivered; saying, For if when we were yet sinners Christ died for us, much more being justified by his blood, we shall be saved by him from wrath. Pro peccatoribus igitur ad salutem resurrectionis est mortuus," for sinners therefore he died, to obtain the salvation of the resurrection; but those who are sanctified by his blood he will save from wrath." And in another place he says *, "This was the expectation of the saints, ut omnis caro redimeretur in Christo,' that all flesh should be redeemed in Christ,' and we in him might exist the first fruits of an eternal resurrection.". Besides, Hilary frequently makes use of limiting phrases when he is speaking of the sufferings of Christ, and redemption by him; he says, that Christ" is appointed a mediator in himself, ad salutem ecclesiæ, for the salvation of the church," which is what he means by the house of David, as the subject of redemption; when commenting on these words, Hosanna to the son of David, he observes ‡, "The words of praise express the power of redemption: for by Osanna in the Hebrew language, is signified the redemption of the house of David." And a little after §, The high priests envied the cries of the children, and rebuked him (Christ) for hearing them, for he was said to come for the redemption of the house of David." Elsewhere || he represents all as redeemed by Christ, as kings of heaven, and coheirs of eternity, which cannot agree with all mankind; his words are these, speaking of Christ, "He shall remain in the sight of God for ever, having already taken all whom he hath redeemed, in reges cœlorum et cohæredes æternitatis, to be kings of heaven, and coheirs of eternity, delivering them as the kingdom to God the Father." With him a believer in Christ and one redeemed by him is the same. Whoever, he says, through his insolence," disdains, provokes, and dishonours a believer in Christ, and one redeemed by Christ, is not a companion of them that fear God."

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BASIL of Cæsarea has also many expressions of God's general goodness to men; of his nearness to them, and willingness that all of them should partake of life; and which are therefore, with others, produced by Monsieur Daille **, to countenance general redemption, though there is not one syllable concerning it in them. Nor is Basil very favourable to the universal sc eme, when he says ++, "God is not the God of all, but of them who are joined to him in love, as the God of

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Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob; for if he was the God of all, he would have given them a testimony as something very excellent." He indeed says, as Monsieur Daille has observed, "The Holy Ghost calls all nations, all that dwell on the earth, to hear the psalm," which is no proof of the point before us; and besides, he explains all nations, and all that dwell on the earth, of the church, which he says is ouveλEKTαι, "gathered out of nations of all sorts, of laws * συνειλεκται, and manners." He also speaks of Christ's giving himself a propitiation for the whole world, but in the same placet gives a plain intimation that he is to be understood of the sufficiency of Christ's blood and sacrifice to atone for and redeem all mankind; his words are these, "What can a man find of such a nature as he can give for the redemption of his own soul?" Yet here is one thing found out ouoν паνтOV аνОршпшν aνтαέιov," worthy of all men alike, even the holy and precious blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, which he has shed for us all." Besides, he frequently describes those who are redeemed by Christ, by such characters as cannot agree with all mankind; for a little after he says, he "that is redeemed by God, who gave a propitiation for him, he indeed labours in this world, but after these things he shall live for ever; verily he shall not see destruction, when he shall see wise men die." Which cannot be said of every individual of mankind. And in another place he says§, "We are all, o TOTEVOVTES, 'who believe," redeemed from the condemnation of sin by the grace of God, which is through his only begotten Son, our Lord Jesus Christ; who said, This is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sins." Which passage of Scripture is twice cited by him afterwards ||, and applied to believers, to whom he says is given the remission of sins. Again, he observes ¶, that "where spiritual men are the authors of counsels, and the people of the Lord follow them with unanimity, who can doubt that this is by the communication of our Lord Jesus Christ, του το αιμα αυτου υπέρ των εκκλησιων εκχεοντους, who shed his blood for the churches."



OPTATUS, bishop of Milevi in Africa, wrote six books, for the seventh is none of his, against the Donatists, in the times of the emperors Valens and Valentinianus **, that is, after A. D. 364, and before A. D. 374, in which work stands this passage, which is cited by Monsieur Daille ++ in favour of universal redemption; "Christ," says Optatus ++, "is the only redeemer of souls, which the devil possessed before his coming; these Christ our Saviour has redeemed with his own blood, as the apostle says, Ye are bought with a price. It is certain that all are redeemed by the blood of Christ." But Monsieur Daille should

*Homil. in Psalm xlviii. p. 276.

+ Ibid. p. 280.

Ibid. p. 282.
Ibid. c. 2, p. 649, 652.
** Hieron. Catal. Eccl. s. 120.
De Schism. Donatist. 1. 3, p. 80, 81.

§ De Baptismo, 1. 1, c. 1, p. 639. Epist. ad Clericos Nicopolit. cp. 192, p. 977, vol. ii. tt Apolog. p. 791.

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